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Clearfield County, Pennsylvania

Clearfield County is a sixth-class county located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 81,642; the county seat is Clearfield, the largest city is DuBois. The county was created in 1804 and organized in 1822. Clearfield County comprises the DuBois, PA Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the State College-DuBois, PA Combined Statistical Area. Clearfield County was formed by the Act of Assembly by the second Governor of Pennsylvania at the time, Thomas McKean on March 26, 1804; the county was created from parts of the created counties of Huntingdon and Lycoming. The name for the county was most derived from the many cleared fields of the valleys surrounding Clearfield Creek and West Branch of the Susquehanna River, formed by the bison herds and by old corn fields of prior Native Americans tribes; the first board of county commissioners to the county were Roland Curtin, James Fleming and James Smith, all appointed by Governor McKean in 1805. The first act the commissioners did was to create a local government or seat of the newly created county.

They came upon land owned at the time by Abraham Witmer at a village known as Chincleclamousche, named after the Native American chief of the Cornplanter's tribe of Senecas. Clearfield became the new name of the old village; the two major industries of the county in the mid-1800s until the early 1900s was coal. Lumber was still being floated down the West Branch of the Susquehanna up until 1917. Coal remains the main industry of the county to this day. No case tried in the county has caused as much comment as the union conspiracy trials. In all there were fifty-six persons miners in the Houtzdale region, who were charged with conspiracy as organized strikers; the first case against John Maloney and fifty three others was tried in 1875, before a jury with Judge Orvis presiding. All were found guilty, although they seem to have been peacefully picketing. Four were sentenced to one year's imprisonment, eight for six months, sentences suspended as to the others; as every organized labor society in the USA was interested in the result, the events of the trial and verdict were telegraphed throughout the country This proceeding was followed by the trial of the remaining two offenders who were union representatives, John Siney, Xingo Parks.

Siney was the President of the Miners’ National Association. He came to Houtzdale and delivered an address of support for the union strike, for which he was arrested. Parks was an able organizer for the MNA, they were defended by US Senator Matthew H. Carpenter of Wisconsin. At trial Siney was acquitted, he was sentenced to one year's imprisonment, but pardoned within a month from the time sentence was pronounced. These cases led in the next year to a liberalization of the Pennsylvania conspiracy law, through amendment providing that only "force, threat, or menace of harm to person or property" should be considered illegal. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,154 square miles, of which 1,145 square miles is land and 9.2 square miles is water. It is the third-largest county in fourth-largest by total area; the West Branch Susquehanna River flows through the county bisecting the county seat along the way. The mountainous terrain of the county made traffic difficult for early settlers.

Various Native American paths and trails crossing the area were used intermittently by settlers, invading armies, escaped slaves travelling north along the Underground Railroad. A major feature located in Bloom Township, Pennsylvania within the county is known as Bilger's rocks and exhibits fine examples of exposed sandstone bedrock, created during the formation of the Appalachian Mountains; the shape of Clearfield County bears an amazing resemblance to that of the state of Arkansas. The county has a warm-summer humid continental climate. Average monthly temperatures in DuBois range from 24.6 °F in January to 68.6 °F in July, while in Clearfield borough they range from 23.8 °F in January to 69.3 °F in July and in Osceola Mills they range from 24.4 °F in January to 69.1 °F in July. As of the census of 2000, there were 83,382 people, 32,785 households, 22,916 families residing in the county; the population density was 73 people per square mile. There were 37,855 housing units at an average density of 33 per square mile.

The racial makeup of the county was 97.40% White, 1.49% Black or African American, 0.12% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.26% from other races, 0.46% from two or more races. 0.56 % of the population were Latino of any race. 22.9% were of German, 13.6% American, 10.2% English, 9.9% Irish, 9.1% Italian and 6.0% Polish ancestry. There were 32,785 households out of which 29.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.60% were married couples living together, 9.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.10% were non-families. 26.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.94. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.70% under the age of 18, 7.70% from 18 to 24, 28.80% from 25 to 44, 23.90% from 45 to 64, 16.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 99.50 males.

