Bolton is a town in Greater Manchester in North West England. A former mill town, Bolton has been a production centre for textiles since Flemish weavers settled in the area in the 14th century, introducing a wool and cotton-weaving tradition; the urbanisation and development of the town coincided with the introduction of textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution. Bolton was a 19th-century boomtown, at its zenith in 1929 its 216 cotton mills and 26 bleaching and dyeing works made it one of the largest and most productive centres of cotton spinning in the world; the British cotton industry declined after the First World War, by the 1980s cotton manufacture had ceased in Bolton. Close to the West Pennine Moors, Bolton is 10 miles northwest of Manchester, it is surrounded by several smaller towns and villages that together form the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton, of which Bolton is the administrative centre. The town of Bolton has a population of 139,403, whilst the wider metropolitan borough has a population of 262,400.
Part of Lancashire, Bolton originated as a small settlement in the moorland known as Bolton le Moors. In the English Civil War, the town was a Parliamentarian outpost in a staunchly Royalist region, as a result was stormed by 3,000 Royalist troops led by Prince Rupert of the Rhine in 1644. In what became known as the Bolton Massacre, 1,600 residents were killed and 700 were taken prisoner. Bolton Wanderers football club play home games at the University of Bolton Stadium and the WBA World light-welterweight champion Amir Khan was born in the town. Cultural interests include the Octagon Theatre and the Bolton Museum and Art Gallery, as well as one of the earliest public libraries established after the Public Libraries Act 1850. Bolton is a common Northern English name derived from the Old English bothl-tun, meaning a settlement with a dwelling; the first recorded use of the name, in the form Boelton, dates from 1185 to describe Bolton le Moors, though this may not be in relation to a dwelling.
It was recorded as Bothelton in 1212, Botelton in 1257, Boulton in 1288, Bolton after 1307. Forms of Botheltun were Bodeltown, Botheltun-le-Moors, Boltune, Bolton-super-Moras, Bolton-in-ye-Moors, Bolton-le-Moors; the town's motto of Supera Moras means "overcome difficulties", is a pun on the Bolton-super-Moras version of the name meaning "Bolton on the moors". The name itself is referred to in the badge of the Bolton Metropolitan Borough Council using a form of visual pun, a rebus, in combining motifs of arrow for'bolt' and heraldic crown for'tun', the term for the central high point of a defensive position, the etymon of the suffix of Bolton. There is evidence of human existence on the moors around Bolton since the early part of the Bronze Age, including a stone circle on Cheetham Close above Egerton, Bronze Age burial mounds on Winter Hill. A Bronze Age mound was excavated in Victorian times outside Haulgh Hall; the Romans built roads from Manchester to Ribchester to the east and a road along what is now the A6 to the west.
It is claimed. Evidence of a Saxon settlement exists in the form of religious objects found when the Victorian parish church was built. In 1067 Great Bolton was the property of Roger de Meresheys, it became the property of the Pilkingtons who forfeited it in the Civil War and after that the Stanleys who became Earls of Derby. Great Bolton and Little Bolton were part of the Marsey fee, in 1212 Little Bolton was held by Roger de Bolton as plough-land, by the service of the twelfth part of a knight's fee to Randle de Marsey; the parish church in Bolton has an early foundation. A charter to hold a market in Churchgate was granted on 14 December 1251 by King Henry III of England. Bolton became a market town and borough by a charter from the Earl of Derby, William de Ferrers, on 14 January 1253, a market was held until the 18th century. Burgage plots were laid out on Churchgate and Deansgate in the centre of the medieval town close to where Ye Olde Man & Scythe public house, dating from 1251, is situated today.
In 1337 Flemish weavers introduced the manufacture of woollen cloth. More Flemish weavers, fleeing the Huguenot persecutions, settled here in the 17th century; the second wave of settlers wove fustian, a rough cloth made of cotton. Digging sea coal was recorded in 1374. There was an outbreak of the plague in the town in 1623. During the English Civil War, the people of Bolton were Puritans and supported the Parliamentarian cause. A parliamentary garrison in the town was attacked twice without success but on 28 May 1644 Prince Rupert's Royalist army with troops under the command of the Earl of Derby attacked again; the attack became known as the Bolton Massacre in which 1,500 died, 700 were taken prisoner and the town plundered. The attackers took to referring to the town as the "Geneva of the North", referencing Geneva's dominant Calvinism, although historian Malcolm Hardman says this was a description borne "more of irritation than accuracy". At the end of the Civil War, Lord Derby was condemned to death.
