Diving equipment is equipment used by underwater divers to make diving activities possible, safer and/or more comfortable. This may be equipment intended for this purpose, or equipment intended for other purposes, found to be suitable for diving use; the fundamental item of diving equipment used by divers is underwater breathing apparatus, such as scuba equipment, surface supplied diving equipment, but there are other important pieces of equipment that make diving safer, more convenient or more efficient. Diving equipment used by recreational scuba divers is personal equipment carried by the diver, but professional divers when operating in the surface supplied or saturation mode, use a large amount of support equipment not carried by the diver. Equipment, used for underwater work or other activities, not directly related to the activity of diving, or which has not been designed or modified for underwater use by divers is excluded. Surface supplied diving - used in professional diving; this category includes: Surface oriented surface supplied diving, where the diver starts and finishes the dive at normal atmospheric pressure.
Saturation diving, where the diver remains under pressure in an underwater habitat or saturation spread between underwater excursions. Standard diving dress - used in professional diving. Of historical interest now. Airline or Hookah diving. "Compressor diving" - a rudimentary form of surface supplied diving used in the Philippines by artisanal fishermen. Recreational forms like snuba. Scuba diving - The use of self-contained underwater breathing apparatus; this category includes: Open-circuit scuba consisting of diving cylinder and diving regulator Rebreather, closed-circuit or semi-closed-circuit scuba Free diving or breathhold diving, where the diver completes the dive on a single breath of air taken at the surface before the dive. Snorkel allows breathing at the surface with the face submerged, is used as an adjunct to free diving and scuba. Atmospheric diving suits and other submersibles which isolate the diver from the ambient environment; these are not considered here. Liquid breathing systems are rare and at an early experimental stage.
It is hoped that some day practical systems will allow deep diving. This is not considered here; this is the diving equipment worn by or carried by the diver for personal protection or comfort, or to facilitate the diving aspect of the activity, may include a selection from: Scuba equipment: Primary cylinder, carried back-mounted or side mounted and open circuit regulator, or rebreather sets. Alternative air source such as bailout bottle or pony bottle, decompression cylinders and their associated regulators. Secondary demand valve. Surface supplied equipment: Helmet or full face mask, diver's umbilical, bailout block, bailout cylinder and regulator. Thermal and abrasion protection. In cold water, a diving suit such as a dry suit, a wet suit, or a Hot water suit is necessary. Boiler suit overalls are worn over the thermal protection suit by commercial divers as abrasion protection In warm water, many types of tough, everyday clothing provide protection, as well as purpose made garments such as dive skins and shorty wetsuits.
In some cases, simple regular swimsuits are used. Diving gloves, including wetsuit gloves and dry gloves and three-finger mitts Diving hoods Diving boots - With dry suits, the boots are integrated. Safety helmet for scuba diving. Diving chain mail may be used as protection against bites by large marine animals Diver's cages may be used as protection against large predators A backplate is a structure onto which the back-mounted diving cylinders are mounted linking the buoyancy compensator with the weight of the diving cylinders and provided with a harness of straps which secures the scuba set to the diver's back. A backplate is used with a back inflation type buoyancy compensator, but can be used without any buoyancy compensator. Buoyancy compensator known as Buoyancy Control Device, BCD or BC - is a back mounted or sleeveless jacket style device which includes an inflatable bladder used to adjust the buoyancy of the diver under water, provide positive buoyancy at the surface; the buoyancy compensator is an integral part of the harness system used to secure the scuba set to the diver.
The earlier collar style buoyancy compensator is used any more. Diver Propulsion Vehicle - to increase the range of the diver underwater Diving weighting system - to counteract the buoyancy of the diving suit and diver to allow descent. Professional divers may use additional weighting to ensure stability when working on the bottom Fins for efficient propulsion Depth gauge lets the diver monitor depth maximum depth and, when used with a watch and Decompression tables allows the diver to monitor decompression requirements; some digital depth gauges indicate ascent rate, an important factor in avoiding decompression sickness Pneumofathometer is the surface supplied diving depth gauge which displays the depth of the diver at the surface control panel. Dive computer helps the diver to avoid decompression sickness by indicating the decompression stops needed for the dive profile. Most dive computers indicate depth and ascent rate; some indicate oxygen toxicity exposure and water temperature, may provide other functions.
