1969 in music
List of notable events in music that took place in the year 1969. 1969 in British music 1969 in Norwegian music 1969 in country music 1969 in jazz 1969 was the last year in which the United States government gave greater financial support, through the National Endowment for the Arts "Music Program" to opera than it did to other classical music, the first year in which it gave any support at all to jazz and folk music. The two most famous musical events of 1969 were concerts. At a Rolling Stones concert in Altamont, California, a fan was stabbed to death by Hells Angels, a biker gang, hired to provide security for the event. In retrospect, some commentators have concluded that the violence signaled the end of the "hippie" movement, which espoused an ethos of free love and peace. More famous than the Altamont concert was the Woodstock festival, which consisted of dozens of the most famous performers in the world at the time, playing together in an atmosphere of peace with nature and love, with many thousands of concert goers.
One of those who performed was Ravi Shankar, his presence reflecting a growing interest in Indian and other Eastern music. The 1967 musical Hair generated the same-named 1968 album, whose cuts include "Aquarius" and "Let The Sunshine In", "Hair", "Good Morning Starshine", "Easy to Be Hard", others, a London Cast album released in April 1969; the Isle of Wight Festival saw the return of Bob Dylan to live music after his motorbike accident in 1966. US and UK pop music remained popular worldwide, with few European acts making the charts outside their home countries. David Bowie's "Space Oddity" became a huge hit in this year, being released at the time that American astronauts first landed on the moon; the song, the story of an astronaut named Major Tom who goes into space and is entranced by the beauty of seeing Earth from such a great distance and lets himself float off into space, never again to return, was chosen by the BBC as the theme song for the television coverage of the moon landing.
The remainder of the album, Man of Words/Man of Music, was too eccentric for mainstream acceptance, though it established a devoted fanbase for Bowie, who would go on to become one of the most popular musicians in the world. King Crimson's In the Court of the Crimson King is a pioneering album in the development of progressive rock; the album drew upon influences like Procol Harum, The Moody Blues and The Nice to form a sound melding rock and roll with classical influences in long pieces of music. Similar albums by The Moody Blues, Procol Harum and The Nice, as well as Genesis and Pink Floyd were released this year, expanding the range of prog rock and developing it into a full-fledged genre; the Stooges' eponymous debut, The Stooges, was released this year to little critical or popular acceptance. The album, went on to become one of the most important recordings in the early development of punk rock, as did Kick Out The Jams by Detroit protopunkers MC5. Johnny Cash's At San Quentin included his only Top Ten pop hit, "A Boy Named Sue".
The album was a sequel to last year's At Folsom Prison. In country music, Merle Haggard's Same Train, Different Time, a tribute to Jimmie Rodgers, was enormously popular and influenced the development of the Bakersfield sound into outlaw country within a few years. Creedence Clearwater Revival cement their success from the previous year. Having had a single US number 11 hit in 1968 with "Suzie Q", they release not only their second, but their third and fourth proper studio album in 1969, as well as drawing a total of four top 3 hits from these three albums. Starting with Bayou Country, including the US number 2 hit "Proud Mary", continuing with Green River and Willy and the Poor Boys, during the year, transformed them from an up-and-coming underground act to bona fide rockstars. During 1969, Creedence Clearwater Revival had number 2 hits in the US with "Proud Mary", "Green River" and "Bad Moon Rising", have a number 3 hit with "Down on the Corner"/"Fortunate Son". Gilberto Gil and Caetano Veloso released enormously popular albums in Brazil, Gilberto Gil and Caetano Veloso, respectively.
The pair's fusion of bossa nova and other native Brazilian folk influences, melded with politically and aware lyrics, kickstarted what came to be known as Tropicalia. Both musicians moved to London after a period of imprisonment for anti-government activities in Brazil. Family released Family Entertainment, in their native Britain, it is their first top 10 album in the United Kingdom, hitting number six. "The Weaver's Answer", which opens the record, becomes their most popular song in their concert performances. By the end of the year, they lose and replace two members, their first attempt to break through commercially in the United States backfires miserably. Elvis Presley returned to live performances at the International Hotel in Las Vegas, he enjoyed great success with his songs "In the Ghetto" and "Suspicious Minds". The Wendy Carlos album Switched-On Bach was one of the first classical albums to sell 500,000 copies, helped bring classical music into the popular sphere, as did Mason Williams' "Classical Gas", played on classical guitar, in addition to being accompanied by one of the first successful music videos.
