Stations of the Cross
The Stations of the Cross or the Way of the Cross known as the Way of Sorrows or the Via Crucis, refers to a series of images depicting Jesus Christ on the day of his crucifixion and accompanying prayers. The stations grew out of imitations of Via Dolorosa in Jerusalem, believed to be the actual path Jesus walked to Mount Calvary; the object of the stations is to help the Christians faithful to make a spiritual pilgrimage through contemplation of the Passion of Christ. It has become one of the most popular devotions and the stations can be found in many Western Christian churches, including Anglican, Lutheran and Roman Catholic ones. A series of 14 images will be arranged in numbered order along a path and the faithful travel from image to image, in order, stopping at each station to say the selected prayers and reflections; this will be done individually or in a procession most during Lent on Good Friday, in a spirit of reparation for the sufferings and insults that Jesus endured during his passion.
The style and placement of the stations vary widely. The typical stations are small plaques with paintings placed around a church nave. Modern minimalist stations can be simple; the faithful might say the stations of the cross without there being any image, such as when the pope leads the stations of the cross around the Colosseum in Rome on Good Friday. The Stations of the Cross originated in pilgrimages to Jerusalem and a desire to reproduce the Via Dolorosa. Imitating holy places was not a new concept. For example, the religious complex of Santo Stefano in Bologna, replicated the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and other religious sites, including Mount of Olives and Valley of Josaphat. After the siege of 1187, Jerusalem fell to the forces of Saladin, the first sultan of Egypt and Syria. Forty years Franciscans were allowed back into the Holy Land, their founder, Saint Francis of Assisi, held the Passion of Christ in special veneration and is said to have been the first person to receive stigmata.
In 1217, St. Francis founded the Custody of the Holy Land to guard and promote the devotion to holy places, their efforts were recognized when Franciscans were proclaimed custodians of holy places by Pope Clement VI in 1342. Although several travelers who visited the Holy Land during the 12–14th centuries, mention a "Via Sacra", i.e. a settled route that pilgrims followed, there is nothing in their accounts to identify this with the Way of the Cross, as we understand it. The earliest use of the word "stations", as applied to the accustomed halting-places in the Via Sacra at Jerusalem, occurs in the narrative of an English pilgrim, William Wey, who visited the Holy Land in the mid-15th century, described pilgrims following the footsteps of Christ to the cross. In 1521, a book called Geystlich Strass was printed with illustrations of the stations in the Holy Land. During the 15th and 16th centuries the Franciscans began to build a series of outdoor shrines in Europe to duplicate their counterparts in the Holy Land.
The number of stations varied between thirty. These were placed in small buildings, along the approach to a church, as in a set of 1490 by Adam Kraft, leading to the Johanniskirche in Nuremberg. A number of rural examples were established as attractions in their own right on attractive wooded hills; these include the Sacro Monte di Domodossola and Sacro Monte di Belmonte, form part of the Sacri Monti of Piedmont and Lombardy World Heritage Site, together with other examples on different devotional themes. In these the sculptures are approaching life-size and elaborate. Remnants of these are referred to as calvary hills. In 1686, in answer to their petition, Pope Innocent XI granted to the Franciscans the right to erect stations within their churches. In 1731, Pope Clement XII extended to all churches the right to have the stations, provided that a Franciscan father erected them, with the consent of the local bishop. At the same time the number was fixed at fourteen. In 1857, the bishops of England were allowed to erect the stations by themselves, without the intervention of a Franciscan priest, in 1862 this right was extended to bishops throughout the church.