Dive timer is an instrument that records depth and elapsed time during the dive. It is possibl
A bolo is a large cutting tool of Filipino origin similar to the machete. It is used in the Philippines, the jungles of Indonesia, in the sugar fields of Cuba; the primary use for the bolo is clearing vegetation, whether for agriculture or during trail blazing. The bolo is used in Filipino martial arts or Arnis as part of training; the bolo knife is common in the countryside due to its use. As such, it was used extensively during Spanish colonial rule as a manual alternative to ploughing with a carabao. Used for cutting coconuts, it was a common harvesting tool for narrow row crops found on terraces such as rice, mungbeans and peanuts; because of its availability, the bolo became a common choice of improvised weaponry to the everyday peasant. Bolos are characterized by having a native hardwood or animal horn handle, a full tang, by a steel blade that both curves and widens considerably so, at its tip; this moves the centre of gravity as far forward as possible, giving the knife extra momentum for chopping.
So-called "jungle bolos", intended for combat rather than agricultural work, tend to be longer and less wide at the tip. Bolos for gardening have rounded tips. Various types of bolos are employed for different purposes: The all-purpose bolo: Used for all sorts of odd jobs, such as breaking open coconuts; the haras: Similar to a small scythe, it is used for cutting tall grass. It is called "Lampas" by people from Mindanao; the kutsilyo: The term comes from the Spanish word cuchillo. Used to kill and bleed pigs during slaughter. A smaller bolo; the bolo-guna: A bolo shaped for digging out roots and weeding. The garab: Used to harvest rice. A large pinuti: Traditionally it is tipped in snake, spider, or scorpion venom and used for self-defence; the sundang: Supposedly used to open coconuts, the sundang was a popular weapon of choice in the Philippine Revolution against the Spanish Empire and during the subsequent Philippine–American War. The bolo was the primary weapon used by the Katipunan during the Philippine Revolution.
It was used by the Filipino guerrillas and bolomen during the Philippine-American War. During World War I, United States Army soldier Henry Johnson gained international fame repelling a German raid in hand-to-hand combat using a Bolo knife. During World War II, the 1st Filipino Regiment was called the Bolo Battalion and used bolos for close quarters combat. On 7 December 1972, would-be assassin Carlito Dimahilig used a bolo to attack former First Lady Imelda Marcos as she appeared onstage at a live televised awards ceremony. Dimahilig stabbed Marcos in the abdomen several times, she parried the blows with her arms, he was shot dead by security forces. The bolo serves as a symbol for the Katipunan and the Philippine Revolution the Cry of Pugad Lawin. Several monuments of Andres Bonifacio, as with other notable Katipuneros, depict him holding a bolo in one hand and the Katipunan flag in the other. In the United States Military, the slang term "to bolo" – to fail a test, exam or evaluation, originated from the combined Philippine-American military forces including recognized guerrillas during the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War.
During the Vietnam War, 8th Tactical Fighter Wing commander Col Robin Olds, USAF devised "Operation: BOLO" to lure North Vietnamese MiG-21 Fishbed fighters into the air against US Air Force F-4 Phantom II fighters. It was a deception-based plan that had the F-4s behave like the inagile F-105 Thunderchief fighter-bombers; the operations name came from the bolo. To date, Operation Bolo is considered one of the most successful ruses in aerial combat
A ballistic knife is a knife with a detachable blade that can be ejected to a distance of several yards by pressing a trigger or operating a lever or switch on the handle. Spring-powered ballistic knives gained notoriety in the United States in the mid-1980s after commercial examples were marketed and sold in the United States and other Western countries. Since the marketing and sale of ballistic knives to civilians has been restricted or prohibited by law in several countries. In its spring-propelled form, the blade of a ballistic knife is theoretically capable of being fired to an effective range of around 5 meters at a speed of 63 km/h. Ballistic knives using compressed air or gas propulsion to fire the blade can be made somewhat more powerful, do not suffer from spring fatigue over time. In addition to spring, air, or gas propulsion, the blade of a ballistic knife may be propelled by an explosive charge, such as a blank pistol cartridge; the legal status of ballistic knives or pilum knives is doubtful under current legislation in the United Kingdom given the degree of discretion granted to Crown prosecutors and the police with regard to classifying knives of an arguably offensive nature as prohibited items.
