Patrick Ronayne Cleburne was an Irish and American soldier, best known for his service in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War, where he rose to the rank of major general. Born in County Cork, Cleburne served in the 41st Regiment of Foot, a Welsh regiment of the British Army, after failing to gain entrance into Trinity College of Medicine in 1846, he immigrated to the United States three years later. At the beginning of the Civil War, Cleburne sided with the Confederate States, he progressed from being a private soldier in the local militia to a division commander. Cleburne participated in many successful military campaigns the Battle of Stones River, the Battle of Missionary Ridge and the Battle of Ringgold Gap, he was present at the Battle of Shiloh. His strategic ability gained him the nickname "Stonewall of the West", he was killed at the Battle of Franklin. Cleburne was born in Ovens, County Cork, the second son of Dr. Joseph Cleburne, a middle-class physician of Anglo-Irish ancestry.
Patrick's mother died when he was 18 months old, he was an orphan at 15. He followed his father into the study of medicine, but failed his entrance exam to Trinity College of Medicine in 1846. In response to this failure, he enlisted in the 41st Regiment of Foot of the British Army, subsequently rising to the rank of corporal. Three years Cleburne bought his discharge and emigrated to the United States with two brothers and a sister. After spending a short time in Ohio, he settled in Helena, where he was employed as a pharmacist and was accepted into the town's social order. During this time, Cleburne became close friends with Thomas C. Hindman, who would parallel his course as a Confederate Major General; the two men formed a business partnership with William Weatherly to buy a newspaper, the Democratic Star, in December 1855. In 1856, Cleburne and Hindman were both wounded by gunshots during a street fight in Helena with members of the Know-Nothing Party following a debate. Cleburne was turned around and shot one of his attackers, killing him.
The attackers hid until Cleburne collapsed on the street and left. After the two recovered, they appeared before a grand jury to respond to all charges brought against them, they were exonerated and, went to Hindman's parents' house in Mississippi. By 1860, he was a naturalized citizen, a practicing lawyer, popular with the local residents; when the issue of secession reached a crisis, Cleburne sided with the Southern states. His choice was not due to any love of slavery, which he claimed not to care about, but out of affection for the Southern people who had adopted him as one of their own; as the crisis mounted, Cleburne joined the local militia company as a private soldier. He was soon elected captain, he led the company in the seizure of the U. S. Arsenal in Little Rock in January 1861; when Arkansas left the Union, the Yell Rifles became part of the 1st Arkansas Infantry. Cleburne's regiment was assigned to the force under William Hardee, training in northeast Arkansas and conducting brief operations in southeast Missouri before Hardee's force ordered to cross the Mississippi River and join Albert Sidney Johnston's Army of Central Kentucky in the fall 1861.
The 1st Arkansas was designated the 15th Arkansas in late 1861. Cleburne was promoted to brigadier general on March 4, 1862. Johnston withdrew his army from Bowling Green, through Tennessee, into Mississippi before electing to attack the invading Union forces under Ulysses S. Grant. Cleburne served at the Battle of Shiloh, leading a division on left side of the Confederate line, as well as at the Siege of Corinth; that fall and his men were transported to Tennessee in preparation of Braxton Bragg's Confederate Heartland Offensive. In that campaign, Cleburne was loaned to Edmund Kirby Smith. At the Battle of Richmond, Cleburne was wounded in the face when a minie ball pierced his left cheek, smashed several teeth, exited through his mouth, but he recovered in time to re-join Hardee and Bragg and participate in the Battle of Perryville. After the Army of Tennessee retreated to its namesake state in late 1862, Cleburne was promoted to division command and served at the Battle of Stones River, where his division advanced three miles as it routed the Union right wing and drove it back to the Nashville Pike and its final line of defense.