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
1964 in music
This is a list of notable events in music that took place in the year 1964. 1964 in British music 1964 in Norwegian music 1964 in country music 1964 in jazz January 1 – Top of the Pops is broadcast for the first time, on BBC television in the U. K. January 3 – Footage of the Beatles performing a concert in Bournemouth, England is shown on The Jack Paar Show. January 13 – Bob Dylan's The Times They Are a-Changin' is released on Columbia Records. January 15 – Vee Jay Records files a lawsuit against Capitol Records and Swan Records over manufacturing and distribution rights to Beatles albums. On April 9, Capitol Records is granted an injunction restraining Vee Jay Records from further manufacturing, distributing or advertising recordings by the Beatles. January 18 – The Beatles appear on the Billboard magazine charts for the first time. January 25 – The late John F. Kennedy becomes the first President credited with a Top 10 album after Dickie Goodman released John F. Kennedy: The Presidential Years 1960–1963.
The following week a second album, credited to the late President, would hit the Top 10 giving Kennedy two posthumous albums in the Top 10. February 1 – Indiana Governor Matthew E. Welsh declares the song "Louie Louie" by The Kingsmen pornographic, he requests. Governor Welsh claimed that hearing the song made his "ears tingle." Publisher Max Firetag offers $1,000 to anyone that can find anything "suggestive" in the song's lyrics. February 7 – The Beatles arrive in the United States and are greeted by thousands of screaming fans at New York's Kennedy Airport. February 9 – The Beatles perform on The Ed Sullivan Show, which breaks television ratings records. February 12 – Anna Moffo collapses onstage at Covent Garden in the first act of Rigoletto, her part is taken over, after a delay of 45 minutes, by Welsh soprano Elizabeth Vaughan. February 16 – The Beatles appear on The Ed Sullivan Show. February 22 – Plácido Domingo makes his international breakthrough at the première of Ginastera's Don Rodrigo in New York City.
February 23 The Beatles appear on The Ed Sullivan Show. João Carlos Martins breaks off a performance in the middle of the second movement of Beethoven's Third Piano Concerto with the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra at Birmingham Town Hall due to an attack of appendicitis. March 1 Capitol Records is bombarded with requests for heavyweight boxing champion Cassius Clay's album, I Am the Greatest, following Clay's defeat of Sonny Liston on February 25 and his announcement two days that he had converted to Islam. American premiere of Karlheinz Stockhausen's Momente, by Martina Arroyo, the Crane Collegiate Singers of SUNY Potsdam, members of the Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra, conducted by the composer, in Kleinhans Music Hall in Buffalo, New York. March 6 – Elvis Presley's 14th motion picture, Kissin' Cousins is released to theaters. March 14 – Billboard Magazine reports that sales of Beatles records make up 60% of the entire singles market. March 16 – Disc jockey Alan Freed is charged with tax evasion.
March 21 – Italy wins the 9th Eurovision Song Contest, held in the Tivoli Concert Hall, with the song "Non ho l'età", sung by 16-year-old Gigliola Cinquetti. March 24 – John Lennon's first book, In His Own Write is published. March 27 – The Beatles occupy the top six spots on the Australian pop chart. March 28 – Wax likenesses of The Beatles are put on display in London's Madame Tussauds Wax Museum; the Beatles are the first pop. April – Drummer Keith Moon joins The Who. April 4 – The Beatles occupy all five top positions on Billboard's Hot 100 with their singles "Can't Buy Me Love", "Twist and Shout", "She Loves You", "I Want to Hold Your Hand", "Please Please Me". April 11 – The Beatles hold 14 positions on the Billboard Hot 100 chart; the highest number of concurrent singles by one artist on the Hot 100 was nine by Elvis Presley, December 19, 1956. April 16 – The Rolling Stones release their eponymous début album. May 2 – In the United States, The Beatles' Second Album climbs to the #1 spot on the LP charts in only its second week of release.