Prosecutors are encouraged by the government to charge defendants under more than one Act where applicable. Furthermore, in the UK it is customary for the Metropolitan Police, not a barrister, to be consulted as legal experts on a question of whether a given knife is to be considered illegal under existing UK knife laws, this has resulted in a tendency to interpret any bladed object of questionable status as falling within the definition of a prohibited knife. Whilst "ballistic knives" are not mentioned in any legislation, the marketing, transfer, or possession in a public place of a ballistic knife could be construed to be illegal under the Restriction of Offensive Weapons Act 1959, the Knives Act 1997, the Criminal Justice Act 1988, the Prevention of Crime Act 1953; the Restriction of Offensive Weapons Act 1959 imposes criminal penalties for anyone who manufactures, sells or hires, or offers for sale or hire, or lends or gives to any other person "any knife which has a blade which opens automatically by hand pressure applied to a button, spring or other device in or attached to the handle of the knife."
The Knives Act 1997 prohibits the marketing of knives as offensive weapons, while the Criminal Justice Act 1988 prohibits the carrying of blades or pointed objects in a public place without "good reason or lawful authority". The Prevention of Crime Act 1953 prohibits the possession in any public place of an offensive weapon without "lawful authority or reasonable excuse." The term "offensive weapon" is defined under the Prevention of Crime Act 1953 as: "any article made or adapted for use to causing injury to the person, or intended by the person having it with him for such use". Under the Prevention of Crime Act, knives otherwise'exempt' from penalty under the Criminal Justice Act 1988 when carried for "good reason or lawful authority" may still be deemed illegal if authorities conclude the knife is being carried as an "offensive weapon" without "lawful authority or reasonable excuse".'Lawful authority’ means those occasions where people from time to time are required to carry weapons as a matter of governmental duty, such as police officers or members of the armed forces, not private persons, hence the'lawful authority' language cannot be relied upon to establish an exemption from prosecution of private individuals.
Furthermore, as the ballistic knife was designed as an offensive weapon, not as a tool intended for use in a trade or business, given current prosecutorial directives, it may be difficult to establish "reasonable excuse" for carrying such a knife before a UK prosecutor or court as the carrying of a knife in public for self-defence is not acceptable as a "reasonable excuse". In the eyes of the law, claims of self-protection are presently viewed as an admission that the defendant intends to use the knife in violation of the law as an "offensive weapon" - albeit in a defensive manner, in otherwise justifiable circumstances. After hearing uncorroborated testimony from a congressional witness that ballistic knives could be used to defeat body armor worn by police officers, witnessing a staged demonstration against a wood-backed target, Senator Alphonse D'Amato of New York introduced the Ballistic Knife Prohibition Act, a bill to ban sale or possession of ballistic knives; the bill failed. However, after gaining the support of Senators Strom Thurmond of South Carolina, Dennis DeConcini of Arizona, congressional support for a ban on import or possession of ballistic knives gained traction.