He was promoted to major general on December 13. During the campaigns of 1863 in Tennessee and his soldiers fought at the Battle of Chickamauga, they resisted a much larger Union force under Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman on the northern end of Missionary Ridge during the Battle of Missionary Ridge, Joseph Hooker at the Battle of Ringgold Gap in northern Georgia, in which Cleburne's men again protected the Army of Tennessee as it retreated to Tunnel Hill, Georgia. Cleburne and his troops received an official Thanks from the Confederate Congress for their actions during this campaign. Cleburne's strategic use of terrain, his ability to hold ground where others failed, his talent in foiling the movements of the enemy earned him fame, gained him the nickname "Stonewall of the West." Federal troops were quoted as dreading to see the blue flag of Cleburne's Division across the battlefield. General Robert E. Lee referred to him as "a meteor shining from a clouded sky". By late 1863, it had become obvious to Cleburne that the Confederacy was losing the war because of the growing limitations of its manpower and resources.
In 1864, he called together the leadership of the Army of Tennessee and put forth the proposal to emancipate all slaves ("eman
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Calhoun County, Alabama
Calhoun County is a county in the east central part of the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census, the population was 118,572, its county seat is Anniston. It was named in honor of John C. Calhoun, noted US Senator from South Carolina. Calhoun County is included in the Anniston-Oxford Metropolitan Statistical Area. Benton County was established on December 18, 1832, named for Thomas Hart Benton, a member of the United States Senate from Missouri, its county seat was Jacksonville. Benton, a slave owner, was a political ally of John C. Calhoun, U. S. senator from South Carolina and a slaveholder and planter. Through the 1820s-1840s, Benton's and Calhoun's political interests diverged. Calhoun was interested in using the threat of secession as a weapon to maintain and expand slavery throughout the United States. Benton, on the other hand, was coming to the conclusion that slavery was wrong and that preservation of the union was paramount. On January 29, 1858, Alabama supporters of slavery, objecting to Benton's change of heart, renamed Benton County as Calhoun County.
During the Reconstruction era and widespread violence by whites to suppress black and white Republican voting in the state during the campaign for the 1870 gubernatorial election, four blacks and one white were lynched. After years of controversy and a State Supreme Court ruling in June 1900, the county seat was moved to Anniston; the city was hit by an F4 tornado during the 1994 Palm Sunday tornado outbreak on March 27, 1994. Twelve minutes after the National Weather Service of Birmingham issued a tornado warning for northern Calhoun, southeastern Etowah, southern Cherokee counties, the tornado destroyed Piedmont's Goshen United Methodist Church. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 612 square miles, of which 606 square miles is land and 6.4 square miles is water. Cherokee County - northeast Cleburne County - east Talladega County - south St. Clair County - west Etowah County - northwest Mountain Longleaf National Wildlife Refuge Talladega National Forest Alabama and Tennessee River Railway Norfolk Southern Railway Amtrak As of the census of 2010, there were 118,572 people, 47,331 households, 31,609 families residing in the county.
The population density was 194 people per square mile. There were 53,289 housing units at an average density of 87 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 74.9% White, 20.6% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.6% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. 3.3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 47,331 households out of which 26.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.8% were married couples living together, 15.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.2% were non-families. 27.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.97. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.9% under the age of 18, 10.9% from 18 to 24, 24.8% from 25 to 44, 27.1 % from 45 to 64, 14.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.2 years. For every 100 females there were 93.1 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.8 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,407, the median income for a family was $49,532. Males had a median income of $41,599 versus $29,756 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,574. About 15.2% of families and 19.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.8% of those under age 18 and 10.9% of those age 65 or over. Calhoun is a staunchly Republican county in Congressional elections; the last Democrat to win a majority in the county was Jimmy Carter in 1976. In 2016, Republican Donald Trump won sixty-nine percent of the county's vote. Calhoun is part of Alabama's 3rd congressional district, held by Republican Mike D. Rogers. Anniston Glencoe Jacksonville Oxford Piedmont Southside Weaver Hobson City Ohatchee Alexandria Bynum Choccolocco Nances Creek Saks West End-Cobb Town White Plains Minden Tooktocaugee Calhoun County is home to Jacksonville State University, the Anniston Museum of Natural History, the Berman Museum of World History and the Coldwater Covered Bridge.