The early set of seven scenes was numbers 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 11 and 14 from the list below. The standard set from the 17th to 20th centuries has consisted of 14 pictures or sculptures depicting the following scenes: Jesus is condemmed to death Jesus carries His cross Jesus falls for the first time Jesus meets His mother, Mary Simon helps Jesus carry the cross Veronica wipes the face of Jesus Jesus falls for the second time Jesus meets the women of Jerusalem Jesus falls for the third time Jesus is stripped of His clothes Jesus is nailed to the cross Jesus dies on the cross Jesus is taken down from the cross Jesus is placed in the tombAlthough not traditionally part of the Stations, the Resurrection of Jesus is, in rare instances, included as a fifteenth station. Out of the fourteen traditional Stations of the Cross, only eight have a clear scriptural foundation. Stations 3, 4, 6, 7, 9 are not attested to in the gospels and Station 13 seems to embellish the gospels' record, which states that Joseph of Arimathea took Jesus down from the cross and buried him.
To provide a version of this devotion more aligned with the biblical accounts, Pope John Paul II introduced a new
Cumbria Constabulary is the territorial police force in England covering Cumbria. As of September 2017, the force had 1,108 police officers, 535 police staff, 93 police community support officers, 25 designated officers and 86 special constables. In terms of officer numbers, it is the 7th smallest of the 48 police forces of the United Kingdom. Conversely, its geographic area of responsibility is the 7th largest police area of a territorial police force in the United Kingdom; the force area's size and its population of just under 500,000 people makes it sparsely populated. The only major urban areas are Barrow-in-Furness. There are significant areas of isolated and rural community, the county has one of the smallest visible minority ethnic populations in the country at under 3.0%. Each year Cumbria, which incorporates the Lake District National Park, attracts over 23 million visitors from all over the world; the county has some 700 miles of trunk and primary roads. The Chief Constable is Michelle Skeer.
The headquarters of the force are at Penrith. In terms of operational policing the force is divided into two commands - the Territorial Policing Command and the Crime Command, each headed by a Chief Superintendent; this command is further divided into three geographic Territorial Policing Areas to cover the county, an operational support section and a command and control section. Each TPA is led by a Superintendent and is further divided into districts and teams for the purposes of neighbourhood policing; the major elements of the Territorial Policing Command are as follows: Responsible for neighbourhood and response policing across the following geographic areas: Carlisle District Eden District Responsible for neighbourhood and response policing across the following geographic areas: Barrow Borough District South Lakeland District Responsible for neighbourhood and response policing across the following geographic areas Allerdale District Copeland District Within this section are force wide units which support the TPAs or units from the Crime Command, or provide a specialist service: Roads Policing Firearms Dog section PSG Civil Contingencies Collision Investigation Firearms Licensing Safety Camera/CTO Within this section is the Command and Control Room, including the Force Incident Manager and the call taking centre.
This command is responsible for significant investigations and is predominantly staffed by detectives. The command is divided as follows: Intelligence Force Intelligence Bureau Intelligence Analysis Area Intelligence Units Operations Public Protection Units CID Volume Crimes Force Major Investigations Safeguarding Hub Forensics Cumbria Constabulary is a partner in the following collaboration: North West Police Underwater Search & Marine Unit Cumberland and Westmorland Constabulary was formed in 1856. In 1947 this force absorbed Kendal Borough Police. Less than 20 years this amalgamated force absorbed Carlisle City Police to form a force broadly the same as today's force called the Cumberland and Carlisle Constabulary. In 1965, it had an establishment of 652 and an actual strength of 617. In 1967 the force name was changed to Cumbria Constabulary. In 1974 the force's boundaries were expanded to include the new non-metropolitan county of Cumbria, in particular Furness and Sedbergh Rural District.
The Home Secretary proposed on 6 February 2006 to merge it with Lancashire Constabulary. These proposals were accepted by both forces on 25 February and the merger would have taken place on 1 April 2007. However, in July 2006, the Cumbria and Lancashire forces decided not to proceed with the merger because the Government could not remedy issues with the differing council tax precepts. Cumbria Constabulary 1968–1980: William Cavey 1980–1987: Barry David Keith Price 1991–1997: Alan Elliott 1997–2001: Colin Phillips 2001–2007: Michael Baxter 2007-2012: Sir Craig Thomas Mackey QPM 2012-2013 Stuart Hyde QPM 2014-2018 Jerry Graham QPM 2018–: Michelle Skeer The Police Roll of Honour Trust lists and commemorates all British police officers killed in the line of duty; the force's first, to date only, murder of an officer occurred on 10 February 1965. Constable George William Russell, aged 36, was fatally shot when and knowing that colleagues had been fired on, he confronted an armed suspect and called upon him to surrender at a railway station in Kendal.