May 20 – Judy Garland makes headlines after a disastrous concert in Melbourne, Australia June – During a performance at the Railway, Pete Townshend of The Who accidentally breaks the head of his guitar on the low ceiling above the stage. This incident marks the start of auto-destructive art by destroying drums on stage. June 5 – The Rolling Stones start their first U. S. tour. July 3 – With their new manager Peter Meaden, The Who release their first single "Zoot Suit"/"I'm the Face" under the name The High Numbers in an attempt to appeal to a mod audience, it fails to reach the top 50 and the band reverts to calling themselves The Who. July 6 – The Beatles' first film, A Hard Day's Night, is released. July 10 The album of A Hard Day's Night is released in the U. K. All tracks are written by McCartney. More than 300 people are injured in Liverpool when a crowd of some 150,000 people welcome The Beatles back to their home city. August 2 – The wreckage of the plane piloted by Jim Reeves is found near Brentwood, Tennessee, 42 hours after it crashed.
There are no survivors. August 8 – Bob Dylan releases his fourth album, Another Side of Bob Dylan. August 17 – Indiana University Opera Theater presents Turandot at the NY World's Fair featuring newly retired Metropolitan Opera soprano Margaret Harshaw, a member of the voice faculty, in the title role. August 22 – The Supremes reach #1 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart with the first of five successive number one hits, "Where Did Our Love Go". August 26 – The K
May 1968 events in France
The May 1968 events in France refers to the volatile period of civil unrest throughout France during May 1968, punctuated by demonstrations and major general strikes as well as the occupation of universities and factories across France. At its height, the events brought the economy of France to a halt; the protests reached such a point that political leaders feared civil revolution. The protests spurred an artistic movement, with songs, imaginative graffiti and slogans; the unrest began with a series of student occupation protests against capitalism, American imperialism and traditional institutions and order. It spread to factories with strikes involving 11 million workers, more than 22% of the total population of France at the time, for two continuous weeks; the movement was characterized by decentralized wildcat disposition. It was the largest general strike attempted in France, the first nationwide wildcat general strike; the student occupations and wildcat general strikes initiated across France were met with forceful confrontation by university administrators and police.
The de Gaulle administration's attempts to quell those strikes by police action only inflamed the situation further, leading to street battles with the police in the Latin Quarter, followed by the spread of general strikes and occupations throughout France. De Gaulle fled to a French military base in Germany, after returning dissolved the National Assembly, called for new parliamentary elections for 23 June 1968. Violence evaporated as as it arose. Workers went back to their jobs, when the elections were held in June, the Gaullist party emerged stronger than before. "May 68" affected French society for decades afterward. It is considered to this day as a cultural and moral turning point in the history of the country; as Alain Geismar—one of the leaders of the time—later pointed out, the movement succeeded "as a social revolution, not as a political one". In February 1968, the French Communists and French Socialists formed an electoral alliance. Communists had long supported Socialist candidates in elections, but in the "February Declaration" the two parties agreed to attempt to form a joint government to replace President Charles de Gaulle and his Gaullist Party.
On 22 March far-left groups, a small number of prominent poets and musicians, 150 students occupied an administration building at Paris University at Nanterre and held a meeting in the university council room dealing with class discrimination in French society and the political bureaucracy that controlled the university's funding. The university's administration called the police. After the publication of their wishes, the students left the building without any trouble. After this first record some leaders of what was named the "Movement of 22 March" were called together by the disciplinary committee of the university. Following months of conflicts between students and authorities at the Nanterre campus of the University of Paris, the administration shut down the university on 2 May 1968. Students at the Sorbonne campus of the University of Paris in Paris met on 3 May to protest against the closure and the threatened expulsion of several students at Nanterre. On Monday, 6 May, the national student union, the Union Nationale des Étudiants de France —still the largest student union in France today—and the union of university teachers called a march to protest against the police invasion of Sorbonne.
