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Clearchus of Sparta

Clearchus or Clearch, the son of Rhamphias, was a Spartan general and mercenary, noted for his service under Cyrus the Younger. Born about the middle of the 5th century BC, Clearchus was sent with a fleet to the Hellespont in 411 and became governor of Byzantium, of which town he was proxenus, his severity, made him unpopular, in his absence the gates were opened to the Athenian besieging army under Alcibiades. Subsequently, Clearchus returned to Sparta and appealed to the ephors, asking to be given a force to settle the political dissensions rife at Byzantium and to protect the city and the neighbouring Greek colonies from Thracian attacks, he was granted that force, but when the ephors learned that the citizens of Byzantium considered him a tyrant, they recalled him through a messenger that reached Clearchus while he was still in the Isthmus of Corinth. Clearchus ignored the messenger and proceeded to Byzantium, thus he was declared an outlaw by the ephors, he fought the Thracian tribes in the process gaining the unofficial support of the Greek cities that were thus relieved.

Clearchus, counting on his successes to gain him back the Spartan ephors' good graces, was disappointed in this expectation. When Cyrus learned that a Greek force in high fighting condition was so near Asia, he sent ambassadors with money asking Clearchus to help him claim the throne from his brother, the Persian Emperor Artaxerxes II Mnemon. Clearchus accepted not because of the money but because he knew that sooner or he would have to face his fellow Spartans since he was still considered an outlaw by the ephors, he left the command of the garrison of Byzantium to Helixus of Megara. In the "expedition of the ten thousand" undertaken by Cyrus to dethrone his brother Artaxerxes, Clearchus led the Peloponnesian delegation of the Army of the Ten Thousand, who formed the right wing of Cyrus's army at the battle of Cunaxa. On Cyrus's death Clearchus assumed the chief command and conducted the retreat until, being treacherously seized with his fellow-generals by the satrap of Sardis, Tissaphernes, he was handed over to Artaxerxes and executed at the royal court at Babylon.

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Clearchus". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. CLEARCHUS OF SPARTA — Encyclopaedia Iranica

Troels Kløvedal

Troels Kløvedal was a Danish author, long-distance sailor and lecturer based in Ebeltoft, Denmark. He and his family is known for their circumnavigation of earth in the steel galleass Nordkaperen, which he and two friends bought in 1967. Kløvedal was son of veterinary physician Asbjørn Beha Erichsen and preschool director Gurli Marie Larsen. Kløvedal was the father of TV host Mikkel Beha Erichsen and film producer and journalist Lærke Kløvedal, brother of social worker Hanne Reintoft, executive director Lise Beha Erichsen, TV producer Bjørn Erichsen, sculptor Minea Beha. Im the late 1960s, Kløvedal joined the Svanemølle-collective, which in 1970 was renamed to"Maos Lyst". Here he changed his name from Beha Erichsen to Kløvedal, like all other members of the collective, named after the elvish city in Tolkien's Lord of the Rings. In 1974 he started his first circumnavigation of earth with Nordkaperen, he has circumnavigated earth three times, sailed in waters such as the Aegean Sea, Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, China Seas and among Indonesian isles.

In the 1970s Kløvedal started to publish his travel experiences in Denmark with photos and text followed by travel reports and travel books. In 1977 he married nurse Maiken Junker Kløvedal, with whom he had Lærke Kløvedal. In 1980 they divorced. After that he met Ruth Hagerup Andersen. Together they had Gurli Marie and Sille. In 1978 Kløvedal published his first book, Kærligheden, kildevandet... og det blå ocean, He has since published 17 books, a lot of movies and held about 2.000 talks. In 2002 Kløvedal married Else Marie Meldgaard. In 2010 he was the narrator and organizer in seven TV programs on national broadcaster DR about the Danish Navy's history, where he, among others, interviewed Queen Margrethe II. In 2013 the TV program Mit Danmark shown on TV 2 Fri, where Troels Kløvedal travels with Nordkaperen in Denmark and tells about the history, nature and religion of Denmark. In 2015 Kløvedal followed Odysseus's journey; this resulted in the TV 2 program Nordkaperen i Grækenland. In October 2016 Kløvedal announced that he had been diagnosed with the lung disease bronchiectasis and the rare and aggressive disease ALS, who paralyzes the body.