When his appeal for pardon to parliament was rejected he attempted to escape but was recaptured and executed for his part in the massacre outside Ye Olde Man & Scythe Inn on 15 October 1651. A tradition of cottage spinning and weaving and improvements to spinning technology by local inventors, Richard Arkwright and Samuel Crompton, led to rapid growth of the textile industry in the 19t
Stagecoach Merseyside & South Lancashire
Stagecoach Merseyside & South Lancashire is a major operator of bus services in North West England. It is a subsidiary of the Stagecoach Group, has its origins in the purchase of Ribble Motor Services in 1988 from the National Bus Company and Glenvale Transport in 2005; the head office of Stagecoach Merseyside & South Lancashire is in Liverpool and was formed in 2011 following the merger of Stagecoach Merseyside and Ribble Motor Services, the Chorley and Preston operations of Stagecoach North West. From January 2013, Stagecoach Merseyside & South Lancashire includes the Chester and Rock Ferry depots of First Chester & The Wirral following their takeover from FirstGroup. From July 2016 Stagecoach Chester took over several former GHA Coaches routes after the firm went into Administration. Stagecoach is the trading name of Ribble Motor Services Ltd, purchased by Stagecoach in 1988 and was known as Stagecoach Ribble, operated services around the Central Lancashire area, serving Preston, Chorley and Blackburn.
The company operated Network Chorley which provided transport around the local Chorley area until 2012. Since 2015 the company has been known as Stagecoach in Chorley; when the company was formed, Stagecoach in Lancashire operated many bus services in Chorley and Leyland. These included the Route 125,125C, 125PHS, 126, 109, 113, 114, 115, 118, 119, 10, 11, 12, 12A, 13, 1, 1A, 2, 2A, 3, 3A, 7, 8, 337, 347, X60, X61, 124. By 2013, the new company, Stagecoach Merseyside & South Lancashire based in Merseyside, had phased out many of the original Chorley services. By 2015 Stagecoach in Chorley operated just the 125, 109, 1, 2, 1B, 7 and 24A and 109A; the Preston side of the company operate the service 115 to Chorley every two hours on a Saturday. Routes such as the 115, 119 and 114 have been sold to competing operators like John Fishwick & Sons and Preston Bus, whilst others have been replaced, merged or eliminated. In September 2015, Stagecoach announced the purchase of 24 Alexander Dennis Enviro400 buses, in the'Stagecoach Gold Specification' for the Route 125 between Bolton and Preston.
The new vehicles will replace the old fleet of Dennis Trident 2s and Alexander Dennis Enviro 400s that the company inherited when it was formed. Stagecoach closed the Eaves Lane depot in Chorley in October 2015, it was replaced by an outstation on an industrial estate on the outskirts of Chorley to house the modern fleet of Alexander Dennis Enviro400s operated; the other vehicles were transferred to Stagecoach in Preston. In October 2015, Stagecoach took over John Fishwick & Sons services 111, 115 and 119 until 8 April 2016. Stagecoach trail ran a Stagecoach Gold service on Route 125 on 17 October 2015, the full fleet entered service on 16 November 2015. Stagecoach lost funding from Lancashire County Council in 2016 and had to cancel and revise many routes in the Chorley area; the college services 109, 109A and 115 were withdrawn and have since been operated by Tyrers of Adlington. Stagecoach in Chorley's business was affected by Lancashire County Council funding cuts and many routes have been withdrawn.