Russell was posthumously awarded the Queen's Police Medal for gallantry and a memorial plaque has been unveiled on a wall at Carlisle Cathedral. PC Keith Easterbrook was fatally injured in a road traffic accident, while assisting in a vehicle pursuit, when a van he was overtaking pulled out and collided with his police motorcycle, on the A595 near Workington. PC William "Bill" Barker was killed whilst on duty on 20 November 2009. At night during severe weather and flooding across the county, the officer was directing motorists to safety off Northside Bridge, in a dangerous condition, when the bridge was destroyed by the flood and he was swept away and killed, his body found on a beach at Allonby that afternoon. Barker had completed 25 years police service and was a traffic officer attached to the Roads Policing Unit based at Workington. Cumbria Police and Crime Commissioner Policing in the United Kingdom PC John Kent - The first black British police officer, who served with the Carlisle City Police between 1837 and 1844 Official website
Egremont is a market town, civil parish and two electoral wards in the Borough of Copeland in Cumbria, England, 5 miles south of Whitehaven and on the River Ehen. In Cumberland, the town, which lies at the foot of Uldale Valley and Dent Fell, has a long industrial heritage including dyeing and iron ore mining, it had a population of 7,444 in 2001. The town's layout today is much the same as at the time of Richard de Lucy around 1200 with its wide Main Street opening out into the market place; the remains of the Norman castle, built in the 12th century, are situated at the southern end of Main Street near the market place. Egremont was granted a charter for a market and annual fair by King Henry III in 1266; the resulting annual Crab Fair now hosts the World Gurning Championships. The modern economy is built on services and tourism, together with nuclear industry at Sellafield. Manufacturing industries have declined but service, new media and tourism industries have taken their place. Egremont's Florence Mine was the last working deep iron ore mine left in Western Europe and produced ore, products for the cosmetics industry and high quality haematite for jewellery.
The pit head is a listed building. Florence Mine can be found just south of Egremont. A large local employer is the nuclear site at nearby Sellafield; the last few years have seen the running down of the nuclear power industry and the growth of the nuclear decommissioning industry. Egremont had a railway station on the Whitehaven and Egremont Railway, but it closed in 1947. Bus services 6 and X6 link Egremont to Seascale and towns south of Egremont. There are many other bus services that link to Workington; the A595 bypasses Egremont, which gives strong links to Sellafield to the south and to the north and Workington. Egremont has Egremont Castle, Florence Mine, Hartley's Ice Cream, Lowes Court Gallery, various walks, Clint's Quarry and cycle paths. Egremont has a castle, several churches, two supermarkets and a market selling a variety of goods held every Friday, it has had a brass band since 1904. The band aims to promote brass band music in the local area; the town has one secondary school, West Lakes Academy, four primary schools, which are Bookwell and Thornhill primary schools, plus St Bridget's Catholic Primary School.
It has an active public and community arts programme, called Creative Egremont. The town is home to Florence Arts Centre, based at the nearby Florence Mine, which has a programme of live events - gigs and stand-up comedy - and an art gallery. There is a studio on-site for the Florence Paintmakers, a co-operative of artists who use the local iron ore pigment to make oil and watercolour paints and other art materials. Egremont has a dedicated town freesheet, published by Egremont & District Labour Party and delivered to thousands of addresses in the town several times a year; the paper is financed by the Copeland Constituency Labour Party, its treasurer is David Southward MBE. Egremont's Crab Fair is held on the third Saturday in September annually, features unusual events – such as the world-famous'gurning' and greasy pole climbing; this fair is a major local event, with the town's high street being closed to normal traffic for street dancing and a parade, while sports such as Cumberland & Westmorland Wrestling are held on ground nearby.
