2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Kingdom of France
The Kingdom of France was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe. It was one of the most powerful states in Europe and a great power since the Late Middle Ages and the Hundred Years' War, it was an early colonial power, with possessions around the world. France originated as West Francia, the western half of the Carolingian Empire, with the Treaty of Verdun. A branch of the Carolingian dynasty continued to rule until 987, when Hugh Capet was elected king and founded the Capetian dynasty; the territory remained known as Francia and its ruler as rex Francorum well into the High Middle Ages. The first king calling himself Roi de France was Philip II, in 1190. France continued to be ruled by the Capetians and their cadet lines—the Valois and Bourbon—until the monarchy was overthrown in 1792 during the French Revolution. France in the Middle Ages was a feudal monarchy. In Brittany and Catalonia the authority of the French king was felt. Lorraine and Provence were states of the Holy Roman Empire and not yet a part of France.
West Frankish kings were elected by the secular and ecclesiastic magnates, but the regular coronation of the eldest son of the reigning king during his father's lifetime established the principle of male primogeniture, which became codified in the Salic law. During the Late Middle Ages, the Kings of England laid claim to the French throne, resulting in a series of conflicts known as the Hundred Years' War. Subsequently, France sought to extend its influence into Italy, but was defeated by Spain in the ensuing Italian Wars. France in the early modern era was centralised. Religiously France became divided between the Catholic majority and a Protestant minority, the Huguenots, which led to a series of civil wars, the Wars of Religion. France laid claim to large stretches of North America, known collectively as New France. Wars with Great Britain led to the loss of much of this territory by 1763. French intervention in the American Revolutionary War helped secure the independence of the new United States of America but was costly and achieved little for France.
The Kingdom of France adopted a written constitution in 1791, but the Kingdom was abolished a year and replaced with the First French Republic. The monarchy was restored by the other great powers in 1814 and lasted until the French Revolution of 1848. During the years of the elderly Charlemagne's rule, the Vikings made advances along the northern and western perimeters of the Kingdom of the Franks. After Charlemagne's death in 814 his heirs were incapable of maintaining political unity and the empire began to crumble; the Treaty of Verdun of 843 divided the Carolingian Empire into three parts, with Charles the Bald ruling over West Francia, the nucleus of what would develop into the kingdom of France. Charles the Bald was crowned King of Lotharingia after the death of Lothair II in 869, but in the Treaty of Meerssen was forced to cede much of Lotharingia to his brothers, retaining the Rhone and Meuse basins but leaving the Rhineland with Aachen and Trier in East Francia. Viking advances were allowed to increase, their dreaded longships were sailing up the Loire and Seine rivers and other inland waterways, wreaking havoc and spreading terror.
During the reign of Charles the Simple, Normans under Rollo from Norway, were settled in an area on either side of the River Seine, downstream from Paris, to become Normandy. The Carolingians were to share the fate of their predecessors: after an intermittent power struggle between the two dynasties, the accession in 987 of Hugh Capet, Duke of France and Count of Paris, established the Capetian dynasty on the throne. With its offshoots, the houses of Valois and Bourbon, it was to rule France for more than 800 years; the old order left the new dynasty in immediate control of little beyond the middle Seine and adjacent territories, while powerful territorial lords such as the 10th- and 11th-century counts of Blois accumulated large domains of their own through marriage and through private arrangements with lesser nobles for protection and support. The area around the lower Seine became a source of particular concern when Duke William took possession of the kingdom of England by the Norman Conquest of 1066, making himself and his heirs the King's equal outside France.
Henry II inherited the Duchy of Normandy and the County of Anjou, married France's newly divorced ex-queen, Eleanor of Aquitaine, who ruled much of southwest France, in 1152. After defeating a revolt led by Eleanor and three of their four sons, Henry had Eleanor imprisoned, made the Duke of Brittany his vassal, in effect ruled the western half of France as a greater power than the French throne. However, disputes among Henry's descendants over the division of his French territories, coupled with John of England's lengthy quarrel with Philip II, allowed Philip II to recover influence over most of this territory. After the French victory at the Battle of Bouvines in 1214, the English monarchs maintained power only in southwestern Duchy of Guyenne; the death of Charles IV of France in 1328 without male heirs ended the main Capetian line. Under Salic law the crown could not pass through a woman (Philip IV's daughter
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Riley County, Kansas
Riley County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 71,115; the largest city and county seat is Manhattan. Riley County is home to two of Kansas' largest employers: Kansas State University. Riley County, named for Mexican–American War general Bennet Riley, was on the western edge of the 33 original counties established by the Kansas Territorial Legislature in August 1855. For organizational purposes, Riley County had attached to it Geary County and all land west of Riley County, across Kansas Territory into present-day Colorado; the first Territorial Capital of Kansas Territory was located in the boundaries of Riley County, in the former town of Pawnee. The site now falls within the boundaries of Fort Riley, a U. S. Army post. Manhattan was selected as county seat in contentious fashion. In late 1857, an election was held to select the county seat, with Ogden prevailing. However, Manhattanites suspected election fraud, were able to prove that a number of votes were illegally cast.
