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Clay County, Illinois

Clay County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. As of the 2010 census, the population was 13,815, its county seat is Louisville. In 1950, the U. S. Census Bureau placed the mean center of U. S. population in Clay County. Clay County was formed in 1824 out of portions of Wayne and Fayette counties, its name is in honor of Henry Clay, famous American statesman, member of the United States Senate from Kentucky and United States Secretary of State in the 19th century. Clay was an unsuccessful candidate for President in the year. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 470 square miles, of which 468 square miles is land and 1.3 square miles is water. Jasper County - northeast Richland County - east Wayne County - south Marion County - west Fayette County - northwest Effingham County - north I-57 US 45 US 50 IL 37 In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Louisville have ranged from a low of 21 °F in January to a high of 89 °F in July, although a record low of −25 °F was recorded in January 1904 and a record high of 111 °F was recorded in July 1936.

Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.49 inches in February to 4.34 inches in June. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 13,815 people, 5,697 households, 3,790 families residing in the county; the population density was 29.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 6,404 housing units at an average density of 13.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.7% white, 0.5% Asian, 0.3% black or African American, 0.2% American Indian, 0.5% from other races, 0.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.1% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 21.7% were German, 14.6% were American, 12.6% were Irish, 8.6% were English. Of the 5,697 households, 29.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.1% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.5% were non-families, 28.9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.89.

The median age was 42.2 years. The median income for a household in the county was $38,016 and the median income for a family was $48,659. Males had a median income of $38,191 versus $27,347 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,802. About 11.2% of families and 16.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.4% of those under age 18 and 14.7% of those age 65 or over. Clay City Community Unit District 10 Dieterich Community Unit School District 30 Effingham Community Unit School District 40 Flora Community Unit School District 35 Jasper County Community Unit School District 1 North Clay Community Unit School District 25 North Clay High School South Central Community Unit School District 401 West Richland Community Unit School District 2 Flora Clay City Iola Louisville Sailor Springs Xenia Clay County is divided into these twelve townships: As part of Upper Southern-leaning Southern Illinois, Clay County is powerfully Republican. No Democratic Presidential nominee has won a majority in Clay County since Lyndon Johnson’s 1964 landslide, for the region recent Presidential elections have seen dramatic declines in Democratic support due to disagreement with liberal positions on social issues.

National Register of Historic Places listings in Clay County, Illinois Specific GeneralUnited States Census Bureau 2007 TIGER/Line Shapefiles United States Board on Geographic Names United States National Atlas Illinois State Archives

Bradford Area High School

Bradford Area High School is a public high school providing grades 9-12. It is located in Pennsylvania, in the north central region of the Commonwealth; the current principal is David Ray. In 2010 the enrollment was 941; the Pennsylvania Department of Education has projected enrollment will decline to 700 for the Class of 2020. The demographics of the students body are: 95% of the students are white, while 1% are black, 1% are Hispanic, 1% are Asian and 2% are American Indian. In 2010, the Pennsylvania Department of Education issued a new, 4 year cohort graduation rate. Bradford Area School District's rate was 93% for 2010. According to traditional graduation rate calculations: 2010 - 94% 2009 - 93% 2008 - 88% In 2010, the high school was in Making Progress: in School Improvement I AYP status. In 2009, the school was in School Improvement I due to low student achievement. PSSA Results 11th Grade Reading2010 - 72% on grade level. In Pennsylvania, 66% of 11th graders on grade level. 2009 - 64%, State - 65% 2008 - 60%, State - 65% 11th Grade Math:2010 - 82% on grade level.

In Pennsylvania, 59% of 11th graders are on grade level.2009 - 45%, State - 56% 2008 - 51%, State - 56% 11th Grade Science:2010 - 33% on grade level. State - 39% of 11th graders were on grade level. 2009 - 29%, State - 40% 2008 - 47%, State - 39% According to a Pennsylvania Department of Education study released in January 2009, 19% of the Bradford Area School District graduates required remediation in mathematics and or reading before they were prepared to take college level courses in the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education or community colleges. The high school offers a Dual Enrollment program; this state program permits high school students to take courses, at local higher education institutions, to earn college credits. Students remain enrolled at their high school; the courses count towards both high school graduation requirements and towards earning a college degree. The students continue to have full access to activities at their high school; the college credits are offered at a discounted rate.