The fair's origins go back to 1267, it is claimed to be one of the oldest fairs in the world. Egremont pre-dates the Norman conquest; the Danes first established a fort on the site of Egremont Castle around the end of the first millennium AD. In about 1300, the town was established much as it is surrounded by agricultural lands. In 1322, Robert Bruce attacked the town. For the next 100 years or so an uneasy peace followed and the castle fell into ruins. In 1565, a stone bridge was built over the River Ehen to access the town, now smaller because of frequent Scottish raids. Little changed for a century, until new stone buildings appeared on the Main Street built with stone from the castle. In 1683, Edward Benn and his heirs were given land with the provision that they rebuild the stone bridge and maintain it for ever. In 1748, another bridge was built at Briscoe Mill at a cost of £28-15s-0d, paid for by John Pearson, a local hatter. Soon Egremont began to service the Port of Whitehaven and in 1830, iron ore was mined over several sites.
Over the next 60 years new schools and the town hall were built. New housing estates were built to accommodate the growing town, with many old parts of the town being demolished in 1968. In 1964, Wyndham School was built, an early comprehensive school. In 1970, there was a large increase in workers moving into the town to work on the new nuclear site. In 1990, the Egremont by-pass was opened. In bygone days and weaving were traditional industries based around the River Ehen. Iron ore mining and quarrying has been established in Egremont for more than 800 years. Industrial mining of iron ore started around 1830 with many mines being opened, continues to this day. Around the early 17th century, agricultural lime was mined at Clints Quarry, with more heavy duty mining being undertaken to supply the iron and ore industry in the mid 19th century ending in 1930. Clints Quarry can be found just north of Egremont town. In 1950, Rowntrees built a chocolate crumb factory near Christie Bridge and the nuclear industry became established at Sellafield.
The Rowntrees site has become a new housing estate, York Place, located at the northern end of Main Stre
North West England
North West England, one of nine official regions of England, consists of the five counties of Cheshire, Greater Manchester and Merseyside. The North West had a population of 7,052,000 in 2011, it is the third-most populated region in the United Kingdom after the South Greater London. The largest settlements are Manchester, Warrington and Blackpool. North West England is bounded to the west by the Irish Sea; the region extends from the Scottish Borders in the north to the West Midlands region in the south. To its southwest is North Wales. Amongst the better known of the North West's physiographical features are the Lake District and the Cheshire Plain; the highest point in North West England is Cumbria, at a height of 3,209 feet. Windermere is the largest natural lake in England. Broad Crag Tarn on Broad Crag is England's highest lake. Wast Water is England's deepest lake, being 74m deep. A mix of rural and urban landscape, two large conurbations, centred on Liverpool and Manchester, occupy much of the south of the region.
The north of the region, comprising Cumbria and northern Lancashire, is rural, as is the far south which encompasses parts of the Cheshire Plain and Peak District. The region includes parts of three National parks and three areas of Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the official region consists of the following subdivisions: *metropolitan county After abolition of the Greater Manchester and Merseyside County Councils in 1986, power was transferred to the Metropolitan Boroughs making them Unitary Authorities. In April 2011, Greater Manchester gained a top-tier administrative body in the form of the Greater Manchester Combined Authority, which means the 10 Greater Manchester Boroughs are once again second-tier authorities. Source: Office for National Statistics Mid Year Population Estimates North West England's population accounts for just over 13% of England's overall population. 37.86% of the North West's population resides in Greater Manchester, 21.39% in Lancashire, 20.30% in Merseyside, 14.76% in Cheshire and 7.41% live in the largest county by area, Cumbria.