For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.50 males. The United States Office of Management and Budget has designated Clearfield County as the DuBois, PA Micropolitan Statistical Area; as of the 2010 census the micropolitan area ra

Hohensalzburg Fortress

Hohensalzburg Fortress sits atop the Festungsberg, a small hill in the Austrian city of Salzburg. Erected at the behest of the Prince-Archbishops of Salzburg with a length of 250 m and a width of 150 m, it is one of the largest medieval castles in Europe. Hohensalzburg Fortress is situated at an altitude of 506 m. Construction of the fortress began in 1077 under Archbishop Gebhard von Helfenstein; the original design was a basic bailey with a wooden wall. In the Holy Roman Empire, the archbishops of Salzburg were powerful political figures and they expanded the fortress to protect their interests. Helfenstein's conflict with Emperor Henry IV during the Investiture Controversy influenced the expansion of the fortress, with the Archbishop taking the side of Pope Gregory VII and the German anti-king Rudolf of Rheinfelden; the fortress was expanded during the following centuries. The ring walls and towers were built in 1462 under Prince-Archbishop Burkhard II von Weißpriach. Prince-Archbishop Leonhard von Keutschach further expanded the fortress during his term from 1495 until 1519.

His coadjutor Matthäus Lang von Wellenburg, to succeed Leonhard, in 1515 wrote a description of the Reisszug, a early and primitive funicular railway that provided freight access to the upper courtyard of the fortress. The line still exists, albeit in updated form, is the oldest operational railway in the world; the current external bastions, begun in the 16th century and completed in the 17th, were added as a precaution because of fears of Turkish Invasion. The only time that the fortress came under siege was during the German Peasants' War in 1525, when a group of miners and townspeople tried to oust Prince-Archbishop Matthäus Lang, but failed to take the fortress. In 1617 the deposed Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau died in the fortress prison. During the Thirty Years' War, Archbishop Count Paris of Lodron strengthened the town's defenses, including Hohensalzburg, he added various parts to the fortress, such as additional gatehouses. The fortress was surrendered without a fight to French troops under General Jean Victor Marie Moreau during the Napoleonic War of the Second Coalition in 1800 and the last Prince-Archbishop Count Hieronymus von Colloredo fled to Vienna.

In the 19th century, it was used as barracks, storage depot and dungeon before being abandoned as a military outpost in 1861. Hohensalzburg Fortress was refurbished from the late 19th century onwards and became a major tourist attraction with the Festungsbahn funicular railway, opened in 1892, leading up from the town to the Hasengrabenbastei, it stands today as one of the best preserved castles in Europe. During the early 20th century it was used as a prison, holding Italian prisoners of war during World War I and Nazi activists before Germany's annexation of Austria in March 1938. German ceramicist and painter Arno Lehmann lived and created in Hohensalzburg Fortress from 1949 until his death in 1973. Hohensalzburg Fortress was selected as main motif for the Austrian Nonnberg Abbey commemorative coin minted on April 5, 2006; this was the first coin of the series "Great Abbeys of Austria". It shows the Benedictine convent of Nonnberg Abbey. In the hilltop on the background, the fortress and the Kajetaner church can be seen.

In 1977 the Austrian Mint issued a coin for the 900th anniversary of Hohensalzburg Fortress. The fortress consists of various wings and courtyard; the Prince-Bishop's apartments are located in the so-called "Hoher Stock". The Krautturm houses a large aerophon of more than 200 pipes, called the "Salzburg Bull"; this huge mechanical organ was built in 1502 by Archbishop Leonhard von Keutschach. It was renewed by Rochus Egedacher in 1735. From Palm Sunday to 31 October the "Salzburg Bull" is played daily at 11 and 18 o'clock; the aerophone thus ended it again. One of Austria's most famous cabaret groups is named after it. Starting in 1498, Archbishop Leonhard von Keutschach had the magnificent state apartments installed on the third floor; the rooms in which the archbishops would have lived were one floor below. The state apartments were used for representative purposes and for festivities; the Golden Hall was richly decorated and indicates that the fortress served the archbishops not only as a refuge in times of crisis, but also as a residence up to the 16th century.