The state offers a small grant to assist students in costs for tuition and books. Under the Pennsylvania Transfer and Articulation Agreement, many Pennsylvania colleges and universities accept these credits for students who transfer to their institutions; the Pennsylvania College Credit Transfer System reported in 2009, that students saved nearly $35.4 million by having their transferred credits count towards a degree under the new system. For the 2009-10 funding year, the school district received a state grant of $15699 for the program; the Bradford Area School Board has determined that a high school student must earn 25.8 credits in order to graduate, including: English 4 credits, Social Studies 4 credits, Mathematics 4 credits, Science 3 credits, Physical Education 1.6 credits, Health 0.6 credit, Freshman seminar 0.6 credit and 8 elective credits. All high school students must take a full year - 1 unit English course to meet their annual one credit requirement for graduation; the fourth year of high school is not required for graduation if a student has completed all requirements for graduation and attends a postsecondary institution as a full-time student.

By law, all Pennsylvania secondary school students must complete a project as a part of their eligibility to graduate from high school. The type of project, its rigor and its expectations are set by the individual school district. Bradford Area High School graduation project has two parts: an oral presentation. By Pennsylvania School Board regulations, for the graduating classes of 2016, students must demonstrate successful completion of secondary level course work in Algebra I, English Composition, Literature for which the Keystone Exams serve as the final course exams. Students’ Keystone Exam scores count for at least one-third of the final course grade. Stew Barber, former NFL player Hank Goodman, former NFL player Larry Peace, former NFL player Art Stevenson, former NFL player Jigs Ullery, former NFL player The district offers a variety of clubs and sports. Eligibility to participate is determined by school board policy. By Pennsylvania law, all K-12 students in the district, including those who attend a private nonpublic school, cyber charter school, charter school and those homeschooled, are eligible to participate in the extracurricular programs including all athletics.

They must meet the same eligibility rules. Bradford Area participates in PIAA District IX The athletics program has produced two known professional baseball players, Ben Copeland and Zachary Foster; the athletics program excels in their region and has graduated numerous athletes that have signed National Letters of Intent to play NCAA Division II and III sports at prestigious universities

Aaron Guiel

Aaron Colin Guiel is a former professional baseball outfielder. Guiel was drafted out of Kwantlen College by the California Angels in the 21st round of the 1992 Major League Baseball draft, he began his professional career in 1993 with the Low-A Boise Hawks as a second baseman and outfielder and hit.298 in 35 games. With Single-A Cedar Rapids in 1994, he hit 18 home drove in 82 runs. In 1995, Guiel played for High-A Lake Elsinore and for Double-A Midland in 1996. In his first year with Midland, he played third base and hit.269 for the third consecutive season. Guiel had a breakout season with Midland in 1997 as he was converted to a full-time outfielder and batted.329 with 22 home runs and 85 RBI. On August 23, 1997, the Angels traded him to the San Diego Padres for catcher Angelo Encarnación. Guiel hit.311 in 60 games. He started 1999 in Las Vegas again, but hit just.245 and became a minor league free agent at the end of the season. On March 18, 2000, Guiel signed with the Oakland Athletics but was released twelve days on March 30.

He spent two months playing for the Oaxaca Warriors in the Mexican League before being signed by the Kansas City Royals on June 13. Guiel spent the rest of the 2000 season with the Triple-A Omaha Golden Spikes, he spent all of 2001 with Omaha and hit 21 home runs and had 73 RBI and became a minor league free agent again. After re-signing with the Royals in 2002 and hitting.353 with Omaha, he was called up to the major leagues and made his debut on June 22, striking out in his only at-bat. He began 2003 in the minors again was called up in May, he stayed in the majors for the rest of the season hitting.277 in 99 games. He hit only.156 when he was healthy. In 2005, Guiel played most of the season with Triple-A Omaha until an August call-up. With Omaha, he hit.276 with a career-high 30 home runs and 95 RBI. He hit.294 in the majors after being called up. Before the regular season began, Guiel played for Canada in the 2006 World Baseball Classic. In the tournament, he went 2-9. On July 5, 2006, after having spent most of the season with Omaha, he was claimed off waivers by the New York Yankees.

