Adultery is extramarital sex, considered objectionable on social, moral, or legal grounds. Although what sexual activities constitute adultery varies, as well as the social and legal consequences, the concept exists in many cultures and is similar in Christianity and Judaism. A single act of sexual intercourse is sufficient to constitute adultery, a more long-term sexual relationship is sometimes referred to as an affair. Many cultures have considered adultery to be a serious crime. Adultery incurred severe punishment for the woman and sometimes for the man, with penalties including capital punishment, mutilation, or torture; such punishments have fallen into disfavor in Western countries from the 19th century. In most Western countries, adultery itself is no longer a criminal offense, but may still have legal consequences in divorce cases. For example, in fault-based family law jurisdictions, adultery always constitutes a ground for divorce and may be a factor in property settlement, the custody of children, the denial of alimony, etc.
Adultery is not a ground for divorce in jurisdictions. In some societies and among certain religious adherents, adultery may affect the social status of those involved, may result in social ostracism. In countries where adultery is a criminal offense, punishments range from fines to caning and capital punishment. Since the 20th century, criminal laws against adultery have become controversial, with international organizations calling for their abolition in the light of several high-profile stoning cases that have occurred in some countries; the head of the United Nations expert body charged with identifying ways to eliminate laws that discriminate against women or are discriminatory to them in terms of implementation or impact, Kamala Chandrakirana, has stated that: "Adultery must not be classified as a criminal offence at all". A joint statement by the United Nations Working Group on discrimination against women in law and in practice states that: "Adultery as a criminal offence violates women’s human rights".
In Muslim countries that follow Sharia law for criminal justice, the punishment for adultery may be stoning. There are fifteen countries in which stoning is authorized as lawful punishment, though in recent times it has been carried out only in Iran and Somalia. Most countries that criminalize adultery are those where the dominant religion is Islam, several Sub-Saharan African Christian-majority countries, but there are some notable exceptions to this rule, namely Philippines and several U. S. states. In some jurisdictions, having sexual relations with the king's wife or the wife of his eldest son constitutes treason. By analogy, in cultures which value and practice exclusive interpersonal relationships, sexual relations with a person outside the relationship may be described as infidelity or cheating, is subject to sanction; the term adultery refers to sexual acts between a married person and someone, not that person's spouse. It may arise in family law. For instance, in the United Kingdom, adultery is not a criminal offense, but is a ground for divorce, with the legal definition of adultery being "physical contact with an alien and unlawful organ".
Extramarital sexual acts not fitting this definition are not "adultery" though they may constitute "unreasonable behavior" a ground of divorce. The application of the term to the act appears to arise from the idea that "criminal intercourse with a married woman... tended to adulterate the issue of an innocent husband... and to expose him to support and provide for another man's ". Thus, the "purity" of the children of a marriage is corrupted, the inheritance is altered; some adultery laws differentiate based on the sex of the participants, as a result such laws are seen as discriminatory, in some jurisdictions they have been struck down by courts on the basis that they discriminated against women. The term adultery, rather than extramarital sex, implies a moral condemnation of the act. Adultery refers to sexual relations which are not legitimized. In the traditional English common law, adultery was a felony. Although the legal definition of adultery differs in nearly every legal system, the common theme is sexual relations outside of marriage, in one form or another.
In archaic law, there was a tort of adultery, called criminal conversation, "conversation" being an old expression for sexual intercourse. This tort has been abolished in all jurisdictions. Traditionally, many cultures Latin American ones, had strong double standards regarding male and female adultery, with the latter being seen as a much more serious violation. Adultery involving a married woman and a man other than her husband was considered a serious crime. In 1707, English Lord Chief Justice John Holt stated that a man having sexual relations with another man's wife was "the highest invasion of property" and claimed, in regard to the aggrieved husband, that "a man cannot receive a higher provocation"; the Encyclopedia of Diderot & d'Alembert, Vol. 1 equated adultery to theft writing that, "adultery is, after homicide, the most punishable of all crimes, because it is
John I of France
John I, called the Posthumous, was King of France and Navarre, as the posthumous son and successor of Louis X, for the five days he lived in 1316. John is the thirteenth French king from the House of Capet, he is the youngest person to be King of France, the only one to have borne that title from birth, the only one to hold the title for his entire life. His reign is the shortest of any French king. Although considered a king today, his status was not recognized until chroniclers and historians in centuries began numbering John II, thereby acknowledging John I's brief reign. John reigned for five days under the regency of his uncle, Philip the Tall, until his death on 20 November 1316, his death ended the three centuries of father-to-son succession to the French throne. The infant king was buried in Saint Denis Basilica, he was succeeded by his uncle, whose contested legitimacy led to the re-affirmation of the Salic law, which excluded women from the line of succession to the French throne. The child mortality rate was high in medieval Europe and John may have died from any number of causes, but rumours of poisoning spread after his death, as many people benefited from it, as John's father died in strange circumstances.