In order to gain more space, Archbishop Leonhard von Keutschach had four massive marble pillars constructed on the right-hand outer wall and had a loggia added on. As in the other rooms the ceiling is coffered, each coffer being adorned with gold buttons symbolising the stars in the sky; the 17-metre-long beam, supporting the ceiling, is worth mentioning. The coat of arms of Leonhard von Keutschach together with those of the Holy Roman Empire, the most powerful German towns and the bishoprics that were connected to Salzburg, are painted on it. Archbishop Leonhard von Keutschach had the chapel built at a time. One of the figure consoles. A richly ornamented star vault decorates the ceiling of the chapel; the inner part of the door at the entrance is covered with stucco. The painted frame shows red columns on a high plinth with grey capitals; the coat of arms of Salzburg and of Leonhard von Keutschach is reproduced in the tympanum beneath the mitre, legate cross and sword. A special feature of the coat of arms is the turnip and in many places in the fortress this can be found as an indication of prince-archbishop Keutschach's building activity


Hargreavesbreen is a short, steep glacier flowing northwest between Mount Nils Larsen and Mount Widerøe in the Sør Rondane Mountains of Antarctica. It was mapped by Norwegian cartographers in 1957 from air photos taken by U. S. Navy Operation Highjump, 1946–47, named for R. B. Hargreaves, an aerial photographer on Operation Highjump photographic flights in this area and other coastal areas between 14°E and 164°E. List of glaciers in the Antarctic Glaciology This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Hargreavesbreen"

Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos

Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos was a Spanish neoclassical statesman, philosopher and a major figure of the Age of Enlightenment in Spain. Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos was born at Gijón in Spain. Selecting law as his profession, he studied at Oviedo, Ávila, the University of Alcalá, before becoming a criminal judge at Seville in 1767, his integrity and ability were rewarded in 1778 by a judgeship in Madrid, in 1780 by appointment to the council of military orders. In the capital Jovellanos was a respected member of the scientific societies. In his work on agrarian law, he called on the crown to eliminate the concentration of land ownership in the entailment of landed estates, ownership of land by the Catholic Church, the existence of common lands unavailable to private ownership. In his view, Spain's wealth lay in its agricultural productivity which would allow its population to grow and prosper. In the eighteenth-century regime of land tenure, productivity was stifled by the latifundia of the political elites and the Catholic Church as an institution, common lands where there was no incentive for individuals to invest in its productivity.

Jovellanos was influenced by Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations, which saw self-interest as the motivating force for economic activity. Jovellanos's recommendations were not implemented in Spain, but did influence thinking about agrarian land reform in the viceroyalty of New Spain by Bishop Manuel Abad y Queipo in the early nineteenth century before its independence in 1821. In turn, his writings influenced Alexander von Humboldt's thinking and writing on land issues in Mexico. Jovellanos influenced thinking about agrarian land reform in Mexico in the late period of President Porfirio Díaz's regime by Andrés Molina Enríquez, the intellectual father of the article that empowered the State to expropriate land and other resources following the Mexican Revolution Constitution of 1917 Involved in the disgrace of his friend, Francisco de Cabarrús, Jovellanos spent the years 1790 to 1797 in what amounted to exile at Gijón, engaged in literary work and in founding the Asturian institution for agricultural, industrial and educational reform throughout his native province.

He was summoned again to public life in 1797 when, turning down the post of ambassador to Russia, he accepted that of minister of grace and justice, under "the prince of peace", whose attention had been directed to him by Cabarrus one of his favorites. Displeased with Godoy's policy and conduct, Melchor de Jovellanos combined with his colleague Saavedra to procure his dismissal. Godoy returned to power in 1798 and Jovellanos was again sent away to Gijón. Together with Asturian intellectual colleagues such as González Posada, Caveda y Solares and his sister Xosefa Xovellanos, Jovellanos focused on the study of Asturias, he intended to start several projects in the study of his native Asturian language, including an Academy of Asturian Language and an Asturian dictionary, but in 1801 he was imprisoned in Bellver Castle and was forced to put all his cultural projects on hold. The Peninsular War, the advance of the French into Spain, set him once more at liberty. Joseph Bonaparte, having gained the Spanish throne, made Jovellanos the most brilliant offers, but the latter rejected them all and joined the patriotic opposition.