In his first game with the Yankees, Guiel went 1 -- 3 with 3 runs scored. Overall with the Yankees, he hit.256 with 4 home runs and 11 RBI while playing right field and first base. For the 2007 season, Guiel signed with the Tokyo Yakult Swallows of Japan's Central League, hitting 35 home runs with 79 RBI. In 2008, he hit only.200 being limited to just 79 games due to an elbow injury. After the 2008 season, he re-signed with the Swallows for 2009, staying with them through 2011, totaling 90 home runs and 239 RBI over those five seasons, his brother is former outfielder Jeff Guiel. Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference

Wilson v. Omaha Tribe

Wilson v. Omaha Tribe, 442 U. S. 653, was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that in a land dispute, 25 U. S. C. § 194 applied only to individuals and not a state, that federal law governed the tribe's right to possession, but that state law was to be used in determining how that applied to the natural movement of a river's boundaries. In 1854, the Omaha Tribe and the United States entered into a treaty that provided for the tribe to have a reservation in Nebraska, bounded on the east by the center line of the Missouri River. In 1867, a survey by the Federal General Land Office established the boundaries. During the intervening years, changes in the river's course occurred. Leaving a good deal of land from the survey on the Iowa side of the river. Non-Indian farmers had occupied the land in question over those same year. On April 2, 1975, the tribe dispossessed the farmers with the assistance of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the State of Iowa and others filed suits to obtain title to the land in Iowa claimed by the tribe.

The multiple lawsuits were consolidated into one action in the U. S. District Court for the Northern District of Iowa; the trial court found for the non-Indian defendants, using the state law of Nebraska to determine the issue of the movement of the river, rejecting the position of the United States and the tribe that 25 U. S. C. § 194 controlled the issue. The tribe appealed the trial court's decision to the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals; the appeals court reversed the judgment of the trial court, holding that 25 U. S. C. § 194 did apply. The court stated that once the tribe made a prima facie case, the burden fell on both the non-Indian litigants to prove their case and that the trial court improperly put the burden on the tribe; the court further held that Federal common law governed, not state law as far as the movement of the river was concerned. The non-Indians appealed and the U. S. Supreme Court granted certiorari. Vacated and remanded. Justice Byron White delivered the opinion of the court.

Justice White stated that first, 25 U. S. C. § 194 did in fact apply to the case as to the individuals and corporations but not to the State of Iowa, that the defendants had the burden of proof once the tribe established their prima facie case. He stated that the Circuit Court was correct that federal law governed, but was in error by arriving at a federal standard, independent of state law. Justice Harry Blackmun issued a concurring opinion, in which he discusses the term "white person" in 25 U. S. C. § 194 as being applied to any non-Indian. He felt that the opinion should have made should have explicitly stated this. Nebraska v. Parker Text of Wilson v. Omaha Tribe, 442 U. S. 653 is available from: CourtListener Findlaw Google Scholar Justia Library of Congress Oyez


CHQM-FM is a Canadian radio station in the Metro Vancouver region of British Columbia. It broadcasts at 103.5 megahertz on the FM band with an effective radiated power of 100,000 watts from a transmitter on Mount Seymour and airs a younger-targeting adult contemporary format. It is western Canada's oldest and one of the most-listened-to commercial FM stations in Vancouver along with sister station CFBT-FM, it is owned by Bell Media. CHQM's studios are located at 750 Burrard Street in Downtown Vancouver. CHQM is now the largest adult contemporary station in Canada not locally owned, having overtaken from Montreal's CFQR-FM in February 2011 after that station switched ownership from Toronto's Corus Entertainment to Montreal's Cogeco. CHQM-FM is the most-listened-to radio station in Vancouver with a 12.4% share, according to BBM's Winter report. The station is carried on Shaw Direct channel 509, carried on Telus Optik TV channel 7025. CHQM-FM signed on the air on August 10, 1960 with a instrumental easy listening format, several months after its original AM sister station, CHQM 1320, first went on-air on December 7, 1959.

The original owner of CHQM-AM and -FM was Vancouver Broadcast Associates Ltd. headed by Bill Bellman and Jack Stark, with the stations' studios and offices located on 1134 Burrard Street. On November 4, 1961, CHQM-FM began broadcasting in stereo, was authorized by the Board of Broadcast Governors to increase its transmission power from 18,950 watts to 100,000 in 1963; the transmitter site was moved from Grouse Mountain to Mount Seymour at this time. CHQM-FM was the second private radio station in Canada to transmit in stereo, it was the first in the nation to transmit an SCMO subcarrier; this subcarrier was used to transmit background music to stores and businesses throughout the Lower Mainland, it helped support the FM station during the difficult first two decades when FM audiences were small. Parent company Vancouver Broadcast Associates changed its corporate name to Q Broadcasting Ltd. on August 23, 1969. The two owners had a dispute, each struggled to control Q Broadcasting through the mid-1970s.