The cause of his death is still not known today. The premature death of John brought the first issue of succession of the Capetian dynasty; when Louis X, his father, died without a son to succeed him, it was the first time since Hugh Capet that the succession from father to son of the kings of France was interrupted. It was decided to wait until his pregnant widow, Clementia of Hungary, delivered the child; the king's brother, Philip the Tall, was in charge of the regency of the kingdom against his uncle Charles of Valois. The birth of a male child was expected to give France its king; the problem of succession returned. Philip ascended the throne at the expense of John's four-year-old half-sister, daughter of Louis X and Margaret of Burgundy. Various legends circulated about this royal child. First, it was claimed that Philip the Tall, had him poisoned. A strange story a few decades started the rumor that the little King John was not dead. During the captivity of John the Good, a man named Giannino Baglioni claimed to be John I and thus the heir to the throne.
He tried to assert his rights, but was captured in Provence and died in captivity in 1363. In The Man Who Believed He Was King of France, Tommaso di Carpegna Falconieri suggests that Cola di Rienzo manufactured false evidence that Baglioni was John the Posthumous in order to strengthen his own power in Rome by placing Baglioni on the French throne. Shortly after they met in 1354, di Rienzo was assassinated, Baglioni waited two years to report his claims, he went to the Hungarian court where Louis I of Hungary, nephew of Clementia of Hungary, recognized him as the son of Louis and Clementia. In 1360, Baglioni went to Avignon. After several attempts to gain recognition, he was arrested and imprisoned in Naples, where he died in 1363. Maurice Druon's historical novel series Les Rois maudits dramatises this theory. In La Loi des mâles, the infant John is temporarily switched with the child of Guccio Baglioni and Marie de Cressay as a decoy, he is subsequently poisoned by Mahaut, Countess of Artois, in order to place John's uncle, Count of Poitiers, on the throne.
Marie is coerced into secretly raising John as her own son, named Giannino Baglioni. An adult Giannino was portrayed by Jean-Gérard Sandoz in the 1972 French miniseries adaptation of the series, by Lorans Stoica in the 2005 adaptation. List of shortest reigning monarchs of all time "Summaries of Foreign Reviews: Natura ed Arte - Giannino Baglioni"; the Scottish Review. 28. July 1896. Pp. 160–61
Capetian House of Anjou
The Capetian House of Anjou was a royal house and cadet branch of the direct French House of Capet, part of the Capetian dynasty. It is one of three separate royal houses referred to meaning "from Anjou" in France. Founded by Charles I of Naples, the youngest son of Louis VIII of France, the Capetian king first ruled the Kingdom of Sicily during the 13th century; the War of the Sicilian Vespers forced him out of the island of Sicily, leaving him with the southern half of the Italian Peninsula — the Kingdom of Naples. The house and its various branches would go on to influence much of the history of Southern and Central Europe during the Middle Ages, until becoming defunct in 1435; the House ruled the counties of Anjou, Touraine and Forcalquier, the principalities of Achaea and Taranto, the kingdoms of Sicily, Hungary, Croatia and Poland. A younger son of House of Capet king Louis VIII of France the Lion, Charles was first given a noble title by his brother Louis IX of France who succeeded to the French throne in 1226.
Charles was named Count of Maine. Charles married the heiress of the County of Provence named Beatrice of Provence, she was a member of the House of Barcelona. After fighting in the Seventh Crusade, Charles was offered by Pope Clement IV the Kingdom of Sicily — which at the time included not only the island of Sicily but the southern half of the Italian Peninsula; the reason for Charles being offered the kingdom was because of a conflict between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire, the latter of whom were represented by the ruling House of Hohenstaufen. It was at the Battle of Benevento that the Guelph Capetians gained the Sicilian kingdom from the Ghibelline Swabians, this was cemented after victory at Tagliacozzo. In keeping with the political landscape of the period, Charles is described by scholars as shrewd and ambitious, he signed the Treaty of Viterbo in 1267 with Baldwin II of Courtenay and William II of Villehardouin, the political alliance gave many of the rights of the Latin Empire to Charles and a marriage alliance for his daughter Beatrice of Sicily.
