The clavichord is a European stringed rectangular keyboard instrument, used in the Late Middle Ages, through the Renaissance and Classical eras. It was used as a practice instrument and as an aid to composition, not being loud enough for larger performances; the clavichord produces sound by striking brass or iron strings with small metal blades called tangents. Vibrations are transmitted through the bridge to the soundboard; the name is derived from the Latin word clavis, meaning "key" and chorda meaning "string of a musical instrument". An analogous name is used in other European languages. Many languages have another name derived from Latin manus, meaning "hand". Other names refer to the monochord-like nature of a fretted clavichord. Italian used sordino, a reference to its quiet sound; the clavichord was invented in the early fourteenth century. In 1404, the German poem "Der Minne Regeln" mentions the terms clavicimbalum and clavichordium, designating them as the best instruments to accompany melodies.
One of the earliest references to the clavichord in England occurs in the privy-purse expenses of Elizabeth of York, queen of Henry VII, in an entry dated August 1502: Item. The same day, Hugh Denys for money by him delivered to a stranger that gave the queen a payre of clavycordes. In crowns form his reward iiii libres; the clavichord was popular from the 16th century to the 18th century, but flourished in German-speaking lands and the Iberian Peninsula in the latter part of this period. It had fallen out of use by 1850. In the late 1890s, Arnold Dolmetsch revived clavichord construction and Violet Gordon-Woodhouse, among others, helped to popularize the instrument. Although most of the instruments built before the 1730s were small, the latest instruments were built up to seven feet long with a six octave range; until electronic amplification in the twentieth century, it was impossible to use the quiet clavichord in anything but a small room. However, during the clavichord's heyday, evenings of music-making in the home formed the largest part of people's musical experiences.
In the home the clavichord was the ideal instrument for solo keyboard music and instrumental accompaniment. Today clavichords are played by Renaissance and Classical music enthusiasts, they attract many interested buyers, are manufactured worldwide. There are now numerous clavichord societies around the world, some 400 recordings of the instrument have been made in the past 70 years. Leading modern exponents of the instrument have included Thurston Dart; the clavichord has gained attention in other genres of music, in the form of the Clavinet, an electric clavichord that uses a magnetic pickup to produce a signal for amplification. Stevie Wonder uses a Clavinet in many of his songs, such as "Superstition" and "Higher Ground". A Clavinet played through an instrument amplifier with guitar effect pedals is associated with funky, disco-infused 1970s rock. Guy Sigsworth has played clavichord in a modern setting with Björk, notably on the studio recording of "All Is Full of Love". Björk made extensive use of and played the instrument herself on the song "My Juvenile" of her 2007 album Volta.
Tori Amos uses the instrument on "Little Amsterdam" from the album Boys for Pele and on the song "Smokey Joe" from her 2007 album American Doll Posse. Amos featured her use of the Clavinet on her 2004 recording "Not David Bowie", released as part of her 2006 box set, A Piano: The Collection. In 1976 Oscar Peterson played songs from Bess on the clavichord. Keith Jarrett recorded an album entitled Book of Ways in which he plays a series of clavichord improvisations; the Beatles' "For No One" features Paul McCartney playing the clavichord. Rick Wakeman plays the Clavinet in the track "The Battle" from the album Journey to the Centre of the Earth. In the clavichord, strings run transversely from the hitchpin rail at the left-hand end to tuning pegs on the right. Towards the right end they pass over a curved wooden bridge; the action is simple, with the keys being levers with a small brass tangent, a small piece of metal similar in shape and size to the head of a flat-bladed screwdriver, at the far end.
The strings, which are of brass, or else a combination of brass and iron, are arranged in pairs, like a lute or mandolin. When the key is pressed, the tangent strikes the strings above, causing them to sound in a similar fashion to the hammering technique on a guitar. Unlike in a piano action, the tangent does not rebound from the string; the volume of the note can be changed by striking harder or softer, the pitch can be affected by varying the force of the tangent against the string. When the key is released, the tangent loses contact with the string and the vibration of the string is silenced by strips of damping cloth; the action of the clavichord is unique among all keyboard instruments in that one part of the action initiates the sound vibration while at the same time defining the endpoint of the vibrating string, thus its pitch. Because of this intimate contact between
The Leyenda de Plata was professional wrestling tournament produced by the Mexican wrestling promotion Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre that ran from May 15, 2015, over the course of two of CMLL's Friday night shows in Arena México with the finals on May 22, 2015. The annual Leyenda de Plata tournament is held in honor of lucha libre legend El Santo and is one of CMLL's most important annual tournaments; the participants of the first round were: Bárbaro Cavernario, Dragon Lee, Kamaitachi, Mephisto, Místico, Niebla Roja, The Panther, Titán, Virus and Volador Jr. In the end Dragon Lee pinned Virus to win the torneo cibernetico, which meant he would face the previous year's winner Negro Casas the following week. On May 22, Casas defeated Dragon Lee in the finals to win the tournament; the Leyenda de Plata is an annual lucha libre tournament scripted and promoted by the Mexican professional wrestling promotion Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre. The first Leyenda de Plata was held in 1998 and was in honor of El Santo, nicknamed Enmáscarado de Plata from which the tournament got its name.
The trophy given to the winner is a plaque with a metal replica of the mask that El Santo wore in both wrestling and lucha films. The Leyenda de Plata was held annually until 2003, at which point El Santo's son, El Hijo del Santo left CMLL on bad terms; the tournament returned in 2004 and has been held on an annual basis since then. The original format of the tournament was the Torneo cibernetico elimination match to qualify for a semi-final; the winner of the semi-final would face the winner of the previous year's tournament in the final. Since 2005 CMLL has held two cibernetico matches and the winner of each meet in the semi-final. In 2011, the tournament was modified to eliminate the final stage as the previous winner, Místico, did not work for CMLL at that point in time The 2015 edition of La Leyenda de Plata was the 13th overall tournament held by CMLL; the events featured a total of number of professional wrestling matches with different wrestlers involved in pre-existing scripted feuds and storylines.
Wrestlers were portrayed as either heels or faces as they followed a series of tension-building events, which culminated in a wrestling match or series of matches
Pals of the Saddle is a 1938 "Three Mesquiteers" Western film starring John Wayne and directed by George Sherman. This is the first of eight films in which Wayne played the lead in the popular series of fifty-one Three Mesquiteers films. John Wayne as Stony Brooke Ray Corrigan as Tucson Smith Max Terhune as Lullaby Joslin Elmer as Elmer Doreen McKay as Ann aka Mirandy, Secret Service Agent Joseph Forte as Judge Hastings George Douglas as Paul Hartman Frank Milan as Frank, Secret Service Agent Ted Adams as Henry C. Gordon Harry Depp as Hotel desk clerk Dave Weber as Russian musician Don Orlando as Italian musician Charles Knight as English musician Jack Kirk as Sheriff Johnson Yakima Canutt as Henchman Otto Hoffman as Townsman Monte Montague as Henchman at Acme Salt Refinery George Montgomery as Rider John Wayne filmography Pals of the Saddle on IMDb