Kløvedal was made Knight of the Order of the Dannebrog in 2016. In the book'Alle mine morgener på jorden' fra 2017 Kløvedal told that he, with the help of lawyer Knud Foldschack, had ensured that Nordkaperen could continue to sail after his death, he wrote: "I have bequeathed the ship to my 5 children and 10 young navigators, who all have borrowed Nordkaperen in longer periods, can board directly and sail in it."On 1 November 2018 the Danish Natural History Museum in Aarhus opened an exhibition about Troels Kløvedal, which exhibits photos and cultural and natural historic objects, that he collected on his journeys. In October 2019 the exhibition reopens on M/S Museet for Søfart in Helsingør. Troels Kløvedal died on 23. December 2018 due to the incureble lung disease bronchiectasia and ALS. Kærligheden, kildevandet... og det blå ocean, 1978 Fra Tahiti til Thyborøn med Nordkaperen, 1980 Fra mit hjerte, min køjesæk og min græske logbog, 1982 Med Nordøstpassaten over Atlanten, 1982 Sydhavssejlads, 1982 Mod indonesiske vulkaner, 1983 Bidevind og blåhvaler, 1984 Med monsunen hjemover, 1984 Grækenland igen, efterårssejlads gennem et slør af vinløvsranker – de ioniske øer i aftenlys, 1984 Højsommer, 1986 At synge, at danse og at bede sammen, 1987 Hvad sang sirenerne, 1989 Øerne under vinden, 1992 Til søs med Gurli Marie: en eventyrlig rejse til Polynesien, 1992 Den tynde hud: erindringer om en barndom og opvækst, 1994 Afrodites smil: en rejse fra det Indiske Ocean til Ægæerhavet, 1996 At være et frit menneske, 1997 Åbn din dør for din nabo, 2002 - og den halve verden, 2002 Kineserne syr med lang tråd: på togt med Nordkaperen op ad Yangtze, 2004 Med Asbjørn på de store oceaner, 2005 Fortællinger fra den danske flådes historie gennem 500 år, 2010 Alle mine morgener på jorden: Mit autodidakte liv, 2017 Troels Kløvedal og Nordkaperen i det Indiske Ocean - Op langs Malabarkysten Troels Kløvedal og Nordkaperen i det Indiske Ocean - Med nord-øst monsunen til Oman Troels Kløvedal og Nordkaperen i det Indiske Ocean - På togt i det Røde Hav Troels Kløvedal og Nordkaperen i det Indiske Ocean - På togt i Andamanerhavet Rejsen til verdens navleKløvedal appeared in the movie Cirkus Ildebrand i 1995.

Troels Kløvedals officielle hjemmeside Troels Kløvedal på TV2, Troels Kløvedal dødeligt syg: - Jeg dør snart

Bolji život

Bolji život is a Yugoslav TV series with mixed elements of soap opera and drama that aired from 1987 to 1991. Created by the Radiotelevision Belgrade it is considered to be the most successful TV show produced in Yugoslavia. Written by Siniša Pavić, most prolific Serbian screenwriter, the series helped jump start cinematic careers for many of its protagonists, most notably Dragan Bjelogrlić who went on to become successful actor and producer. Bolji život began airing on Radio Television of Belgrade on Saturday, 10 January 1987, opening with the theme song named "Bolji život" written by Ljubiša Bačić, composed by Voki Kostić and sung by Dado Topić that soon became popular. Early into its run, the series became a massive hit all over SFR Yugoslavia; the first season's final episode that aired 6 June 1987 featuring a bit of a cliffhanger with Giga leaving the household, brought in huge ratings. A total of 22 episodes were aired in the first season; the story revolves around the Popadić family and works through their struggles and adaptation to the rapid political and economic changes taking place in the post-Tito SFR Yugoslavia during late 1980s and early 1990s.

Family patriarch Dragiša Popadić aka Giga Moravac is an impulsive outburst-prone administrator in his fifties who works as mid-level manager at a state-owned company's legal department. A member of the Communist League, he moved to Belgrade from Pomoravlje to study at the University of Belgrade's Faculty of Law and stayed in the city after graduating and getting married, his cultured and delicate wife Emilija Konstantinović who comes from an affluent family teaches Latin at a high school. They have three grownup children together; as the series starts, the eldest son Saša, a law school graduate, is unemployed. Meanwhile, Giga's and Ema's marriage is in turmoil as the couple bickers over everything and she soon serves him with divorce papers; this comes as a terrible blow to Giga, weeks after his older sister Jovanka died. Her will is revealed, stipulating that her brother's kids each stand to inherit substantial sums of money under specific conditions: Saša has to find a job, Violeta has to get married and celebrate a one-year anniversary, while Boba has to complete his final year of high school with at least a 4 grade average.