In September 1986 senators supporting the ballistic knife ban attached their bill to popular legislation designed to eradicate drug crops in foreign countries and halt international drug trafficking operations. The bill was subsequently enacted into law; the new federal statute prohibited future importation or possession of such knives in interstate commerce. Some individual states following the example set by the federal law and passed tighter restrictions, sometimes banning ownership of the knives outright within their state. Similar to conventional automatic knives, federal law makes ballistic knives with a spring-operated blade illegal to possess, sell, or import "in or affecting interstate commerce." This means they are illegal to import from outside the United States, as well as buy or sell over state lines, including possessing or making them with intent to sell over state lines. The federal law makes it a separate crime to use or possess a ballistic knife during the commission of a fe
A dagger is a knife with a sharp point and two sharp edges designed or capable of being used as a thrusting or stabbing weapon. Daggers have been used throughout human experience for close combat confrontations, many cultures have used adorned daggers in ritual and ceremonial contexts; the distinctive shape and historic usage of the dagger have made it symbolic. A dagger in the modern sense is a weapon designed for close-proximity self-defense. Double-edged knives, play different sorts of roles in different social contexts. In some cultures, they are neither a potent symbol of manhood. A wide variety of thrusting knives have been described as daggers, including knives that feature only a single cutting edge, such as the European rondel dagger or the Persian pesh-kabz, or, in some instances, no cutting edge at all, such as the stiletto of the Renaissance. However, in the last hundred years or so, in most contexts, a dagger has certain definable characteristics, including a short blade with a tapered point, a central spine or fuller, two cutting edges sharpened the full length of the blade, or nearly so.
Most daggers feature a full crossguard to keep the hand from riding forwards onto the sharpened blade edges. Daggers are weapons, so knife legislation in many places restricts their manufacture, possession, transport, or use; the earliest daggers were made of materials such as ivory or bone in Neolithic times. Copper daggers appeared first in the early Bronze Age, in the 3rd millennium BC, copper daggers of Early Minoan III were recovered at Knossos. In ancient Egypt, daggers were made of copper or bronze, while royalty had gold weapons. At least since pre-dynastic Egypt, daggers were adorned as ceremonial objects with golden hilts and even more ornate and varied construction. One early silver dagger was recovered with midrib design; the 1924 opening of the tomb of Tutankhamun revealed two daggers, one with a gold blade, one of smelted iron. It is held. Circa B. C. 1600. As late as Mene-ptah II. of the Nineteenth Dynasty, we read it in the list of his loot, after the Prosopis battle, of bronze armour and daggers.
Iron production did not begin until 1200 BC, iron ore was not found in Egypt, making the iron dagger rare, the context suggests that the iron dagger was valued on a level equal to that of its ceremonial gold counterpart. These facts, the composition of the dagger had long suggested a meteoritic origin, evidence for its meteoritic origin was not conclusive until June 2016 when researchers using x-ray fluorescence spectrometry confirmed similar proportions of metals in a meteorite discovered in the area, deposited by an ancient meteor shower. One of the earliest objects made of smelted iron is a dagger dating to before 2000 BC, found in a context that suggests it was treated as an ornamental object of great value. Found in a Hattic royal tomb dated about 2500 BC, at Alaca Höyük in northern Anatolia, the dagger has a smelted iron blade and a gold handle; the artisans and blacksmiths of Iberia in what is now southern Spain and southwestern France produced various iron daggers and swords of high quality from the 5th to the 3rd century BC, in ornamentation and patterns influenced by Greek and Phoenician culture.
The exceptional purity of Iberian iron and the sophisticated method of forging, which included cold hammering, produced double-edged weapons of excellent quality. One can find technologically advanced designs such as folding knives rusted among the artifacts of many Second Iberian Iron Age cremation burials or in Roman Empire excavations all around Spain and the Mediterranean. Iberian infantrymen carried several types of iron daggers, most of them based on shortened versions of double-edged swords, but the true Iberian dagger had a triangular-shaped blade. Iberian daggers and swords were adopted by Hannibal and his Carthaginian armies; the Lusitanii, a pre-Celtic people dominating the lands west of Iberia held off the Roman Empire for many years with a variety of innovative tactics and light weapons, including iron-bladed short spears and daggers modeled after Iberian patterns. During the Roman Empire, legionaries were issued a pugio, a double-edged iron thrusting dagger with a blade of 7–12 inches.