Sheriff David A. Butterfield was forced to secure the county's books and records for Manhattan, Manhattan was officially declared the county seat in 1858. On May 30, 1879, the "Irving, Kansas Tornado" began in Riley County; this tornado is estimated to have been an F4 on the Fujita scale, with a damage path 800 yards wide and 100 miles long. Eighteen people sixty were injured. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 622 square miles, of which 610 square miles is land and 12 square miles is water; the eastern border of the county follows the former course of the Big Blue River. The river was dammed in the 1960s and Tuttle Creek Lake was created as a result; the county falls within the Flint Hills region of the state. Marshall County Pottawatomie County Wabaunsee County Geary County Clay County Washington County Riley County is part of the Manhattan, KS Metropolitan Statistical Area. Millennials make up 53.6% of the population of Riley County, one of the highest rates in the United States.
As of the census of 2000, there were 62,843 people, 22,137 households, 12,263 families residing in the county. The population density was 103 people per square mile. There were 23,397 housing units at an average density of 38 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 84.78% White, 6.88% Black or African American, 0.63% Native American, 3.22% Asian, 0.17% Pacific Islander, 1.89% from other races, 2.43% from two or more races. 4.57% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 22,137 households out of which 27.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.20% were married couples living together, 6.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.60% were non-families. 27.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.99. In the county, the population was spread out with 18.80% under the age of 18, 34.50% from 18 to 24, 25.90% from 25 to 44, 13.30% from 45 to 64, 7.50% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 24 years. For every 100 females, there were 114.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 115.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,042, the median income for a family was $46,489. Males had a median income of $26,856 versus $23,835 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,349. About 8.50% of families and 20.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.20% of those under age 18 and 6.70% of those age 65 or over. Owing to its history of Yankee anti-slavery settlement in “Bleeding Kansas” days, Riley County became rock-ribbed Republican following Kansas statehood, except when over half of its voters supported Progressive Theodore Roosevelt in 1912. Being resistant to the Democratic populism of William Jennings Bryan, Woodrow Wilson and Franklin D. Roosevelt, Riley County stands as the westernmost of thirty-eight US counties to have never voted Democratic for President since the Civil War. However, it is the only one whose status as “never Democratic” stands threatened: Donald Trump’s 46.0 percent is the third-worst by a Republican in history behind the 1912 and 1992 elections when major third party candidates influenced the result.
Hillary Clinton’s losing margin of only 3.5 percent is the second-closest any Democrat has come to claiming the county behind her husband in that divided 1992 election. Riley County is the only county in Kansas without an elected sheriff. Riley County was a prohibition, or "dry", county until the Kansas Constitution was amended in 1986 and voters approved the sale of alcoholic liquor by the individual drink with a 30 percent food sales requirement; the food sales requirement was removed with voter approval in 2004. Kansas State University Manhattan Christian College Manhattan Area Technical College Riley County USD 378 Manhattan-Ogden USD 383 Manhattan High School Blue Valley USD 384 Leonardville Manhattan partly in Pottawatomie County Ogden Randolph Riley Ashland Bala Keats Rocky Ford Zeandale Lasita Walsburg May DayThese former places were flooded when Tuttle Creek Lake was created in the 1950s and 1960s. Randolph was flooded, but moved a mile west of its original location. Cleburne Garrison Cross Stockdale Winkler Located north of the junction of the Smoky Hill and Republican rivers in Geary County, Fort Riley Military Reservation covers 100,656 acres in Geary and Riley c
Strong City, Kansas
Strong City is a city in Chase County, United States. Known as Cottonwood Station, in 1881 it was renamed Strong City after William Barstow Strong vice-president and general manager, president of the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 485. For many millennia, the Great Plains of North America was inhabited by nomadic Native Americans. From the 16th century to 18th century, the Kingdom of France claimed ownership of large parts of North America. In 1762, after the French and Indian War, France secretly ceded New France to Spain, per the Treaty of Fontainebleau. In 1802, Spain returned most of the land to France. In 1803, most of the land for modern day Kansas was acquired by the United States from France as part of the 828,000 square mile Louisiana Purchase for 2.83 cents per acre. In 1854, the Kansas Territory was organized in 1861 Kansas became the 34th U. S. state. In 1859, Chase County was established within the Kansas Territory, which included the land for modern day Strong City.
In 1871, the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway extended a main line from Emporia to Newton. The city originated in March 1871 when the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway was completed to the point known as Cottonwood Station. Strong City was called Cottonwood, under the latter name laid out in 1872. In 1881, the name was changed to Strong, in honor of William Barstow Strong, General Superintendent of the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway, afterward the president of the company; the original depot was a wooden building built in 1872 burned in 1902 and was replaced in 1903 by another wooden building. From 1887 to 1938, a six stall engine roundhouse employed many workers. In 1887, Atchison and Santa Fe Railway built a branch line from Neva to Superior, Nebraska; this branch line connected Strong City, Rockland, Diamond Springs, Lost Springs, Hope, Enterprise, Talmage, Longford, Oak Hill, Aurora, Concordia, Courtland, Superior. At some point, the line from Neva to Lost Springs was pulled but the right of way has not been abandoned.