It contains a portion of the Talladega National Forest. National Register of Historic Places listings in Calhoun County, Alabama Properties on the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage in Calhoun County, Alabama
Interstate 20 is a major east–west Interstate Highway in the Southern United States. I‑20 runs 1,535 miles beginning near Kent, Texas, at I-10 to Florence, South Carolina, at I-95. Between Texas and South Carolina, I‑20 runs through northern Louisiana, Mississippi and Georgia; the major cities that I-20 connects to includes Texas. From its terminus at I‑95, the highway continues about 2 miles eastward into the city of Florence as Business Spur 20. I-20 begins 10 miles east of Kent at a fork with I-10. From there, the highway travels east-northeastward through Odessa and Abilene before turning eastward towards Dallas/Fort Worth; the La Entrada al Pacifico corridor runs along I-20 between U. S. Route 385 and Farm to Market Road 1788. Between Monahans and I-10, I-20 has an 80 miles per hour speed limit. From the highway's opening in the 1960s through 1971, I-20 went through the heart of the Metroplex via the Dallas-Fort Worth Turnpike; this old route is now signed I-30, US 80 and Texas Spur 557. In 1977, I-20 was rerouted to go through the southern sections of Fort Worth, Grand Prairie and Mesquite before rejoining its original route at Terrell.
Part of I-20 in Dallas is named the Lyndon B. Johnson Freeway and used to be signed as I-635. I-20 continues eastward from Terrell, bypassing Tyler and Marshall before crossing the Louisiana border near Waskom. In Louisiana, I-20 parallels U. S. Route 80 through the northern part of the state. Entering the state from near Waskom, the highway enters the Shreveport-Bossier City metropolitan area, intersecting I-49 near downtown Shreveport and passing close to Barksdale Air Force Base in Bossier City. From that area, the highway traverses rural, hilly terrain, bypassing Minden and Grambling before reaching Monroe. From Monroe, I-20 enters flatter terrain. Before crossing the Mississippi, the highway passes Tallulah. At the Mississippi River, I-20 enters Vicksburg, Mississippi. Upon entering Mississippi by crossing the Mississippi River, I-20 enters Vicksburg. Between Edwards and Clinton, the highway follows the original two-lane routing of US 80. In Jackson, I-20 sees a short concurrency with both I-55 and US 49.
In Jackson is an unusually expansive stack interchange, at the junction of I-20, I-55 North and US 49 South. The interchange replaces a former directional interchange at I-55 North and a cloverleaf at Highway 49. From the Stack, I-20 continues eastward to Meridian, where it begins the nearly 160-mile overlap with I-59; the route of the Mississippi section of I-20 is defined in Mississippi Code § 65-3-3. I-20 crosses the Alabama state line near York, it stays conjoined as it passes through western Alabama and Tuscaloosa. At Birmingham, the two highways pass through downtown together before splitting at Exit 130 just east of the Birmingham airport. I-20 continues eastward through Oxford/Anniston and the Talladega National Forest, passing by the Talladega Superspeedway in the process, visible from the highway. In Birmingham, the intersection of I-20 / I-59 and I-65 is known as a Malfunction Junction because of the interchange's somewhat-confusing design, the number of traffic accidents that occur there.
This section of the Interstate is undergoing construction to reconfigure the interchanges. I-20 enters Georgia near Tallapoosa and after passing through western Georgia, it enters the Atlanta metropolitan area. On clear days, eastbound motorists get their first view of downtown Atlanta as they come over the top of the Six Flags Hill; the Six Flags Over Georgia amusement park is visible off exit 46 eastbound. The highway passes through the center of Atlanta, meeting with I-75 and I-85, which share a common expressway, it continues through Metropolitan Atlanta eastward and through the eastern half of Georgia until it exits the state, crossing the Savannah River at Augusta. Throughout the state, I-20 is conjoined with unsigned State Route 402. I-20 from the Alabama state line to I-285 in Atlanta is named the "Tom Murphy Freeway", but it is called the "Ralph David Abernathy Freeway" within I-285; the Interstate Highway is named the Purple Heart Highway from I-285 in DeKalb County to US 441 in Madison, it is called the Carl Sanders Highway from US 441 to the South Carolina state line.