According to 2009 Office for National Statistics estimates, 91.6% of people in the region describe themselves as'White': 88.4% White British, 1.0% White Irish and 2.2% White Other. During the Industrial Revolution hundreds of thousands of Welsh people migrated to the North West of England to work in the coal mines. Parts with notably high populations with Welsh ancestry as a result of this include Liverpool, Widnes, Wallasey, Ashton-in-Makerfield and Birkenhead; the Mixed Race population makes up 1.3% of the region's population. There are 323,800 South Asians, making up 4.7% of the population, 1.1% Black Britons. 0.6% of the population are Chinese and 0.5% of people belong to another ethnic group. North West England is a diverse region, with Manchester and Liverpool amongst the most diverse cities in Europe. 19.4% of Blackburn with Darwen's population are Muslim, the third-highest among all local authorities in the United Kingdom and the highest outside London. Areas such as Moss Side in Greater Manchester are home to a 30%+ Black British population.
In contrast, the town of St. Helens in Merseyside, unusually for a city area, has a low percentage of ethnic minorities with 98% identifying as White British; the City of Liverpool, over 800 years old, is one of the few places in Britain where ethnic minority populations can be traced back over dozens of generations: being the closest major city in England to Ireland, it is home to a significant ethnic Irish population, with the city being home to one of the first Afro-Caribbean communities in the UK, as well as the oldest Chinatown in Europe. Summarised There are around 400,000 people living in the North West of any Asian ethnicity Around 125,000 people from the North West are of full or partial Sub-African and/or Caribbean descent The single largest non-white ethnic group in the North West are Pakistanis, numbering at least 144,400 The list below is not how many people belong to each ethnic group; the fifteen most common countries of birth in 2001 for North West citizens were as follows England – 6,169,753 Scotland – 109,163 Wales – 73,850 Ireland – 56,887 Pakistan – 46,529 Northern Ireland – 34,879 India – 34,600 Germany – 19,931 China and Hong Kong – 15,491 Bangladesh – 13,746 South Africa – 7,740 United States – 7,037 Jamaica – 6,661 Italy – 6,325 Australia – 5,880 Poland – The table below is based on the 2011 UK Census.
One in five of the population in the North West is Catholic, a result of large-scale Irish emigration in the nineteenth century as well as the high number of English recusants in Lancashire. For top-tier authorities, Manchester has the highest teenage pregnancy rate in the region. For council districts, Burnley has the highest rate followed by Hyndburn, both in Lancashire. Of the nine regions of the England, the North West has the fourth-highest GVA per capita—the highest outside southern England. Despite this the region has above average multiple deprivation with wealth concentrated on affluent areas like rural Cheshire, rural Lancashire, south Cumbria; as measured by the Indices of deprivation 2007, the
Cleator Moor West railway station
Cleator Moor had three passenger stations: The original 1857 Cleator Moor station which became a goods station when it was replaced in 1866 Its 1866 replacement which went on to be known as Cleator Moor East, The rival 1879 station which went on to be known as Cleator Moor West. This article is about Cleator Moor West. Cleator Moor West railway station was opened as "Cleator Moor" by the Cleator and Workington Junction Railway in 1879, it served the growing industrial town of Cleator Moor, England. The line was one of the fruits of the rapid industrialisation of West Cumberland in the second half of the nineteenth century, being borne as a reaction to oligopolistic behaviour by the London and North Western and Whitehaven and Egremont Railways; the station was on the company's main line from Moor Row to Workington Central. Both line and station opened to passengers on 1 October 1879; the station was renamed "Cleator Moor West" on 2 June 1924 to avoid confusion with its neighbour on the former Whitehaven and Egremont Railway line to Rowrah, renamed "Cleator Moor East".
All lines in the area were aimed at mineral traffic, notably iron ore and limestone, none more so than the new line to Workington, which earned the local name "The Track of the Ironmasters". General goods and passenger services were provided, but were small beer compared with mineral traffic; the founding Act of Parliament of June 1878 confirmed the company's agreement with the Furness Railway that the latter would operate the line for one third of the receipts. Passenger trains consisted of antiquated Furness stock hauled by elderly Furness engines referred to as "...rolling ruins..." by one author after a footplate ride in 1949. No Sunday passenger service was provided on the line; the initial passenger service in 1879 consisted of two Up trains a day, leaving Moor Row at 09:20 and 13:45, calling at Cleator Moor, Moresby Parks, High Harrington and terminating at Workington, taking 30 minutes in all. They returned as Down trains, leaving Workington at 10:30 and 16:00In 1880 the extension northwards to Siddick Junction was opened.