More than 20,000 students and supporters marched towards the Sorbonne, still sealed off by the police, who charged, wielding their batons, as soon as the marchers approached. While the crowd dispersed, some began to create barricades out of whatever was at hand, while others threw paving stones, forcing the police to retreat for a time; the police responded with tear gas and charged the crowd again. Hundreds more students were arrested. High school student unions spoke in support of the riots on 6 May; the next day, they joined the students and increasing numbers of young workers who gathered at the Arc de Triomphe to demand that: All criminal charges against arrested students be dropped, the police leave the university, the authorities reopen Nanterre and Sorbonne. Negotiations broke down, students returned to their campuses after a false report that the government had agreed to reopen them, only to discover the police still occupying the schools; this led to a near revolutionary fervor among the students.
On Friday, 10 May, another huge crowd congregated on the Rive Gauche. When the Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité again blocked them from crossing the river, the crowd again threw up barricades, which the police attacked at 2:15 in the morning after negotiations once again floundered; the confrontation, which produced hundreds of arrests and injuries, lasted until dawn of the following day. The events were broadcast on radio as they occurred and the aftermath was shown on television the following day. Allegations were made that the police had participated in the riots, through agents provocateurs, by burning cars and throwing Molotov cocktails; the government's heavy-handed reaction brought on a wave of sympathy for the strikers. Many of the nation's more mainstream singers and poets joined after the police brutality came to light. American artists began voicing support of the strikers; the major left union federations, the Confédération Gén
1978 in music
This is a list of notable events in music that took place in the year 1978. 1978 in British music 1978 in Norwegian music 1978 in country music 1978 in heavy metal music 1978 in jazz January 14 – The Sex Pistols play their final show at San Francisco's Winterland Ballroom. January 16 – Elton John appears on this week's People without his trademark glasses. John will still wear glasses for the next ten years until wearing them permanently again. January 21 – As Saturday Night Fever becomes a cultural phenomenon, the soundtrack hits #1 on the Billboard Charts, where it will stay until July. January 23 – Terry Kath and founding member of rock band Chicago, dies from an accidental gunshot wound to the head from a gun he thought was unloaded, in Woodland Hills, Los Angeles. January 25 Electric Light Orchestra kick off their "Out of the Blue" world tour in Hawaii. Bob Dylan makes his directorial debut in the surrealist film Renaldo and Clara, shot during his Rolling Thunder Revue tour. January 26 – Workers at EMI's record processing plant in England refuse to press copies of The Buzzcocks's second single "What Do I Get?" because of its flipside, "Oh Shit".
The single is pressed and goes on to become the band's first hit. January 28 – By request, Ted Nugent autographs his name into a fan's arm with a bowie knife in Philadelphia. February 4 – Elton John appears as the guest star on The Muppet Show. February 10 – Van Halen debuts with a self-titled album. March 18 – California Jam II is held at the Ontario Motor Speedway in California. Over 300,000 fans come to see Ted Nugent, Santana, Dave Mason, Foreigner and more. April 22 In the Eurovision Song Contest in Paris, victory goes to Israel's entry "A-Ba-Ni-Bi", performed by Izhar Cohen & The Alphabeta; the "One Love Peace Concert" is held in Kingston, headlined by Bob Marley, making his first concert appearance since December 1976. Steve Martin performs the original "King Tut" on Saturday Night Live. May 6 – The Knack is formed. May 13 – Barry Gibb becomes the only songwriter in history to have written 4 consecutive #1 singles on Billboard's Hot 100 Chart. May 18 – The Buddy Holly Story, starring Gary Busey, is released.
It would win the Academy Award for Best Music, Original Song Score and Its Adaptation or Best Adaptation Score, earn a nomination for Best Actor in a Leading Role and Best Sound. May 25 – In a performance used for The Kids Are Alright, The Who play their last show with Keith Moon. June 10 – The Rolling Stones begin their 25-date US summer tour in Lakeland, Florida. June 13 – The Cramps play a free concert for patients at the Napa State Mental Hospital. June 16 – The film adaptation of the musical Grease, opens in theaters and is a box office hit. June 20 – Grace Slick splits with Jefferson Starship the day after a disastrous concert in Hamburg, Germany, in which a intoxicated Slick verbally abused the crowd and groped various fans and bandmates. June 29 – Peter Frampton is nearly killed in a car accident in The Bahamas, suffering multiple broken bones, a concussion, muscle damage. July 1 – The first Texxas Jam is held over the July 4 long weekend at the Cotton Bowl in Dallas; the first day features Ted Nugent, Frank Marino and Mahogany Rush, Journey, Head East, Atlanta Rhythm Section, Eddie Money, Van Halen and Walter Egan.