Upon leaving Augusta, I-20 crosses the Savannah River and enters the Palmetto State and heads northeastward, bypassing Aiken and Lexington before reaching the state capital of Columbia, which can be reached most directly by taking I-26 east at Exit 64 almost I-126 / US 76. At Columbia, I-20 bypasses the city to the north and again turns northeastward, bypassing Fort Jackson and Camden. After crossing the Wateree River, it turns due east, passes by tiny Bishopville, before reaching the Florence area, it is near Florence where I-20 sees its eastern terminus at Interstate 95. However, for about two miles, the highway continues into Florence as Business Spur 20. I-20 in the Palmetto State is known as either the J. Strom Thurmond Freeway or John C. West Freeway; the first section to be completed was the bridge over the Savannah River in 1965. It was built in 19
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Polk County, Georgia
Polk County is a county located in the northwestern part of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 41,475; the county seat is Cedartown. The county was created on December 20, 1851 by an act of the Georgia General Assembly and named after James K. Polk, the eleventh President of the United States. Polk County comprises the Cedartown, GA Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Atlanta-Athens-Clarke County-Sandy Springs, GA Combined Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 312 square miles, of which 310 square miles is land and 1.8 square miles is water. Most of eastern Polk County, centered on Rockmart, is located in the Etowah River sub-basin of the ACT River Basin, while most of western Polk County, centered on Cedartown, is located in the Upper Coosa River sub-basin of the same ACT River Basin. Small slivers of the southern edges of the county are located in the Upper Tallapoosa River sub-basin of the same larger ACT River Basin.
Floyd County – north Bartow County – northeast Paulding County – east Haralson County – south Cleburne County, Alabama – southwest Cherokee County, Alabama – west As of the census of 2000, there were 38,127 people, 14,012 households, 10,340 families residing in the county. The population density was 122 people per square mile. There were 15,059 housing units at an average density of 48 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 80.52% White, 13.34% Black or African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 4.62% from other races, 0.95% from two or more races. 7.66% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 14,012 households out of which 32.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.90% were married couples living together, 13.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.20% were non-families. 22.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.09. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.10% under the age of 18, 9.70% from 18 to 24, 28.80% from 25 to 44, 22.30% from 45 to 64, 13.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.20 males. For every 100 women age 18 and over, there were 95.70 men. The median income for a household in the county was $32,328, the median income for a family was $37,847. Males had a median income of $29,985 versus $21,452 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,617. About 11.20% of families and 15.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.70% of those under age 18 and 12.60% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 41,475 people, 15,092 households, 10,908 families residing in the county; the population density was 133.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 16,908 housing units at an average density of 54.5 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 77.1% white, 12.5% black or African American, 0.7% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 7.5% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 11.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 17.2% were English, 15.2% were American, 13.0% were Irish, 5.3% were German. Of the 15,092 households, 38.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.5% were married couples living together, 14.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.7% were non-families, 23.6% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.72 and the average family size was 3.20. The median age was 36.2 years. The median income for a household in the county was $38,646 and the median income for a family was $43,172. Males had a median income of $37,070 versus $27,758 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,214. About 15.6% of families and 19.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.4% of those under age 18 and 10.5% of those age 65 or over.
Silver Comet Trail Nathan Dean Complex and Park Aragon Braswell Cedartown Rockmart National Register of Historic Places listings in Polk County, Georgia Polk County Historical Society Polk County Genealogy Polk County Courthouse – Carl Vinson Institute of Government, University of Georgia Polk County Tourism website – Polk on Purpose
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census