He contributed to reorganize the Cortes Generales. This accomplished, the Junta at once fell under suspicion, Jovellanos was involved in its fall. In 1811 he was enthusiastically welcomed to Gijon; the vessel in which he sailed was compelled by bad weather to put in at Vega de Navia in Asturias, there he died on November 27, 1811. Pedro de Silva, the second President of the Principality of Asturias, is a direct descendant of Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos through his mother, María Jesús Cienfuegos-Jovellanos Vigil-Escalera. Jovellanos's prose works those on political and legislative economy, constitute his real claim to literary fame. In them, depth of thought and clear-sighted sagacity are couched in a certain Ciceronian elegance and classical purity of style. Besides the Ley agraria, he wrote Elogios, a most interesting set of diaries or travel journals reflecting his trips across Northern Spain, he published several other political and social essays. His poetical works comprises a tragedy, the comedy El delincuente honrado and miscellaneous pieces, including a translation of the first book of Paradise Lost.

Enlightenment in Spain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Jovellanos, Gaspar Melchor de". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 525–526. Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos. Polymath Virtual Library, Fundación Ignacio Larramendi Works by Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos at LibriVox


The volcano Prestahnúkur is in the west of the Highlands of Iceland to the west of Langjökull glacier, or to be more specific, to the west of Geitlandsjökull glacier, a part of the Langjökull. The central volcano Prestahnúkur has a small magma chamber. At its feet is a high temperature area which shows that the volcano is active. In 2009 some geologists of the Icelandic Meteorologic Institute researched the material about earthquake events in the area; this shows that volcanic fissures lie in direction southwest-northeast and reach among others under the glaciers Þórisjökull and Geitlandsjökull-Langjökull. The rhyolite of the mountain was for some time popular and exploited as construction material for export, but the mine has been closed. The name means "peak of the priests"; the origin of the name was an expedition of two priests into the highlands in the 17th century. It was seen as quite an enterprise at the time, they explored a valley behind the Þórisjökull called Þórisdalur, which had a bad reputation in sagas and folk stories because it was believed to be haunted by ghosts and that lawless people would be living there.

As is clear today, they found nothing of the sort, but they were regarded as heroes when they came back from this expedition. The highland road Kaldidalur is situated not far from the mountain and it is possible to access the mountain by a bad jeep track and climb it. Volcanoes of Iceland List of mountains in Iceland Prestahnúkur in the Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes Icelandic Meteorological Institute, 2009, Icelandic with English summary and maps Photo: with a jeep onto the mountain

Mark Walen

Mark Hartley Walen is a former American football defensive tackle in the National Football League for the Dallas Cowboys. He played college football at UCLA. Walen attended Burlingame High School; as a senior, he received All-county honors. He lettered in basketball and soccer. In 2005, he was inducted into the San Mateo County Sports Hall of Fame. Walen accepted a football scholarship from UCLA; as a freshman, he started 2 games against the University of Oregon and USC. He contributed to the 24-14 victory against the University of Michigan in the 1983 Rose Bowl; as a sophomore, he was lost for the season, after tearing ligaments in his left knee during the third game against the University of Nebraska. He was able to recover in time to play in the 1984 Rose Bowl; as a fifth-year senior, he was a key part of the seventh-ranked total defense, that included the play of Ken Norton Jr. Carnell Lake, James Washington, Jim Wahler and Darryl Henley. After finishing the season with 74 tackles and 9 sacks, he received Pac-10 Defensive Player of the Year, second-team All-American and All-Pac-10 honors.

He finished his college career with 20 sacks and 31 tackles for loss. Walen was selected by the Dallas Cowboys in the third round of the 1986 NFL Draft; as a rookie, he was lost for the year after fracturing a bone in his right ankle, while completing a 1 1/2-mile run on the last day of the Cowboys' rookie orientation in May. The next year he had some few snaps on passing situations. In 1988, he had his best season. On September 25, he replaced and ineffective Kevin Brooks against the Atlanta Falcons, making 4 tackles and one sack. On October 30, he started in place of Brooks against the Phoenix Cardinals, registering 9 tackles, 2 sacks and blocked an extra point; the next season, he emerged as one of the full-time starters on the defensive line at left tackle, but was placed on the injured reserve list after suffering a torn anterior cruciate ligament in his left knee during the second pre-season game against the Los Angeles Raiders. On August 22, 1990, he was waived after leaving the team in training camp, in reaction to being moved to the offensive line and back again to the defensive line in the span of a week