The service was extended to run to and from Siddick and an extra train was added, with three up trains a day, leaving Moor Row at 07:40, 10:12 and 14:45, taking 30 minutes to Workington and an extra four to proceed to Siddick, where connections were made with the MCR. Down trains left Siddick at 08:45, 12:22 and 17:00By 1922 the service reached its high water mark, with: five up trains a day from Moor Row through to Siddick, leaving Moor Row at 07:20, 09:50, 13:15, 16:50 and 1820. One train Mondays to Fridays Only from Moor Row to Workington, leaving at 13:45 and calling at Moresby Junction Halt, making that halt qualify as a publicly advertised passenger station one Saturdays Only train leaving Cleator Moor at 12:50 for Workington one Saturdays Only train leaving Moor Row at 19:35 for WorkingtonThere was one fewer Down train, as the 09:50 Up was provided to give a connection at Siddick with a fast MCR train to Carlisle with connections beyond. Although not serving Cleator Moor, two Saturdays Only trains left Oatlands at 16:05 and 21:35 for Workington, calling at Distington and High Harrington, with balancing workings leaving Workington at 15:30 and 21:00.
There were trains using the Lowca Light Railway plying between Lowca and Workington, but they served no "pure" C&WJR stations other than Workington Central. As with advertised passenger trains, in 1920 workmen's trains ran on the company's three southern routes: between Workington Central and Lowca using the Lowca Light Railway between Arlecdon and Oatlands on the single track "Baird's Line", on the "main line" between Siddick Junction and Moor Row from Siddick Junction to Moor Row, calling at all passenger stations except Moresby Parks, calling at Moresby Junction Halt instead from Moor Row to Moresby Junction Halt, calling at Cleator Moor and Keekle Colliers' PlatformThe situation in 1922 was similar; the 1920 Working Time Table shows few Goods trains, with just one a day in each direction booked to call at Cleator Moor West. Mineral traffic was an altogether different matter, dwarfing all other traffic in volume and profits; the key source summarises it "...the'Track of the Ironmasters' ran like a main traffic artery through an area honeycombed with mines and ironworks."
The associated drama was all the greater because all the company's lines abounded with steep inclines and sharp curves requiring banking. The saving grace was that south of Workington at least, most gradients favoured loaded trains. During the First World War the company ran "Double Trains", akin to North American practice, with two mineral trains coupled together and a banking engine behind, i.e. locomotive-wagons-guards van-locomotive-wagons-guards van-banker. Such trains worked between Distington and Cleator Moor, though the practice was discontinued after dark from 1 April 1918; the workings at Cleator Moor exemplified the line's role. The station was next to a branch to Cleator Moor's dominant ironworks run by the Workington Haematite Iron Company. Iron ore arrived there from the east, via the rival Whitehaven and Egremont Railway. Coke arrived via the C&WR branch Pig iron went out the same way and headed north along the C&WR bound for Scotland, either via Carlisle or via the Solway Viaduct.
Like any business tied to one or few industries, the railway was at the mercy of trade fluctuations and technological change. The Cumberland iron industry led the charge in the nineteenth century, but became less and less competitive as time passed and local ore became worked out and harder to win, taking the fortu
Kangol is an English clothing company famous for its headwear. The name Kangol reflects the original production where the K was for knitting, the ANG was for angora, the OL was for wool. Although no Kangol hat has actually been manufactured in Australia, the Kangaroo logo was adopted by Kangol in 1983 because Americans asked where they could get "the Kangaroo hat." Founded in the 1920s, by Jewish Polish World War I veteran Jacques Spreiregen, Kangol produced hats for workers and soldiers. In 1938, working in London as an importer, opened a factory at Cleator, England, which he ran with his nephew Joseph Meisner. A second factory was opened at nearby Frizington, under the direction of Spreiregen's younger nephew Sylvain Meisner, a third factory, manufacturing motorcycle helmets and seat belts in Carlisle, they were the major beret suppliers to the armed forces during World War II. Kangol has been owned by Sports Direct since 2006, when they acquired the brand from private equity fund August Equity Trust.