During one of their first court dates, on judge's advice and Ema agree to put the legal divorce proceedings on hold for three months, giving themselves more time to attempt reconciliation. In parallel, the kids are trying to meet the conditions of aunt Jovanka's testament. Viki seems to be in the best position to collect the money as her longtime boyfriend, architect Filip, is much intent on getting married, he has got an apartment lined up through his company, though his patience with her is wearing thin and he is much against her decision to give theater acting yet another shot. Saša is in a three-year relationship with bookish medical doctor Branka, but his job prospects are bleak, it has been a year since he graduated law school with average grades and he still has not been able to land a job. Numerous rejections are starting to affect his self-confidence and he is beginning to feel inadequate in front of Branka who graduated medicine with top marks the same year he did, unlike him, right away found a job that she is now excelling at.

Furthermore, Branka's parents mother miss an opportunity to tell him about it. At the unemployment bureau counter, he meets a mouthy clerk Koka who chats him up. For his part, he seems receptive to her relaxed, direct low-brow, provocative approach as she seems a polar opposite of his strait-laced girlfriend Branka. While out with Branka one day at a bar, Koka bumps into two of them, saying a flirty hello to Saša followed by a testy chat with Branka, rattled by this encounter. Meanwhile, Boba's task of graduating with a 4 average seems monumental as he has 1s in four of his subjects, his atrocious performance in school brings both Giga and Ema, on separate occasions to discuss matters and work out a game plan with Boba's home room professor Dušan "Terminator" Marković. During one of these visits Ema and Terminator realize they know each other vaguely from years ago, though they are both now married, take an obvious shine to one another. Viki manages to pass her theater audition, though it is obvious the reason for the sudden success is jury member Baron being taken with her attractive looks.

Though she is ecstatic, Filip is not thrilled with the development and is unhappy about the celebrated theater actor and multiple divorcee Baron now wooing his girlfriend, with Viki welcoming the aging lothario's smooth advances. Frustrated, Filip contacts Ema hoping to receive some help getting through to Viki whose head is high in the clouds. For the moment at least and Ema manage to impart some rationality to their daughter, she seems ready to take the sensible option and make nice with Filip. In parallel, in order to sweeten his case with Viki, Baron arranges for her, a complete novice, to get the demanding role of Juliet in the theater's latest production of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, while Baron plays Romeo, he tells her the big news by showing up unannounced at the apartment just as she is getting ready to go out to meet Filip for a date. The news sends her on cloud nine and she puts Filip and the marriage on the

José Giovanni

José Giovanni was the pseudonym of Joseph Damiani, a French writer and film-maker of Corsican origin who became a naturalized Swiss citizen in 1986. A former collaborationist and criminal who at one time was sentenced to death, Giovanni drew his inspiration from personal experience or from real gangsters, such as Abel Danos in his 1960 film Classe tous risques, overlooking that they had been members of the French Gestapo. In his films as well as his novels, while praising masculine friendships and advocating the confrontation of the individual against the world, he championed the underworld but was always careful to hide his own links with the Nazi occupiers of France during World War II. Of Corsican descent, Joseph Damiani received a good education, studying at the Collège Stanislas de Paris and the Lycée Janson de Sailly, his father, a professional gambler, sentenced to a year in prison for running an illegal casino, owned a hotel in the French Alps in Chamonix. Joseph became fascinated by mountain climbing.

From April to September 1943 Damiani was a member of Jeunesse et Montagne in Chamonix, part of the Vichy Government youth movement controlled by Pierre Laval. In February 1944 Damiani came to Paris and through his father's friend, the LVF leader Simon Sabiani, he joined Jacques Doriot's fascist French Popular Party, his maternal uncle, Ange Paul Santolini alias "Santos", who ran a restaurant patronized by the Gestapo, his elder brother, Paul Damiani, a member of the Vichy paramilitary Milice, introduced Joseph into the Pigalle underworld. In March 1944 Joseph Damiani went to Marseille where he became a member of the German Schutzkorps, an organization which hunted down Service du travail obligatoire - STO dodgers, he served as bodyguard to its Marseille chief and took part in many arrests blackmailing his victims. In Lyon, in August 1944, posing as a German police officer along with an accomplice, Damiani blackmailed Joseph Gourentzeig and his brother-in-law Georges Edberg, two Jews who were in hiding.