Stagecoach in Chorley now operate: Route 125 - BOLTON - CHORLEY - PRESTON Route 109 - CHORLEY - EUXTON - LEYLAND - PRESTON Route 109A - CHORLEY - BUCKSHAW VILLAGE - PRESTON Route 111 - PRESTON - LEYLAND Route 125C - CHORLEY - NEWMAN COLLEGE Route X8 - CHORLEY - PRESTON - M6 - WINDERMERE - AMBLESIDE - GRASMERE - KESWICK Runs Every Saturday leaving Chorley at 0920 and arriving back at 1920**** From 1 April 2017 until 4 November 2017 Stagecoach in Merseyside was the trading name of Glenvale Transport Ltd, purchased by Stagecoach in 2005. The original company was formed in 2001 following Arriva's takeover of MTL Group in 2000 and was ordered by the Competition Commission to sell the Gillmoss depot to avoid Arriva owning a monopoly of services in Merseyside. Stagecoach failed in an original attempt to obtain the depot in 2001, losing out to Glenvale Transport. Stagecoach bought Glenvale Transport in 2005 beating off competition from rivals FirstGroup, Go-Ahead Group and Transdev Blazefield. In August 2011, Stagecoach Group announced plans to re-structure their UK Bus operations in the North West of England with the former Stagecoach North West operations, which consisted of Stagecoach in Cumbria, Stagecoach in Lancashire and Stagecoach in Lancaster.
The re-structuring saw Stagecoach North West split up into two halves, with Cumbria and Lancaster operations merging into Stagecoach Cumbria & North Lancashire and Stagecoach in Merseyside merging with Stagecoach in Lancashire. The other Stagecoach operation in the North West of England, Stagecoach Manchester, remained unaffected and continues as a separate operation. In November 2012, Stagecoach Group announced they had agreed a deal to purchase the operations of First Chester & The Wirral from FirstGroup for £4.5 million. The deal included the two main depots in Chester and Rock Ferry, as well as a depot in Wrexham used for school services, plus 110 buses and 290 employees; the purchase was made through Stagecoach's Merseyside subsidiary, Glenvale Transport, bringing the Chester & Wirral operations under Stagecoach Merseyside. It was Stagecoach's second purchase from FirstGroup, following the purchase of First Greater Manchester's Wigan depot in October 2012; the takeover was confirmed to be completed on 13 January 2013 with Stagecoach using ex-First buses and ticket machines before re-painting existing buses, bringing in old fleet vehicles from other areas and bringing in new buses and ticket machines.
All ex-first routes are now run by Stagecoach buses. Chester Liverpool Preston Wirral Stagecoach
Chorley (UK Parliament constituency)
Chorley is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 1997 by Sir Lindsay Hoyle of the Labour Party. 1885–1918: The Sessional Division of Leyland Hundred, part of the Sessional Division of Leyland. 1918–1950: The Municipal Borough of Chorley, the Urban Districts of Adlington, Croston and Withnell, the Rural District of Chorley, in the Rural District of Wigan the civil parishes of Haigh, Parbold and Wrightington. 1950–1983: The Municipal Borough of Chorley, the Urban Districts of Adlington and Leyland, the Rural District of Chorley. 1983–1997: The Borough of Chorley, the District of West Lancashire wards of Parbold and Wrightington. 1997–2010: The Borough of Chorley. 2010–present: The Borough of Chorley wards of Adlington and Anderton and Buckshaw, Brindle and Hoghton, Chorley East, Chorley North East, Chorley North West, Chorley South East, Chorley South West, Clayton-le-Woods and Whittle-le-Woods, Clayton-le-Woods North, Clayton-le-Woods West and Cuerden, Euxton North, Euxton South, Heath Charnock and Rivington and Wheelton and Withnell.
Chorley constituency consists of the majority of the borough of Chorley. As well as the central market town of Chorley itself, the seat extends into southern Lancashire rural hinterland with three major villages and minor villages. Chorley's expansion is assured with the building of Buckshaw Village, an urban development sprawling over the former Royal Ordnance Site east of Leyland in the seat. Following their review of parliamentary representation in Lancashire leading up to the United Kingdom general election, 2010 the Boundary Commission for England created a new seat of Wyre and Preston North in the central part of the county, which caused "knock-on" effects elsewhere. Chorley constituency was one of the largest in electorate at the start of the review, a factor in the alterations to both its own composition and the changes to surrounding constituencies; these changes took away from the seat all the areas to the west of the M6 motorway, namely Croston, Eccleston and Mawdesley. These move to South Ribble.