The Byzantines had taken back the city of Constantinople in 1261 and this was a plan to take it back from Michael VIII Palaiologos. It recognised Charles' possession of Corfu and cities in the Balkans such as Durazzo, as well as giving him suzerainty over the Principality of Achaea and sovereignty of the Aegean islands aside from those held by the Republic of Venice. For a while Charles was preoccupied helping his French brother in the unsuccessful Eighth Crusade on Tunis. After this he once again focused on Constantinople, but his fleet was wrecked in a freak storm off the coast of Trapani. With the elevation of Pope Gregory X, there was a truce between Charles and Michael in the form of the Council of Lyons, as Christians focused on improving ecumenical relations, with hopes of regaining the Kingdom of Jerusalem back from the Muslims. Charles had solidified his rule over Durazzo by 1272, creating a small Kingdom of Albania for himself, out of Despotate of Epirus territory. Charles was driven out of Sicily in 1282, but his successors ruled Naples until 1435.
This House of Anjou included the branches of Anjou-Hungary, which ruled Hungary and Poland, Anjou-Taranto, which ruled the remnants of the Latin Empire and Anjou-Durazzo, which ruled Naples and Hungary. The senior line of the House of Anjou-Durazzo became extinct in the male line with the death of King Ladislaus of Naples in 1414, extinct with the death of his sister Joanna II in 1435. During Middle Ages, there were the House of Capet. Charles I, founder of the House of Anjou-Sicily, with his first wife, Beatrice of Provence fathered his eldest son, Charles II of Naples. In 1270, Charles II married Mary of Hungary, daughter of Stephen V of Hungary and Elizabeth the Cuman, they had fourteen children which provided the House of Anjou-Sicily with a secure position in Naples. The childless Ladislaus IV of Hungary, was succeeded by Andrew III as King of Hungary, he was the son of Stephen the Posthumous, considered by Stephen's much older half-brothers a bastard son of infidelity. For this reason, after the death of Ladislaus IV. some of the Árpád dynasty's cognates sought the family as extinct.
In Naples, Charles Martel of Anjou, the eldest son of Mary of Hungary announced his claim to the Hungarian crown, backed by his mother, the pope. He started to style himself king of Hungary, but he never managed to gain enough support from the Hungarian magnates to realize his claim. With Andrew III's childless death, the "last golden branch" of the tree of King Saint Stephen's family ended; the Hungarian diet was determined to keep the blood of Saint Stephen on the throne in the maternal line at least. In the upcoming years, a civil war followed between various claimants to the throne. After the short period of rule of Wenceslaus of Bohemia, Otto of Bavaria the civil war ended with Charles Robert's victory, the son of Charles Martel of Anjou, but he was forced to continue fighting against the powerful Hungarian l
Buda was the ancient capital of the Kingdom of Hungary and since 1873 has been the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest, on the west bank of the Danube. Buda comprises a third of Budapest’s total territory and is in fact wooded. Landmarks include Buda Castle, the Citadella, President of Hungary's residence Sándor Palace; the Buda fortress and palace were built by King Béla IV of Hungary in 1247, were the nucleus round which the town of Buda was built, which soon gained great importance, became in 1361 the capital of Hungary. While Pest was Hungarian in the 15th century, Buda had a German majority. Buda became part of Ottoman-ruled central Hungary from 1541 to 1686, it was the capital of the province of Budin during the Ottoman era. By the middle of the seventeenth century Buda had become majority Muslim resulting from an influx of Balkan Muslims. In 1686, two years after the unsuccessful siege of Buda, a renewed European campaign was started to enter Buda, the capital of medieval Hungary.
This time, the Holy League's army was twice as large, containing over 74,000 men, including German, Hungarian, Spanish, French, Burgundian and Swedish soldiers, along with other Europeans as volunteers and officers, the Christian forces reconquered Buda. After the reconquest of Buda, bourgeoisie from different parts of southern Germany moved into the deserted city. Germans — clinging to their language — crowded out assimilated the Hungarians and Serbians they had found here; as the rural population moved into Buda, in the 19th century Hungarians became the majority there. Edmund Hauler and philologist Andrew III of Hungary, buried in the Greyfriars' Church in Buda Jadwiga of Poland, born here, first woman proclaimed to be'king' of Poland. Capestrano, Italy Pest Óbuda Buda Castle Richard Brookes, "Buda", The General Gazetteer, London: J. F. C. Rivington David Brewster, ed.. "Buda". Edinburgh Encyclopædia. Edinburgh: William Blackwood. John Thomson, "Buda", New Universal Gazetteer and Geographical Dictionary, London: H.