In 1979, Stark assumed complete control of the company. Bellman moved on to become a major shareholder in fledgling CKVU-TV in Vancouver. CHUM Limited acquired CHQM-AM and -FM on October 17, 1990, on condition from the CRTC that CHUM sell either CHQM-AM or its other Vancouver AM station, CFUN. Vancouver ended up with three ACs by 1996; the three-way AC battle ended in 1999, when Rogers acquired the station and changed to alternative rock as "Xfm", which became AC/smooth jazz as "Clear FM". CKKS switched formats to Jack FM on Boxing Day 2002. On July 12, 2006, CTVglobemedia announced it would acquire CHUM Limited, which includes CHQM; the transaction was approved by the CRTC on June 8, 2007, CHQM became a CTVglobemedia station on June 22. On September 21, 2008, in order for the Jim Pattison Group's launch of 100.5 The Peak, rival AC station CKCL-FM flipped to classic hits as "FM 104.9", making CHQM once again the only AC station in the market. Although KAFE in Bellingham has an adult contemporary format, is receivable in Vancouver, the station itself does not target the Vancouver area.

By 2010, sister station CJMJ-FM in Ottawa dropped the remaining 1960s songs, for a time, 1960s songs could still be found on CHQM. They have since dropped these as of 2013. CHQM competes against Rogers Radio's adult hits CJAX and Stingray Radio's cluster of AC CHLG and hot adult contemporary CKZZ, as well as adult album alternative rival CKPK; the most famous contest on 103.5 QM/FM is their game "Beat the Bank". The lucky caller would get to open "vaults"; when they choose to open the "vaults", they hear the sound effect of a creaking door. Once they open the first door, they have a voice saying an amount of money, in which they get to choose or say that they would like to keep opening vaults to get a larger amount of money; each door gives a larger sum. If they open a vault with the alarm sounding, they lose all their money and therefore do not receive any money as a prize. After the player either loses or chooses an amount of money, every vault is explored until the alarm sounds; the last vault opened before the alarm is discovered is announced as the maximum possible prize that could have been claimed during that session.

Other contests when players call in, players have to answer a question or a series of questions to win a prize, which are tickets to go see a concert live in Vancouver. In 2016, CHQM-FM signed on HD Radio services, they signed on HD2 and HD3 sub-channels, which air simulcasts of sisters CKST and CFTE, respectively. 103.5 QMFM CHQM-FM history – Canadian Communications Foundation Query the REC Canadian station database for CHQM-FM

Bruce H. Mahan

Bruce H. Mahan was a physical chemist and Professor of Chemistry at the University of California, Berkeley known for his work in the fundamentals of chemical reactions and devotion to chemistry education, he was the doctoral advisor of Nobel laureate Yuan T. Lee. Bruce Mahan was born August 17, 1930 and was the son of Arthur E. Mahan and Clara Blanche Gray Mahan and grew up in New Britain, Connecticut, he was the youngest of three children. He entered Harvard College in 1948 on a fellowship and graduated with an A. B. degree in chemistry in 1952 as one of the top students. He continued with his doctoral work at Harvard working with the physical chemist George Kistiakowsky on the photolysis of methyl ketene, he received his Ph. D. in 1956. Mahan was hired as an instructor in the Department of Chemistry at the University of California at Berkeley in 1956 and he remained there throughout his career. In 1959 he was an assistant professor and became department chair in 1968. Mahan's research was in the area of gas phase kinetics and photolysis gas-phase ion chemistry and energy transfer.

His student Yuan T. Lee received his Ph. D. degree in 1965 and went on to win the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1986. He was diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in 1975 and died October 12, 1982 at the young age of 52. Mahan published Elementary Chemical Thermodynamics in 1963 and University Chemistry in 1965; the latter was described by Ignacio Tinoco as "the model for all high-level freshman texts used today." He was an Alfred P. Sloan Fellow 1963-1965 and received the gold medal California Section Award of the American Chemical Society in 1968; the Bruce H. Mahan Chair in Physical Chemistry was established in 2005 and was held by David Chandler until his death; the Bruce H. Mahan Teaching Award is given to outstanding graduate student chemistry instructors at University of California, Berkeley