This branch line was called "Strong City and Superior line" but the name was shortened to the "Strong City line". In 1912, construction of a new depot was begun about 100 feet west of the old one, was finished in 1913; the new brick depot was trimmed in native cut limestone was built for a cost of $20,000. A brick platform some 800-feet long was built along the front of the building, a 250-foot freight platform was built along the rear of the building. Passenger service was discontinued in the late 1940s. In 1945, the name was changed again, this time to Strong City. In 1996, the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway merged with Burlington Northern Railroad and renamed to the current BNSF Railway. In 2006 and 2015, the "Symphony in the Flint Hills" concert was held two miles north of Strong City with thousands in attendance. Local stonemasons and builders Barney Lantry & Son contracted with railroad companies for projects throughout the United States. In the beginning it built stone-work for certain phases of railroad construction, but they did build complete railroads, laying the track, building bridges, stations and other division buildings.
The first stone-crushers Kansas saw were brought to the state by the Lantrys and were operated on a large scale at Strong City. Most of the stone for masonry and road-ballast for their jobs all over the west, was taken from their quarries at Strong City. Big stones for the Kansas State Capitol came from Strong City. Stone was used for public and private buildings in Kansas, Nebraska and Colorado; when Barney Lantry died in 1895, officials of the Santa Fe Railroad from Los Angeles to Chicago attended his funeral services in Strong City. Strong City is located at 38°23′50″N 96°32′13″W, in the scenic Flint Hills of the Great Plains. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.55 square miles, all of it land. The Cottonwood River is 0.5 miles west of the city, an old channel of the river is next to the south-west corner of the city. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Strong City has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps.
The center of population of Kansas is located 4.5 miles north of Strong City at 38°27′15″N 96°32′10″W. As of the census of 2010, there were 485 people, 212 households, 123 families residing in the city; the population density was 881.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 256 housing units at an average density of 465.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.5% White, 0.6% African American, 0.8% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.0% of the population. There were 212 households of which 25.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.6% were married couples living together, 5.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 42.0% were non-families. 37.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 3.10.
The median age in the city was 44.1 years. 22.5% of residents were under the age of 18.
Enterprise is a city in Dickinson County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 855; the first settlement at Enterprise was in 1868, Enterprise was laid out in 1872. It was named for the enterprising qualities of the pioneer settlers; the first post office in Enterprise was established in January, 1873. On January 10, 1883, the Enterprise Town Company, capital $50,000, was organized; the following officers were elected: V. P. Wilson, president. Hoffman, treasurer. Henry, secretary. In 1887, Atchison and Santa Fe Railway built a branch line from Neva through Enterprise to Superior, Nebraska. In 1996, the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway merged with Burlington Northern Railroad and renamed to the current BNSF Railway. Most locals still refer to this railroad as the "Santa Fe". On January 23, 1901, temperance movement leader Carrie Nation and her followers wrecked a saloon in Enterprise. Enterprise is located at 38°54′9″N 97°7′5″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.66 square miles, of which, 0.65 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water.
The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Enterprise has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; as of the census of 2010, there were 855 people, 294 households, 221 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,315.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 335 housing units at an average density of 515.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.3% White, 0.9% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.6% from other races, 3.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.1% of the population. There were 294 households of which 37.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.1% were married couples living together, 12.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 24.8% were non-families. 22.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.03. The median age in the city was 34.9 years. 28.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.7% male and 53.3% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 836 people, 299 households, 218 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,276.4 people per square mile. There were 334 housing units at an average density of 509.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.77% White, 0.24% African American, 0.84% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 2.03% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.84% of the population. There were 299 households out of which 37.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.5% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.8% were non-families. 23.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.11.
In the city, the population was spread out with 27.6% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 23.9% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, 19.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 82.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.6 males. As of 2000 the median income for a household in the city was $36,613, the median income for a family was $39,479. Males had a median income of $28,214 versus $20,357 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,619. About 7.8% of families and 8.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.0% of those under age 18 and 11.3% of those age 65 or over. Enterprise is a part of USD 473 Chapman; the Chapman High School mascot is Chapman Fighting Irish. Enterprise claims the title of the first town to offer kindergarten in the state. Enterprise High School was closed through school unification; the Enterprise High School mascot was Enterprise Bulldogs. Abilene and Smoky Valley Railroad CityCity of Enterprise Enterprise - Directory of Public OfficialsSchoolsUSD 473, local school district USD 473 School District Boundary Map, KDOTHistoricalHistoric Images of Enterprise, Special Photo Collections at Wichita State University Library J.
B. Ehrsam building was demolished in 2011MapsEnterprise City Map, KDOT
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie