Fidelio, Op. 72, is Ludwig van Beethoven's only opera. The German libretto was prepared by Joseph Sonnleithner from the French of Jean-Nicolas Bouilly, with the work premiering at Vienna's Theater an der Wien on 20 November 1805; the following year, Stephan von Breuning helped shorten the work from three acts to two. After further work on the libretto by Georg Friedrich Treitschke, a final version was performed at the Kärntnertortheater on 23 May 1814. By convention, both of the first two versions are referred to as Leonore; the libretto, with some spoken dialogue, tells how Leonore, disguised as a prison guard named "Fidelio", rescues her husband Florestan from death in a political prison. Bouilly's scenario fits Beethoven's aesthetic and political outlook: a story of personal sacrifice and eventual triumph. With its underlying struggle for liberty and justice mirroring contemporary political movements in Europe, such topics are typical of Beethoven's "middle period". Notable moments in the opera include the "Prisoners' Chorus", an ode to freedom sung by a chorus of political prisoners, Florestan's vision of Leonore come as an angel to rescue him, the scene in which the rescue takes place.
The finale celebrates Leonore's bravery with alternating contributions of soloists and chorus. The work has a long and complicated history of composition: it went through three versions during Beethoven's career, some of the music was first written as part of an earlier, never-completed opera; the distant origin of Fidelio dates from 1803, when the librettist and impresario Emanuel Schikaneder worked out a contract with Beethoven to write an opera. The contract included free housing for Beethoven in the apartment complex, part of Schikaneder's large suburban theater, the Theater an der Wien. Beethoven was to set a new libretto by Schikaneder, entitled Vestas Feuer, he spent about a month composing music for it abandoned it when the libretto for Fidelio came to his attention. The time Beethoven spent on Vestas Feuer was not wasted, as two important numbers from Fidelio, Pizarro's "'Ha! Welch’ ein Augenblick!" and the duet "O namenlose Freude" for Leonora and Florestan, both originated as music for Vestas Feuer.
Beethoven remained as a resident of the Theater an der Wien for some time after he had abandoned Vestas Feuer for Fidelio, was freed from his obligations to Schikaneder when the latter was fired from his post as theater director in 1804. Fidelio itself, which Beethoven began in 1804 after giving up on Vestas Feuer, was first performed in 1805 and was extensively revised by the composer for subsequent performances in 1806 and 1814. Although Beethoven used the title Leonore, oder Der Triumph der ehelichen Liebe, the 1805 performances were billed as Fidelio at the theatre's insistence, to avoid confusion with the 1798 opera Léonore, ou L’amour conjugal by Pierre Gaveaux, the 1804 opera Leonora by Ferdinando Paer. Beethoven published the 1806 libretto and, in 1810, a vocal score under the title Leonore, the current convention is to use the name Leonore for both the 1805 and 1806 versions and Fidelio only for the final 1814 revision; the first version with a three-act German libretto adapted by Joseph Sonnleithner from the French of Jean-Nicolas Bouilly premiered at the Theater an der Wien on 20 November 1805, with additional performances the following two nights.
The success of these performances was hindered by the fact that Vienna was under French military occupation, most of the audience were French military officers. After this premiere, Beethoven was pressured by friends to revise and shorten the opera into just two acts, he did so with the help of Stephan von Breuning; the composer wrote a new overture. In this form the opera was first performed on 10 April 1806, with greater success. Further performances were prevented by a dispute between the theatre management. In 1814 Beethoven revised his opera yet again, with additional work on the libretto by Georg Friedrich Treitschke; this version was first performed at the Kärntnertortheater on 23 May 1814, again under the title Fidelio. The 17-year-old Franz Schubert was in the audience; the deaf Beethoven led the performance, "assisted" by Michael Umlauf, who performed the same task for Beethoven at the premiere of the Ninth Symphony. The role of Pizarro was taken by Johann Michael Vogl, who became known for his collaborations with Schubert.
This version of the opera was a great success, Fidelio has been part of the operatic repertory since. Although critics have noted the similarity in plot with Gluck's opera Orfeo ed Euridice—the underground rescue mission in which the protagonist must control, or conceal, his emotions in order to retrieve his or her spouse, we do not know whether or not Beethoven or any of the librettists had this in mind while constructing the opera. Beethoven can not be said to have enjoyed the difficulties posed by producing an opera. In a letter to Treitschke he said, "I assure you, dear Treitschke, that this opera will win me a martyr's crown. You have by your co-operation saved. For all this I shall be eternally grateful to you."The full score was not published until 1826, all three versions are known as Beethoven's Opus 72. The first performance outside Vienna took place in Prague on 21 November 1814, with a revival in
Fulpmes is a village and a municipality in Stubaital, Austria. In 2015 it had a population of 4,250. Fulpmes is the center of iron production in the area, lies at the base of the Schlick 2000 ski area; the municipality of Fulpmes belongs to the Innsbruck Land district. It has an area of 16.77 square kilometres, an altitude of 936 metres. The neighboring municipalities are Telfes and Mieders to the east. Fulpmes is the terminal station of the narrow-gauge railway Stubaitalbahn from Innsbruck. Clemens Holzmeister, architect Gregor Schlierenzauer, ski jumper
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
National Socialism, more known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – the National Socialist German Workers' Party – in Nazi Germany, of other far-right groups with similar aims. Nazism is a form of fascism and showed that ideology's disdain for liberal democracy and the parliamentary system, but incorporated fervent antisemitism, anti-communism, scientific racism, eugenics into its creed, its extreme nationalism came from Pan-Germanism and the Völkisch movement prominent in the German nationalism of the time, it was influenced by the Freikorps paramilitary groups that emerged after Germany's defeat in World War I, from which came the party's "cult of violence", "at the heart of the movement."Nazism subscribed to theories of racial hierarchy and Social Darwinism, identifying the Germans as a part of what the Nazis regarded as an Aryan or Nordic master race. It aimed to overcome social divisions and create a German homogeneous society based on racial purity which represented a people's community.
The Nazis aimed to unite all Germans living in German territory, as well as gain additional lands for German expansion under the doctrine of Lebensraum and exclude those who they deemed either community aliens or "inferior" races. The term "National Socialism" arose out of attempts to create a nationalist redefinition of "socialism", as an alternative to both Marxist international socialism and free market capitalism. Nazism rejected the Marxist concepts of class conflict and universal equality, opposed cosmopolitan internationalism, sought to convince all parts of the new German society to subordinate their personal interests to the "common good", accepting political interests as the main priority of economic organization; the Nazi Party's precursor, the Pan-German nationalist and antisemitic German Workers' Party, was founded on 5 January 1919. By the early 1920s the party was renamed the National Socialist German Workers' Party – to attract workers away from left-wing parties such as the Social Democrats and the Communists – and Adolf Hitler assumed control of the organization.
The National Socialist Program or "25 Points" was adopted in 1920 and called for a united Greater Germany that would deny citizenship to Jews or those of Jewish descent, while supporting land reform and the nationalization of some industries. In Mein Kampf, Hitler outlined the anti-Semitism and anti-Communism at the heart of his political philosophy, as well as his disdain for representative democracy and his belief in Germany's right to territorial expansion; the Nazi Party won the greatest share of the popular vote in the two Reichstag general elections of 1932, making them the largest party in the legislature by far, but still short of an outright majority. Because none of the parties were willing or able to put together a coalition government, in 1933 Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Paul Von Hindenburg, through the support and connivance of traditional conservative nationalists who believed that they could control him and his party. Through the use of emergency presidential decrees by Hindenburg, a change in the Weimar Constitution which allowed the Cabinet to rule by direct decree, bypassing both Hindenburg and the Reichstag, the Nazis had soon established a one-party state.
The Sturmabteilung and the Schutzstaffel functioned as the paramilitary organizations of the Nazi Party. Using the SS for the task, Hitler purged the party's more and economically radical factions in the mid-1934 Night of the Long Knives, including the leadership of the SA. After the death of President Hindenburg, political power was concentrated in Hitler's hands and he became Germany's head of state as well as the head of the government, with the title of Führer, meaning "leader". From that point, Hitler was the dictator of Nazi Germany, known as the "Third Reich", under which Jews, political opponents and other "undesirable" elements were marginalized, imprisoned or murdered. Many millions of people were exterminated in a genocide which became known as the Holocaust during World War II, including around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe. Following Germany's defeat in World War II and the discovery of the full extent of the Holocaust, Nazi ideology became universally disgraced.
It is regarded as immoral and evil, with only a few fringe racist groups referred to as neo-Nazis, describing themselves as followers of National Socialism. The full name of the party was Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei for which they used the acronym NSDAP; the term "Nazi" was in use before the rise of the NSDAP as a colloquial and derogatory word for a backwards farmer or peasant, characterizing an awkward and clumsy person. In this sense, the word Nazi was a hypocorism of the German male name Ignatz – Ignatz being a common name at the time in Bavaria, the area from which the NSDAP emerged. In the 1920s, political opponents of the NSDAP in the German labour movement seized on this and – using the earlier abbreviated term "Sozi" for Sozialist as an example – shortened NSDAP's name, Nationalsozialistische, to the dismissive "Nazi", in order to associate them with the derogatory use of the term mentioned above; the first use of the term "Nazi" by the National Socialists occurred in 1926 in a publication by Joseph Goebbels called Der Nazi-Sozi.
In Goebbels' pamphlet, the word "Nazi" only appears when linked with the word "Sozi" as an abbreviation of
Austria the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2, a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion, it is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps; the majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, Slovene. Austria played a central role in European History from the late 18th to the early 20th century, it emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal houses in history.
As archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Following the Holy Roman Empire's dissolution, Austria founded its own empire in the 19th century, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation. Subsequent to the Austro-Prussian War and the establishment of a union with Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was created. Austria was involved in both world wars. Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of government. Major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is ranked as one of the richest countries in the world by per capita GDP terms; the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. The republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995.
It is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, adopted the euro currency in 1999; the German name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrîchi, which meant "eastern realm" and which first appeared in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. This word is a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is "Ostravica" - because it is steep on both sides. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976; the word "Austria" was first recorded in the 12th century. At the time, the Danube basin of Austria was the easternmost extent of Bavaria; the Central European land, now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province. Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.
Carnuntum was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by Bavarians and Avars. Charlemagne, King of the Franks, conquered the area in AD 788, encouraged colonization, introduced Christianity; as part of Eastern Francia, the core areas that now encompass Austria were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976; the first record showing the name Austria is from 996, where it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs acquired the Duchy of Styria. With the death of Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished; as a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia assumed control of the duchies of Austria and Carinthia. His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278. Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception; the Habsburgs began to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. In 1477, Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress Maria of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family. In 1496, his son Philip the Fair married Joanna the Mad, the heiress of Castile and Aragon, thus acquiring Spain and its Italian and New World appendages for the Habsburgs. In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, Bohemia and the part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule. Ottoman expansion into Hungary led to frequent conflicts between the two empires evident in the Long War of 1593 to 1606.
The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times, of which some are c
TU Wien is one of the major universities in Vienna. The university has received extensive international and domestic recognition in teaching as well as in research, it is a esteemed partner of innovation oriented enterprises, it has about 26,200 students, eight faculties and about 4,000 staff members. The university's teaching and research is focused on engineering, computer science, natural sciences; the university's educational offerings have achieved wide domestic recognition. The institution was founded in 1815 by Emperor Francis II as the kaiserlich-königliches Polytechnisches Institut, it was renamed the Technische Hochschule in 1872. When it began granting doctoral and higher degrees in 1975, it was renamed the Vienna University of Technology. TU Wien is one of the most prestigious universities of technology in the world by presenting a top level of research and education. TU Wien is among the most successful technical universities in Europe and is Austria’s largest scientific-technical research and educational institution.
As a university of technology, TU Wien covers a wide spectrum of scientific concepts from abstract pure research and the fundamental principles of science to applied technological research and partnership with industry. For 200 years, TU Wien has been a place of research and learning in the service of progress. TU Wien is ranked 199th by the QS World University Ranking as of 2019, positioned among the best 251-300 higher education institutions globally by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings. Over the years the university has retained a good positioning of their Engineering and Computer Science departments; the has been ranked among the top 80 computer science departments in the world by the QS World University Ranking and The Times Higher Education World University Rankings respectively. In 2014, U. S. News ranked Computer Science at TU Wien as number 14 in Europe, equaling number 3 within German speaking universities. TU Wien has eight faculties led by deans: Architecture and Planning, Civil Engineering, Computer Sciences, Electrical Engineering and Information Technology and Geoinformation, Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Physics.
The University is led by four Vice Rectors. The Senate has 26 members; the University Council, consisting of seven members, acts as a supervisory board. Development work in all areas of technology is encouraged by the interaction between basic research and the different fields of engineering sciences at TU Wien; the framework of cooperative projects with other universities, research institutes and business sector partners is established by the research section of TU Wien. TU Wien has sharpened its research profile by defining competence fields and setting up interdisciplinary collaboration centres, clearer outlines will be developed. Research focus points of TU Wien are introduced as computational science and engineering, quantum physics and quantum technologies and matter, information and communication technology and energy and environment; the EU Research Support provides services at TU Wien and informs both researchers and administrative staff in preparing and carrying out EU research projects.
Siegfried Becher, professor of economics Ottó Titusz Bláthy, Hungarian mechanical engineer Günter Blöschl, Austrian hydrologist Christian Andreas Doppler, Austrian mathematician and physicist Hugo Ehrlich, Croatian architect Paul Eisler, inventor of the printed circuit Tillman Gerngross, Professor of Engineering at Dartmouth College, leading entrepreneur and bioengineer, founder of GlycoFi and Adimab Princess Marie-Therese of Hohenberg, Austrian architect and princess Adolph Giesl-Gieslingen, Austrian locomotive designer and engineer Karl Gölsdorf, Austrian engineer and locomotive designer Edmund Hlawka, Austrian mathematician Ingeborg Hochmair, electrical engineer, developed the first microelectronic, multi-channel cochlear implant Viktor Kaplan, inventor of the Kaplan turbine Leon Kellner, grammarian and Zionist Hermann Knoflacher, Austrian engineer Benno Mengele, Austrian electrical engineer Milutin Milanković, Serbian geophysicist and civil engineer Yordan Milanov, one of the leading Bulgarian architects from the end of 19th and the beginning of the 20th century Richard von Mises, scientist Hubert Petschnigg, architect Ferdinand Piëch, Austrian business magnate and executive, the chairman of the supervisory board of Volkswagen Group Franz Pitzinger, Constructor General of the Austrian Navy Herman Potočnik, Slovene space pioneer Alfred Preis, designer of the USS Arizona Memorial in Pearl Harbor Zvonimir Richtmann, Croatian physicist, philosopher and publicist Peter Schattschneider, Austrian physicist Rudolph Michael Schindler, early Modern architect Paul Schneider-Esleben, visiting professor of architecture Edo Šen, Croatian architect Camillo Sitte, Austrian architect Peter Skalicky, rector of the Vienna University of Technology from 1991-2011 Irfan Skiljan, author of the image viewer software Irfanview Hellmuth Stachel, Austrian mathematician Rud
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website