Since the 1945 general election Chorley has proved to be a bellwether, changing hands between Labour and the Conservatives. Chorley itself is Labour's strongest area in the seat, with the rural hinterland and smaller towns and villages more inclined to vote Conservative; the Member of Parliament for the seat since 1997, Lindsay Hoyle of the Labour Party, is a Deputy Speaker of the House of Commons. General Election 1914/15: Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by July 1914, the following candidates had been selected.
The M65 is a motorway in Lancashire, England. It runs from just south of Preston through the major junction of the M6 and M61 motorways, east past Darwen, Accrington, Brierfield and ends at Colne; the M65 was opened in the following sections: Junctions 1a to 6 in 1997 Junctions 6 to 7 in 1984 Junctions 7 to 10 in 1983 Junctions 10 to 12 in 1981 Junctions 12 to 13 in 1983 Junctions 13 to 14 in 1988The first section of the motorway was opened in 1981, connecting Burnley to Brierfield. Over the years, several extensions were made, the largest being the link from Whitebirk to the M6 and M61 motorways in 1997; this extension was the scene of a standoff between construction security protesters. Junctions 1a to 6 were opened 18 December 1997 by Jack Straw, Home Secretary and Member of Parliament for Blackburn; the opening ceremony took place on the westbound carriageway beneath junction 5 at Guide with a heavy police presence as protesters threatened to bring a halt to the proceedings. Much of the 1997 extension was relaid shortly after it opened with a new, quieter tarmac because the amount of road noise had been so great that it prevented birds of prey from foraging effectively.
The M65 was planned to go via the town centre of Blackburn. When the M65 was extended, a slip road was built at Walton Summit, southeast of Preston, from the roundabout linking junction 9 of the M61 with junction 2 of the M65 to the Walton Summit industrial estate, it is a single-carriageway road, with two lanes towards the junction and one away. It is around 500 m long and replaced an A-road spur of the A6, built in the 1980s. According to the statutory instrument that authorised its construction, the road is classified as a'special link road to connect the with the all-purpose road known as Tramway Lane'. According to Lancashire County Council, it is the'M61 Link Tramway Lane to Junction 9' and is part of the M61. In 2007, the approach signs from Walton Summit were modified to read'M61', but the signs still mark the roundabout at the eastern end. Highways England is responsible only for the 32.4 km section from junction 1a at Farington to junction 10 at Burnley. The 9.2 km section from junction 10, Burnley, to the M65's eastern terminus at junction 14, Colne, is operated and maintained by Lancashire County Council.
Each motorway in England requires that a Statutory Instrument be published, detailing the route of the road, before it can be built. The dates given on these Statutory Instruments relate to when the document was published, not when the road was built. Provided below is an incomplete list of the Statutory Instruments relating to the route of the M65. Statutory Instrument 1991 No. 722: The M65 Motorway and Connecting Roads Scheme 1991. S. I. 1991/722 Statutory Instrument 1992 No. 2651: The M65 Motorway and Connecting Roads Scheme 1991 Variation Scheme 1992. S. I. 1992/2651 Data from driver location signs are used to provide distance information. List of motorways in the United Kingdom Mancunian Way, another motorway with a secret number CBRD Motorway Database – M65 Highways Agency Lancashire County Council Pathetic Motorways – Walton Summit The Motorway Archive – M65 Amateur documentary of commencement ceremony and early works at Brierfield 1976 YouTube
Preston Bus is a bus operator running within the city of Preston, England. It is a subsidiary of Rotala, it gained some notoriety in 2009. Preston Bus was founded in June 1904 as Preston District Travel and operated a number of services in the Preston area. To comply with the Transport Act 1985, in 1986 the assets were transferred to a new legal entity, Preston Borough Transport Limited. In 1993 it was sold in a management buyout. In 2006, Preston Bus was subject to some high-profile competition from Stagecoach North West. Competition escalated into a bus war with Stagecoach offering lower fares on the busiest routes; the managing director of Preston bus was concerned Stagecoach could force his company out of business. Both companies accused each other of unprofessional behaviour. On 10 June 2008, both companies agreed to a code of practice by the traffic commissioner; the competition continued, with Stagecoach operating routes within Preston and Preston Bus commencing a service between Preston and Penwortham, a limited service between Preston and Southport, duplicating existing Stagecoach routes.