The design and fabrication of the pugio was taken directly from short swords. Like the gladius, the pugio was most used as a thrusting; as an extreme close-quarter combat weapon, the pugio was the Roman soldier's last line of defense. When not in battle, the pugio served as a convenient utility knife; the term dagger appears only in the Late Middle Ages, reflecting the fact that while the dagger had been known in antiquity, it had disappeared during the Early Middle Ages, replaced by the hewing knife or seax. The dagger reappeared in the 12th century as the "knightly dagger", or more properly cross-hilt or quillon dagger, was developed into a common arm and tool for civilian use by the late medieval period; the earliest known depiction of a cross-hilt dagger is the so-called "Guido relief" inside the Grossmünster of Zürich. A number of depictio
A hatchet is a single-handed striking tool with a sharp blade on one side used to cut and split wood, a hammer head on the other side. Hatchets may be used for hewing when making flattened surfaces on logs. A hatchet is a type of hand axe. Hatchets have a variety of uses, such as tasks done by a pocket knife when one is not present; the hatchet can be used to create a fire through sparks and friction. Hatchet throwing is increasing in popularity. Burying the hatchet has become a phrase meaning to make peace, due to the Native American tradition of hiding or putting away a tomahawk when a peace agreement was made. Hachet was used to describe a battle-axe in Middle English
Aircrew Survival Egress Knife
The Aircrew Survival Egress Knife or ASEK is a U. S. Army aircrew survival knife and manufactured by the Ontario Knife Company, entered service in 2003; the ASEK replaced the "knife, survival pilots", which had a number of problems with the leather sheath and handle, the sharpening stone, corrosion resistance. Requirements for the replacement knife, set by the United States Army Aviation Branch, included tests in: sawing through aircraft skin and acrylic glass windows cutting hammeringRequired features included: a point used to stab a hand guard durability light weight holes for tying the knife to a stick to act as a spearOther features, such as an electrically insulated handle, were deemed desirable, but not required. Packaged in the sheath are a special tool for cutting seat belts and a diamond impregnated sharpening disk; the ASEK, made by Ontario, was adopted after trials by United States Army Natick Soldier Research and Engineering Center in Natick, Massachusetts. The US Army's Defense Supply Center purchased 11,881 Army ASEKs in 2004 and 2005 for equipping aviation life support equipment vests.
It has a number of features that aid in escaping an aircraft, such as the ability to be used as a hammer to break acrylic glass cockpit windows and cut through an aircraft's aluminium skin. It may be used as a screwdriver or precision edge marker, it includes a crushed diamond disk sharpener and a separate blade for cutting through seatbelt webbing. The knife is 10.25 inches in length, the blade is 5 inches in length.1875 inches thick and constructed from 1095 carbon steel. During the initial evaluation, an electrically insulated handle was considered to be desirable but not mandatory; the United States Army Aeromedical Research Lab considered the lack of insulated handle of the Ontario knife to be a catastrophic failure of the standard, Ontario is redesigning their ASEK to meet this requirement. In May 2005, Gerber Legendary Blades introduced its own ASEK-compliant knife to the military for evaluation; the Gerber ASEK met all requirements, outperformed the Ontario model in the area of electrical insulation.
The Gerber ASEK has been approved for purchase, Gerber released an additional version with a foliage green handle to match the Army Combat Uniform. The knife comes with a parachute cutter that has a separate sheath which can be attached to a MOLLE vest. List of individual weapons of the U. S. Armed Forces M9 bayonet AB-0200
Confucius was a Chinese teacher, editor and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history. The philosophy of Confucius known as Confucianism, emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships and sincerity, his followers competed with many other schools during the Hundred Schools of Thought era only to be suppressed in favor of the Legalists during the Qin dynasty. Following the victory of Han over Chu after the collapse of Qin, Confucius's thoughts received official sanction and were further developed into a system known in the West as Neo-Confucianism, New Confucianism. Confucius is traditionally credited with having authored or edited many of the Chinese classic texts including all of the Five Classics, but modern scholars are cautious of attributing specific assertions to Confucius himself. Aphorisms concerning his teachings were compiled in the Analects, but only many years after his death. Confucius's principles have commonality with Chinese belief.