Sunday consists of Willie Nelson headlining his sixth annual Fourth of July picnic. July 19 – Dead Kennedys play their first concert, at the Mabuhay Gardens in San Francisco, California. July 21 – Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, a much-hyped musical film starring Peter Frampton and the Bee Gees performing the music of The Beatles, opens in theaters; the film proves a box office disappointment. July 29 – Glenn Goins, one of the lead vocalists for the band Parliament-Funkadelic dies of Hodgkin's lymphoma at age of 24. July 30 – Thin Lizzy announces that Gary Moore has replaced Brian Robertson on guitar. August 26 – 80,000 concertgoers attend Mosport Speedway in Ontario for the "Canada Jam Festival", featuring sets by the Doobie Brothers, Kansas, Village People, Dave Mason, the Atlanta Rhythm Section and Triumph. August 28 – 67,000 Funk fans assembled at Soldier Field in Chicago, Illinois to attend the first annual Funk Festival, billed as "One Nation Under A Groove", featuring A Taste of Honey, Con Funk Shun, the Bar-Kays, Parliament-Funkadelic.
September 7 – The Who drummer Keith Moon dies in a central London flat after a prescription drug overdose at the age of 32. September 14–16 – The Grateful Dead perform three shows in Giza, Egypt close to the Sphinx and Great Pyramid. October 12 – Nancy Spungen, the American girlfriend of Sex Pistols bassist Sid Vicious, is found dead in a New York hotel room of a stab wound. Sid is charged with her murder. October 24 – Rolling Stones guitarist Keith Richards pleads guilty to a reduced charge of possessing heroin in Toronto in 1977; the more serious charge of drug trafficking is dropped and Richards is given a one-year suspended sentence as well as ordered to play a charity concert for the blind. October 29 – Michael Schenker plays his final show with UFO in Stanford, California before leaving the group to rejoin Scorpions. November 21 – French pop star Dalida performed a concert at New York's Carnegie Hall. November 25 A now sober Alice Cooper releases the album From the Inside, which tells of his stay in rehab for alcoholism.
Aerosmith cuts a concert short after Steven Tyler
1966 in music
List of notable events in music that took place in the year 1966. 1966 in British music 1966 in Norwegian music 1966 in country music 1966 in jazz January 8 – Shindig! is broadcast for the last time on ABC, with musical guests the Kinks and the Who, 2 days earlier, the birthday of Elvis Presley is celebrated in the final Thursday episode of the series. January 14 – Young singer David Jones changes his last name to Bowie to avoid being confused with Davy Jones of the Monkees. January 17 – Simon & Garfunkel release the album Sounds of Silence. February 2 – The first edition of Go-Set magazine is published in Melbourne, Australia. Founded by former Monash University students Phillip Frazer and Tony Schauble, the new weekly is the first independent periodical in Australia devoted to popular music and youth culture; the inaugural 24-page issue has a cover feature on Tom Jones, stories on The Groop, singer Pat Carroll and DJ Ken Sparkes and a feature on mod fashion by designer Prue Acton. February 6 – The Animals appear a fifth time on The Ed Sullivan Show to perform their iconic Vietnam-anthem hit "We Gotta Get Out of this Place".