On 23 January 2009, Preston Bus was sold to Stagecoach. The routes operated by Preston Bus were rebranded as Stagecoach in Preston from March 2009. In November 2009 the Competition Commission ruled that the takeover by Stagecoach had adversely affected competition in the area and ordered Stagecoach sell Preston Bus. Following this ruling, the Preston Bus name and logo was reinstated and the company was operated at arms length from the main Stagecoach business. In January 2011 Preston Bus was sold to Rotala; the Preston Bus fleet was all double deckers, but latterly the company moved to single deckers and minibuses, with the most common vehicle in 2008 being the Optare Solo midibus. As at February 2014 the fleet consisted of 102 buses; until the 1970s fleet livery was red when a blue and cream scheme was introduced. Upon the sale to Rotala a cream and blue livery was introduced in 2011. Preston Bus website Showbus gallery
United Kingdom census, 2001
A nationwide census, known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday, 29 April 2001. This was the 20th UK census and recorded a resident population of 58,789,194; the 2001 UK census was organised by the Office for National Statistics in England and Wales, the General Register Office for Scotland and the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Detailed results by region, council area and output area are available from their respective websites. Similar to previous UK censuses, the 2001 census was organised by the three statistical agencies, ONS, GROS, NISRA, coordinated at the national level by the Office for National Statistics; the Orders in Council to conduct the census, specifying the people and information to be included in the census, were made under the authority of the Census Act 1920 in Great Britain, the Census Act 1969 in Northern Ireland. In England and Wales these regulations were made by the Census Order 2000, in Scotland by the Census Order 2000, in Northern Ireland by the Census Order 2000.
The census was administered through self-completion forms, in most cases delivered by enumerators to households and communal establishments in the three weeks before census night on 29 April. For the first time return by post was used as the main collection method, with enumerators following up in person where the forms were not returned; the postal response rate was 88% in England and Wales, 91% in Scotland, 92% in Northern Ireland. A total of 81,000 field staff were employed across the UK; the census was conducted at the height of the foot-and-mouth crisis, which led to extra precautions being adopted by the field staff, suggestions that the census may have to be postponed. However, it was reported that the disease outbreak did not affect the effectiveness of the collection process; the census was estimated to cost £259m over its 13-year cycle from the start of planning in 1993 to the delivery of final results in 2006. Printing of the 30 million census forms was subcontracted to Polestar Group, processing of the returned census forms was subcontracted to Lockheed Martin in a contract worth £54m.
The forms were scanned into digital format read with OMR and OCR, with manual entry where the automatic process could not read the forms. The forms were pulped and recycled, the digital copies printed onto microfilm for storage and release after 100 years. Once the data were returned to the statistics agencies it underwent further processing to ensure consistency and to impute missing values; the overall response rate for the census, the proportion of the population who were included on a census form, was estimated to be 94% in England and Wales, 96.1% in Scotland and 95.2% in Northern Ireland. This was due to a number of factors: households with no response, households excluding residents from their returns, addresses not included in the enumeration. In Manchester for example 25,000 people from 14,000 addresses were not enumerated because the address database was two years out of date; the Local Authority with the lowest response was Kensington and Chelsea with 64%. Hackney had the next lowest response at 72%.
Out of all local authorities, the ten lowest response rates were all in London. The results still represent 100 per cent of the population, because some individuals not completing their forms were instead identified by census enumerators, through the use of cross-matching with a follow-up survey; the results from the 2001 census were produced using a methodology known as the One Number Census. This was an attempt to adjust the census counts and impute answers to allow for estimated under-enumeration measured by the Census Coverage Survey, resulting in a single set of population estimates. Although the 1851 census had included a question about religion on a separate response sheet, whose completion was not compulsory, the 2001 census was the first in Great Britain to ask about the religion of respondents on the main census form. An amendment to the 1920 Census Act was passed by Parliament to allow the question to be asked, to allow the response to this question to be optional; the inclusion of the question enabled the Jedi census phenomenon to take place in the United Kingdom.