Licences to manufacture and sell Kangol apparel have been sold to many different companies including D2 and Topshop. In 2002, the Kangol apparel brand was acquired by Kangol Clothing North America LLC, a subsidiary of Chesterfield Manufacturing Corp in Charlotte North Carolina. In 2003, Chesterfield was acquired by Tomasello Inc., wholly owned and led by David W. Tomasello; the global rights to Kangol hats have been held by American hatmakers Bollman Hat Company since 2002. It was announced in February 2009 that Bollman were reviewing their worldwide operations, putting 33 jobs and the future of the Kangol head office in Cleator in doubt. On 6 April 2009, it was announced that the original factory would be converted to a warehouse with the loss of 25 jobs. Only seven employees now remain employed at the company's original site and the outlet shop closed at the end of August 2009. However, hats will continue to be made at their sites in the United States. During WWII, the signature Kangol beret was worn famously by British Field Marshal Montgomery.
In the 1960s, designers Mary Quant and Pierre Cardin worked with the company, whose products graced the heads of the rich and famous, including the Beatles and Arnold Palmer, Diana, Princess of Wales. The company supplied uniformed organisations such as the Scout Association. In the 1980s Kangol berets entered a new phase of fashion history with their adoption by members of the hip-hop community, such as Grandmaster Flash, Run-DMC, LL Cool J, Slick Rick, Kangol Kid of UTFO, The Notorious B. I. G; the brand was popularised more by the 1991 movie New Jack City. The release of more consciously stylish products in the 1990s such as the furgora Spitfire, was helped by its presence upon the head of Samuel L. Jackson in 1997. Kevin Eubanks, bandleader for The Tonight Show with Jay Leno, sported a Kangol beret on an nightly basis. In 2009, Eminem wore the Cotton Twill Army Cap Kangol hat on his Beautiful video. Slick Rick references Kangol in his songs "La Di Da Di" and "Mona Lisa". Boogie Boys 1980's hip hop band, reference Kangol in their song "A Fly Girl".
The lyrics line reads, "Girls look fly in Kangols". Wesley Snipes as Nino Brown and his gang, the Cash Money Brothers, wear hats by Kangol throughout the movie New Jack City. Samuel L. Jackson as Ordell Robbie wore a Kangol back to front in the movie Jackie Brown; the hip hop group De La Soul referenced Kangol in the song "Fallin'" on the soundtrack of the 1993 film Judgment Night with the lines "I knew I blew the whole fandango/When the drum programmer wore a Kangol". Steve Carell is shown wearing a Kangol hat in the show The Office in the episode called "Happy Hour". Tyler James Williams as Chris is shown wearing a Kangol hat in the show Everybody Hates Chris in two episodes called "Everybody Hates DJs" and "Everybody Hates Gambling". Rapper Dana Dane tells a story of how his straw hat turns into a Kangol in his song, "Cinderfella Dana Dane"; the movie Straight Outta Compton features a scene where Ice Cube gets into a dispute with a New York rapper telling him "Wearing a Kangol don't make you LL Cool J!"
Official website Official store Bollman Hats official site Working for Kangol— BBC Cumbria Making a Beret for Bette Davis— BBC Cumbria
Cumbria is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England. The county and Cumbria County Council, its local government, came into existence in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. Cumbria's county town is Carlisle, in the north of the county, the only other major urban area is Barrow-in-Furness on the southwestern tip of the county; the county of Cumbria consists of six districts and in 2008 had a population of just under half a million. Cumbria is one of the most sparsely populated counties in the United Kingdom, with 73.4 people per km2. Cumbria is the third largest county in England by area, is bounded to the north by the Scottish council areas of Dumfries and Galloway and Scottish Borders, to the west by the Irish Sea, to the south by Lancashire, to the southeast by North Yorkshire, to the east by County Durham and Northumberland. Cumbria is predominantly rural and contains the Lake District National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site considered one of England's finest areas of natural beauty, serving as inspiration for artists and musicians.