He championed strong family loyalty, ancestor veneration, respect of elders by their children and of husbands by their wives, recommending family as a basis for ideal government. He espoused the well-known principle "Do not do unto others what you do not want done to yourself", the Golden Rule, he is a traditional deity in Daoism. Confucius is considered as one of the most important and influential individuals in shaping human history, his teaching and philosophy impacted people around the world and remains influential today. The name "Confucius" is a Latinized form of the Mandarin Chinese "Kǒng Fūzǐ", was coined in the late 16th century by the early Jesuit missionaries to China. Confucius's clan name was "Kǒng", his given name was "Qiū", his "capping name", given upon reaching adulthood and by which he would have been known to all but his older family members, was "Zhòngní", the "Zhòng" indicating that he was the second son in his family. It is thought that Confucius was born on September 28, 551 BC, in the district of Zou near present-day Qufu, China.
The area was notionally controlled by the kings of Zhou but independent under the local lords of Lu. His father Kong He was an elderly commandant of the local Lu garrison, his ancestry traced back through the dukes of Song to the Shang dynasty. Traditional accounts of Confucius's life relate that Kong He's grandfather had migrated the family from Song to Lu. Kong He died when Confucius was three years old, Confucius was raised by his mother Yan Zhengzai in poverty, his mother would die at less than 40 years of age. At age 19 he married Qiguan, a year the couple had their first child, Kong Li. Qiguan and Confucius would have two daughters together, one of whom is thought to have died as a child. Confucius was educated at schools for commoners, where he learned the Six Arts. Confucius was born into the class between the aristocracy and the common people, he is said to have worked in various government jobs during his early 20s, as a bookkeeper and a caretaker of sheep and horses, using the proceeds to give his mother a proper burial.
When his mother died, Confucius is said to have mourned for three years. In Confucius's time, the state of Lu was headed by a ruling ducal house. Under the duke were three aristocratic families, whose heads bore the title of viscount and held hereditary positions in the Lu bureaucracy; the Ji family held the position "Minister over the Masses", the "Prime Minister". In the winter of 505 BC, Yang Hu—a retainer of the Ji family—rose up in rebellion and seized power from the Ji family. However, by the summer of 501 BC, the three hereditary families had succeeded in expelling Yang Hu from Lu. By Confucius had built up a considerable reputation through his teachings, while the families came to see the value of proper conduct and righteousness, so they could achieve loyalty to a legitimate government. Thus, that year, Confucius came to be appointed to the minor position of governor of a town, he rose to the position of Minister of Crime. Confucius desired to return the authority of the state to the duke by dismantling the fortifications of the city—strongholds belonging to the three families.
This way, he could establish a centralized government. However, Confucius relied on diplomacy as he had no military authority himself. In 500 BC, Hou Fan—the governor of Hou—revolted against his lord of the Shu family. Although the Meng and Shu families unsuccessfully besieged Hou, a loyalist official rose up with the people of Hou and forced Hou Fan to flee to the Qi state; the situation may have been in favor for Confucius as this made it possible for Confucius and his disciples to convince the aristocratic families to dismantle the fortifications of their cities. After a year and a half and his disciples succeeded in convincing the Shu family to raze the walls of Hou, the Ji family in razing the walls of Bi, the Meng family in razing the walls of Cheng. First, the Shu family led an army towards their city Hou and tore down its walls in 498 BC. Soon thereafter, Gongshan Furao or Buniu, a retainer of the Ji family and took control of the forces at Bi, he launched an attack and entered the capital Lu.
Earlier, Gongshan had approached Confucius to join him. Though he disapproved