In England and Wales 390,127 people stated their religion as Jedi. The percentages of religious affiliations were: Christian: 72.0% Muslim: 3% Hindu: 1% Sikh: 0.6% Jewish: 0.5% Buddhist: 0.3% Any other religion: 0.3%15% declared themselves of no religion and 8% did not respond to the question. After the 2001 census it became clear that the statistics for those adhering to the Neopagan group of religions were inaccurately recorded; this was caused by a dilution of statistics, with some adherents entering "Pagan" and others entering their individual religions such as "Wiccan" or "Druid", which fall under the umbrella term of "Pagan", leaving a significant number of people unaccounted for. The situation was worsened when the Heathenism statistics were grouped in with Atheism by the Office for National Statistics; the Pagan Federation and the "PaganDash" campaign lobbied for a separate tickbox for Paganism on the 2011 census, but were unsuccessful. The census ethnic groups included White, Asian or Asian British, Black or Black British (
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom provide emergency care to people with acute illness or injury and are predominantly provided free at the point of use by the four National Health Services of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status; the NHS commissions most emergency medical services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other emergency services, the public access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. In addition to ambulance services provided by NHS organisations, there are some private and volunteer emergency medical services arrangements in place in the UK, the use of private or volunteer ambulances at public events or large private sites, as part of community provision of services such as community first responders. Air ambulance services in the UK are not part of the NHS and are funded through charitable donations.
Paramedics are seconded from a local NHS ambulance service, with the exception of Great North Air Ambulance Service who employ their own paramedics. Doctors are provided by their home hospital and spend no more than 40% of their time with an air ambulance service. Public ambulance services across the UK are required by law to respond to four types of requests for care, which are: Emergency calls Doctor's urgent admission requests High dependency and urgent inter-hospital transfers Major incidentsAmbulance trusts and services may undertake non-urgent patient transport services on a commercial arrangement with their local hospital trusts or health boards, or in some cases on directly funded government contracts, although these contracts are fulfilled by private and voluntary providers; the National Health Service Act 1946 gave county and borough councils a statutory responsibility to provide an emergency ambulance service, although they could contract a voluntary ambulance service to provide this, with many contracting the British Red Cross, St John Ambulance or another local provider.
The last St John Division, to be so contracted is reputed to have been at Whittlesey in Cambridgeshire, where the two-bay ambulance garage can still be seen at the branch headquarters. The Regional Ambulance Officers’ Committee reported in 1979 that “There was considerable local variation in the quality of the service provided in relation to vehicles and equipment. Most Services were administered by Local Authorities through their Medical Officer of Health and his Ambulance Officer, a few were under the aegis of the Fire Service, whilst others relied upon agency methods for the provision of part or all of their services.” The 142 existing ambulance services were transferred by the National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 from local authority to central government control in 1974, consolidated into 53 services under regional or area health authorities. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England.
The June 2005 report "Taking healthcare to the Patient", authored by Peter Bradley, Chief Executive of the London Ambulance Service, for the Department of Health led to the merging of the 31 trusts into 13 organisations in England, plus one organisation each in Wales and Northern Ireland. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, this has further reduced to 10 ambulance service trusts in England, plus the Isle of Wight which has its own provision. Following the passage of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, commissioning of the ambulance services in each area passed from central government control into the hands of regional clinical commissioning groups; the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary provider for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England, 1 each in the other three countries. In England there are now ten NHS ambulance trusts, as well as an ambulance service on the Isle of Wight, run directly by Isle of Wight NHS Trust, with boundaries following those of the former regional government offices.
The ten trusts are: East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust London Ambulance Service NHS Trust North East Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South East Coast Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust West Midlands Ambulance Service University NHS Foundation Trust Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS TrustThe English ambulance trusts are represented by the Association of Ambulance Chief Executives, with the Scottish and Northern Irish providers all associate members. On the 14 November 2018 West Midlands Ambulance Service became the UK's first university-ambulance trust; the service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland. The Scottish Ambulance Service is a Special Health Board that provides ambulance services throughout whole of Scotland, on behalf of the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government.
Due to the remote nature of many areas of Scotland compared to the other Home Nations, the Scottish Ambulance Service has Britain's only publi