A large area of the southeast of the county is within the Yorkshire Dales National Park while the east of the county fringes the North Pennines AONB. Much of Cumbria is mountainous, it contains every peak in England over 3,000 feet above sea level, with Scafell Pike at 3,209 feet being the highest point of England. An upland and rural area, Cumbria's history is characterised by invasions and settlement, as well as battles and skirmishes between the English and the Scots. Notable historic sites in Cumbria include Carlisle Castle, Furness Abbey, Hardknott Roman Fort, Brough Castle and Hadrian's Wall; the county of Cumbria was created in April 1974 through an amalgamation of the administrative counties of Cumberland and Westmorland, to which parts of Lancashire and the West Riding of Yorkshire were added. During the Neolithic period the area contained an important centre of stone axe production, products of which have been found across Great Britain. During this period stone circles and henges began to be built across the county and today'Cumbria has one of the largest number of preserved field monuments in England'.
While not part of the region conquered in the Romans' initial conquest of Britain in 43 AD, most of modern-day Cumbria was conquered in response to a revolt deposing the Roman-aligned ruler of the Brigantes in 69 AD. The Romans built a number of fortifications in the area during their occupation, the most famous being UNESCO World Heritage Site Hadrian's Wall which passes through northern Cumbria. At the end of the period of British history known as Roman Britain the inhabitants of Cumbria were Cumbric-speaking native Romano-Britons who were descendants of the Brigantes and Carvetii that the Roman Empire had conquered in about AD 85. Based on inscriptional evidence from the area, the Roman civitas of the Carvetii seems to have covered portions of Cumbria; the names Cumbria, Cymru and Cumberland are derived from the name these people gave themselves, *kombroges in Common Brittonic, which meant "compatriots". Although Cumbria was believed to have formed the core of the Early Middle Ages Brittonic kingdom of Rheged, more recent discoveries near Galloway appear to contradict this.
For the rest of the first millennium, Cumbria was contested by several entities who warred over the area, including the Brythonic Celtic Kingdom of Strathclyde and the Anglian kingdom of Northumbria. Most of modern-day Cumbria was a principality in the Kingdom of Scotland at the time of the Norman conquest of England in 1066 and thus was excluded from the Domesday Book survey of 1086. In 1092 the region was incorporated into England; the region was dominated by the many Anglo-Scottish Wars of the latter Middle Ages and early modern period and the associated Border Reivers who exploited the dynamic political situation of the region. There were at least three sieges of Carlisle fought between England and Scotland, two further sieges during the Jacobite risings. After the Jacobite Risings of the eighteenth century, Cumbria became a more stable place and, as in the rest of Northern England, the Industrial Revolution caused a large growth in urban populations. In particular, the west-coast towns of Workington and Barrow-in-Furness saw large iron and steel mills develop, with Barrow developing a significant shipbuilding industry.
Kendal and Carlisle all became mill town, with textiles and biscuits among the products manufactured in the region. The early nineteenth century saw the county gain fame as the Lake Poets and other artists of the Romantic movement, such as William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, lived among, were inspired by, the lakes and mountains of the region; the children's writer Beatrix Potter wrote in the region and became a major landowner, granting much of her property to the National Trust on her death. In turn, the large amount of land owned by the National Trust assisted in the formation of the Lake District National Park in 1951, which remains the largest National Park in England and has come to dominate the identity and economy of the county; the county of Cumbria was created in 1974 from the traditional counties of Cumberland and Westmorland, the Cumberland County Borough of Carlisle, along with the North Lonsdale or Furness part of Lancashire referred to as "Lancashire North of