Gourentzeig had bribed a member of the Milice - a friend of Damiani’s – in an attempt to secure his parents' release from a detention camp. They were not freed and Gourentzeig's father, was shot by the Germans shortly after, on 21 August 1944, along with 109 Jewish hostages in the Bron massacre. After the Liberation in Paris on 18 May 1945, Joseph Damiani, his brother Paul, Georges Accad, a former Gestapo agent, Jacques Ménassole, a former member of the Milice wearing a French Army lieutenant's uniform - all posing as Military Intelligence officers - abducted Haïm Cohen, a wine merchant, accusing him of being a black marketeer, he was tortured until he gave them a check for 105,000 francs. He was shot and his body thrown into the Seine. Joseph Damiani cashed the check at Barclay's Bank under the identity of "Count J. de Montreuil". A few days on 31 May 1945, the same gang, still masquerading as French Army Intelligence, abducted two brothers and Roger Peugeot, electrical appliance manufacturers in Maisons-Alfort.

The brothers were forced, at gunpoint, to write a letter stating that they had been in business with the Germans and in contact with the Gestapo. The gang demanded a million francs for destroying the letter; the Peugeot brothers refused and were tortured until they revealed where they had hidden 125 Louis d'or gold coins. They were shot and their bodies buried in the woods near Versailles. Joseph Damiani, who had accidentally shot himself in the leg during the struggle with the Peugeot brothers, was arrested at home in early June 1945. Accad was apprehended. On 12 June 1945 Ménassole, on the point of being arrested, committed suicide in the Rue Montmartre métro station. Paul Damiani was arrested in Strasbourg in July 1945, escaped in December and was shot dead in a gunfight between gangsters on 17 July 1946 in a bar in Nice. On 20 July 1946 Joseph Damiani was sentenced to twenty years hard labor by the Marseille Court of Justice for his participation in the German Schutzkorps and in the arrest of Frenchmen sent to the STO in Germany.

He was sentenced to Dégradation nationale for life for having been a member of the PPF fascist party. Damiani had admitted during the investigation that he had shot Roger Peugeot, but he denied it in court. Tried by the Paris Cour d'Assises, Georges Accad and Joseph Damiani were sentenced to death on 10 July 1948 for the premeditated murders of Haïm Cohen, Roger Peugeot and Jules Peugeot. Damiani escaped the guillotine when his and Accad's sentences were commuted by President Vincent Auriol on 3 March 1949 to hard labor for life. On 25 May 1949 Damiani was sentenced by the Paris Correctional Tribunal to ten years imprisonment for having blackmailed at gunpoint Joseph Gourentzeig and his brother-in-law Georges Edberg in Lyon on 11 August 1944. On 14 November 1951, Damiani's sentence was reduced to twenty years hard labor. President René Coty remitted the sentence on 30 November 1956 and Joseph Damiani was released from prison at the age of thirty-three on 4 December 1956 after serving eleven and a half years.

Straight after his release from prison, Damiani wrote his first novel, The Break, under the name of "José Giovanni". It tells of the escape he attempted from prison with four other inmates by digging a tunnel from their cell into the Paris sewers in 1947 when he was awaiting trial for murder, his lawyer, who had encouraged him to write, took the book to author and edi

Gmina Wyszków

Gmina Wyszków is an urban-rural gmina in Wyszków County, Masovian Voivodeship, in east-central Poland. Its seat is the town of Wyszków, which lies 53 kilometres north-east of Warsaw; the gmina covers an area of 165.6 square kilometres and, in 2006, its total population was 37,872. Apart from the town of Wyszków, Gmina Wyszków contains the villages and settlements of: Gmina Wyszków is bordered by the gminas of Brańszczyk, Dąbrówka, Jadów, Łochów, Rząśnik and Zabrodzie. Polish official population figures 2006