February 17 – Brian Wilson starts recording "Good Vibrations" with The Wrecking Crew, continuing for several months and marking a beginning to the famed Smile sessions. February 19 – Jefferson Airplane and Big Brother and the Holding Company with Janis Joplin perform at the Fillmore. February 25 – The Yardbirds release the single "Shapes of Things"/"Mister, You're a Better Man Than I", heralding the dawn of the psychedelic era in British rock. "Shapes" would peak at No. 3 in the U. K. and No. 10 in Canada and the U. S. where it remained on the charts throughout the spring of 1966, making its final Hot 100 appearance mid-June. March 4 – The Beatles' John Lennon is quoted in the London newspaper, The Evening Standard as saying that the band was now more popular than Jesus. In August, following publication of this remark in Datebook, there are Beatles protests and record burnings in the Southern US's Bible Belt. March 5 – The 11th Eurovision Song Contest is staged in the Villa Louvigny, Luxembourg.
Udo Jürgens, having represented Austria in the last two contests scores a first for the country, with "Merci Chérie", which he co-wrote. March 6 – In the UK, 5,000 fans of the Beatles sign a petition urging British Prime minister Harold Wilson to reopen Liverpool's Cavern Club. March 14 – The Byrds release the psychedelic single "Eight Miles High" in the U. S, it is banned in several states due to allegations that the lyrics advocated drug use, yet reaches No.14 on the Billboard 100 charts. April – Herb Alpert & the Tijuana Brass set a world record by placing five albums on Billboard's Pop Album Chart, with four of them the Top 10, their music outsells The Beatles by a margin of two-to-one – over 13 million recordings. They win 4 Grammys this year. April 11 – First public performance in the Metropolitan Opera House, of Giacomo Puccini's La fanciulla del West, though the official opening of the new opera house would not take place until September 16. April 12 – In Los Angeles, Jan Berry, of Jan and Dean, crashes his Corvette into a truck, parked on Whittier Boulevard.
Berry slips into a two-month-long coma and suffers total physical paralysis for over a year as well as extensive brain damage. April 23 – For the first time since its January 18, 1964, the Billboard Hot 100 chart fails to have an artist from the UK with a Top 10 single, ending a streak of 117 consecutive weeks. May 1 – The Beatles, The Rolling Stones and the Who perform at the NME's poll winners' show in London; the show is videotaped for broadcast but The Beatles' and The Stones' segments are omitted because of union conflicts. May 6 – The first issue of Džuboks, the first Yugoslav magazine dedicated to rock music and the first rock magazine in a socialist country, is released. May 13 – The Rolling Stones release "Paint It, Black", which becomes the first number one hit single in the US and UK to feature a sitar. May 17 – Bob Dylan and the Hawks perform at the Free Trade Hall, England. Dylan is booed by the audience because of his decision to tour with an electric band, the boos culminating in the famous "Judas" shout.
May 30 – Them, fronted by Van Morrison, begin a three-week stint as the headliner act at the Whisky a Go Go. On the last night June 18, they were joined on stage by that week's opening act The Doors. Van and Jim Morrison sang "Gloria" together. June 6 – In Gallatin, Tennessee, 25-year-old Claudette Frady-Orbison, while motorcycycle riding with her husband Roy Orbison, is killed when her motorcycle was struck by a pickup truck. June 18 – At a drunken gig at Queen's College in Oxford, U. K. bassist/producer Paul Samwell-Smith quits The Yardbirds and star session guitarist Jimmy Page agrees to take over on bass. July 2 – The Beatles become the first musical group to perform at the Nippon Budokan Hall in Tokyo; the performance ignites protests from local citizens who felt that it was inappropriate for a rock and roll band to play at Budokan. July 29 – Bob Dylan is involved in a motorcycle accident. July 31 – The "supergroup" Cream, a trio featuring Eric Clapton, Ginger Baker and Jack Bruce performs its first official concert at the Windsor Jazz & Blues Festival.