Liu Yunshan

Liu Yunshan is a retired Chinese politician. He was a member of the Politburo Standing Committee, the de facto top decision-making body of China, between 2012 and 2017. Liu built his career in Inner Mongolia, working as a teacher a Xinhua reporter, before entering the Communist Youth League and the Inner Mongolia party propaganda department, he had a short stint working as the Party Secretary of the city of Chifeng, in Inner Mongolia. Between 2002 and 2012, Liu served as the head of the Central Propaganda Department. Liu perceived by observers to be a conservative and orthodox Communist, oversaw the gradual tightening of internet controls in China during his tenure, as well as an overall reduction in free discourse and civil society, he retired in 2017. Liu was born to an ordinary family of farmers in Tumed Qi in Inner Mongolia, he spent over twenty years of his career in Inner Mongolia. He joined the Communist Party in 1971, he worked as a teacher was "sent down" to do manual labour in the countryside as part of the Cultural Revolution.

He attended college part-time at the Teachers College in Jining District, Ulanqab City, Inner Mongolia. He worked in the local government's public relation department of Tumed Qi, he started working as a reporter for Xinhua News Agency in 1975, writing stories about farmers' nomadic lifestyle in Inner Mongolia and sleeping in yurts to get close to the people that were part of his story. He was promoted to a supervisory role, he worked for the provincial Communist Youth Party organization. In 1985, the 38-year old Liu earned an alternate seat on the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. In 1986, Liu became the Inner Mongolia State Government's director of public relation in 1986, by 1987, the Secretary-General of the Inner Mongolia Party committee, a position in charge of coordination the execution of political policies. Between 1989 and 1992, Liu attended the Central Party School to take courses in public administration. In 1991, he became Party Secretary of the eastern Inner Mongolian city of Chifeng while holding a seat on the Autonomous Region's Party Standing Committee, making him one of the most powerful officials in Inner Mongolia at the time.

Between 1993 and 2002, he worked in Beijing as the deputy head of the Central Public Relation Department as a deputy to Ding Guangen. In 2002, at the 16th Party Congress, Liu became the head of the Central Propaganda Department. Although he gained a seat on the Politburo at the same time, the overall direction of ideology and propaganda work was'supervised' by Standing Committee member Li Changchun. Liu became a Secretary of the Secretariat, he was a member of the 17th Politburo of the Communist Party of China. After the 18th Party Congress in November 2012, Liu was elected to both the 18th Politburo and its Standing Committee. Liu accumulated a number of high-level positions in addition to his role of overseeing propaganda, including the top spot in the Secretariat, held by Xi Jinping, who became General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, i.e. party leader. Liu, considered a censorship hard-liner, was seen as a staunchly conservative member of the Standing Committee who religiously upheld party orthodoxy.

The top position of the Secretariat and the leading post for propaganda were held by separate people. Several theories had been proposed for Liu's elevation to the Standing Committee, his two-term tenure was cited as a primary factor. China analyst Cheng Li said. Others suggest that Liu was a balancing force in that he had both Communist Youth League experience and loyally upheld party orthodoxy as a conservative; that Liu Yunshan succeeded in the portfolios held by two individuals prior to the Congress was arguably an indication of the breadth of his power. However, unlike his predecessors Xi Jinping and Zeng Qinghong, Liu did not take on the office of Vice President as was customary for the two previous first-ranked Secretaries of the Secretariat, which went to Li Yuanchao. In 2013, Liu was named one of three deputy leaders of the Central Leading Group for Comprehensively Deepening Reforms. Following the 18th Party Congress, Liu emerged as the main official in charge of party organization and personnel, as well as the leading official in charge of propagating the so-called "mass line" education in the party as well as "party building".

During the Xi Jinping administration's crackdown on corruption, which began in 2013, Liu acted as the top official attending the leadership transition meeting in the aftermath of the political'earthquake' in Shanxi province which saw the removal of a large number of top provincial leaders. That a Standing Committee member attended the'transition meeting' was regarded as unusual, as the central authorities in Beijing would dispatch the head of the Organization Department to such an event. In May 2015, Liu penned an article on Study Times in which he criticized that political culture in the Communist Party must not become too "lax and flexible" and that party members must resolutely follow party rules; some commentators saw the remarks as implicitly critical of star television host Bi Fujian, who made some comments critical of Mao which surfaced on an online vide