August 1 – "Midsummer Serenades: A Mozart Festival" is held – the first Mostly Mozart Festival. August 5 – The Beatles release their album Revolver, expanding the year's psychedelic sound. August 11 – John Lennon holds a press conference in Chicago, Illinois, to apologize for his remarks the previous March. "I suppose if I had said television was more popular than Jesus, I would have gotten away with it. I'm sorry. I'm not anti-God
Tuscany is a region in central Italy with an area of about 23,000 square kilometres and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants. The regional capital is Florence. Tuscany is known for its landscapes, artistic legacy, its influence on high culture, it is regarded as the birthplace of the Italian Renaissance and has been home to many figures influential in the history of art and science, contains well-known museums such as the Uffizi and the Pitti Palace. Tuscany produces wines, including Chianti, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, Morellino di Scansano and Brunello di Montalcino. Having a strong linguistic and cultural identity, it is sometimes considered "a nation within a nation". Tuscany is a popular destination in Italy, the main tourist spots are Florence, Lucca, Versilia and Chianti; the village of Castiglione della Pescaia is the most visited seaside destination in the region, with seaside tourism accounting for 40% of tourist arrivals. Additionally, Lucca, the Chianti region and Val d'Orcia are internationally renowned and popular spots among travellers.
Seven Tuscan localities have been designated World Heritage Sites: the historic centre of Florence. Tuscany has over 120 protected nature reserves, making Tuscany and its capital Florence popular tourist destinations that attract millions of tourists every year. In 2012, the city of Florence was the world's 89th most visited city, with over 1.834 million arrivals. Triangular in shape, Tuscany borders the regions of Liguria to the northwest, Emilia-Romagna to the north, Marche to the northeast, Umbria to the east and Lazio to the southeast; the comune of Badia Tedalda, in the Tuscan Province of Arezzo, has an exclave named Ca' Raffaello within Emilia-Romagna. Tuscany has a western coastline on the Ligurian Sea and the Tyrrhenian Sea, among, the Tuscan Archipelago, of which the largest island is Elba. Tuscany has an area of 22,993 square kilometres. Surrounded and crossed by major mountain chains, with few plains, the region has a relief, dominated by hilly country used for agriculture. Hills make up nearly two-thirds of the region's total area, covering 15,292 square kilometres, mountains, a further 25%, or 5,770 square kilometres.
Plains occupy 8.4% of the total area—1,930 square kilometres —mostly around the valley of the Arno. Many of Tuscany's largest cities lie on the banks of the Arno, including the capital Florence and Pisa; the climate is mild in the coastal areas, is harsher and rainy in the interior, with considerable fluctuations in temperature between winter and summer, giving the region a soil-building active freeze-thaw cycle, in part accounting for the region's once having served as a key breadbasket of ancient Rome. The pre-Etruscan history of the area in the late Bronze and Iron Ages parallels that of the early Greeks; the Tuscan area was inhabited by peoples of the so-called Apennine culture in the late second millennium BC who had trading relationships with the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations in the Aegean Sea. Following this, the Villanovan culture saw Tuscany, the rest of Etruria, taken over by chiefdoms. City-states developed in the late Villanovan before "Orientalization" occurred and the Etruscan civilization rose.
The Etruscans created the first major civilization in this region, large enough to establish a transport infrastructure, to implement agriculture and mining and to produce vibrant art. The Etruscans lived in the area of Etruria well into prehistory; the civilization grew to fill the area between the Arno and Tiber from the eighth century BCE, reaching its peak during the seventh and sixth centuries B. C. succumbing to the Romans by the first century BCE. Throughout their existence, they lost territory to Magna Graecia and Celts. Despite being seen as distinct in its manners and customs by contemporary Greeks, the cultures of Greece, Rome, influenced the civilization to a great extent. One reason for its eventual demise was this increasing absorption by surrounding cultures, including the adoption of the Etruscan upper class by the Romans. Soon after absorbing Etruria, Rome established the cities of Lucca, Pisa and Florence, endowed the area with new technologies and development, ensured peace.
These developments included extensions of existing roads, introduction of aqueducts and sewers, the construction of many buildings, both public and private. However, many of these structures have been destroyed by erosion due to weather; the Roman civilization in the West of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire collapsed in the fifth century, the region fell to barbarians migrating through the Empire from Eastern Europe and Central Asia of the Goths was re-conquered by the revived Eastern Roman Empire under the strong Emperor Justinian. In the years following 572, the Lombards arrived and designated Lucca the capital of their subsequent Tuscia. Pilgrims travelling along the Via Francigena between Rome and France brought wealth and development during the medieval period; the food and shelter required by the