G. Bohn Charles Knight, ed.. "Buda". Geography. English Cyclopaedia. 2. London: Bradbury, Evans, & Co. Drawings of Castle Buda over the centuries
Philip IV of France
Philip IV, called Philip the Fair, was King of France from 1285 until his death. By virtue of his marriage with Joan I of Navarre, he was King of Navarre as Philip I from 1284 to 1305, as well as Count of Champagne. Although Philip was known as handsome, hence the epithet le Bel, his rigid and inflexible personality gained him other nicknames, such as the Iron King, his fierce opponent Bernard Saisset, bishop of Pamiers, said of him: "he is neither beast. He is a statue."Philip relied on skillful civil servants, such as Guillaume de Nogaret and Enguerrand de Marigny, to govern the kingdom rather than on his nobles. Philip and his advisors were instrumental in the transformation of France from a feudal country to a centralized state. Philip, who sought an uncontested monarchy, compelled his vassals by wars and restricted feudal usages, his ambitions made him influential in European affairs. His goal was to place his relatives on foreign thrones. Princes from his house ruled in Hungary, he failed to make another relative the Holy Roman Emperor.
He began the long advance of France eastward by taking control of scattered fiefs. The most notable conflicts of Philip's reign include a dispute with the English over King Edward I's fiefs in southwestern France, a war with the Flemish, who had rebelled against French royal authority and humiliated Philip at the Battle of the Golden Spurs in 1302. In 1306, Philip expelled the Jews from France, in 1307 he annihilated the order of the Knights Templar, he was in debt to both groups and saw them as a "state within the state". To further strengthen the monarchy, Philip tried to take control of the French clergy, leading to a violent conflict with Pope Boniface VIII; this conflict resulted in the transfer of the papal court to the enclave of Avignon in 1309. His final year saw a scandal amongst the royal family, known as the Tour de Nesle affair, in which Philip's three daughters-in-law were accused of adultery, his three sons were successively kings of France, Louis X, Philip V, Charles IV. Their deaths without surviving sons of their own would compromise the future of the French royal house, which until seemed secure, precipitating a succession crisis that would lead to the Hundred Years' War.
A member of the House of Capet, Philip was born in the medieval fortress of Fontainebleau to the future Philip III, the Bold, his first wife, Isabella of Aragon. He was the second of four sons born to the couple, his father was the heir apparent of France at that time, being the eldest son of King Louis IX. In August 1270, when Philip was two years old, his grandfather died while on Crusade, his father became king, his elder brother Louis became heir apparent. Only five months in January 1271, Philip's mother died after falling from a horse. A few months one of Philip's younger brothers, Robert died. Philip's father was crowned king at Rheims on 15 August 1271. Six days he married again. In May 1276, Philip's elder brother Louis died, the eight year old Philip became heir apparent, it was suspected that Louis had been poisoned, that his stepmother, Marie of Brabant, had instigated the murder. One reason for these rumours was the fact that the queen had given birth to her own first son the month Louis died.
However, both Philip and his surviving full brother Charles lived well into adulthood and raised large families of their own. The scholastic part of Philip's education was entrusted to his father's almoner. After the unsuccessful Aragonese Crusade against Peter III of Aragon, which ended in October 1285, Philip may have negotiated an agreement with Peter for the safe withdrawal of the Crusader army; this pact is attested to by Catalan chroniclers. Joseph Strayer points out that such a deal was unnecessary, as Peter had little to gain from provoking a battle with the withdrawing French or angering the young Philip, who had friendly relations with Aragon through his mother. Philip married Queen Joan I of Navarre on 16 August 1284; the two were affectionate and devoted to each other and Philip refused to remarry after Joan's death in 1305, despite the great political and financial rewards of doing so. The primary administrative benefit of the marriage was Joan's inheritance of Champagne and Brie, which were adjacent to the royal demesne in Ile-de-France, thus were united to the king's own lands, expanding his realm.
The annexation of wealthy Champagne increased the royal revenues removed the autonomy of a large semi-independent fief and expanded royal territory eastward. Philip gained Lyon for France in 1312. Navarre remained in personal union with France, beginning in 1284 under Philip and Joan, for 44 years; the Kingdom of Navarre in the Pyrenees had a degree of strategic importance. When in 1328 the Capetian line went extinct, the new Valois king, Philip VI, attempted to permanently annex the lands to France, compensating the lawful claimant, Joan II of Navarre, senior heir of Philip IV, with lands elsewhere in France. However, pressure from Joan II's family led to Phillip VI surrendering the land to Joan in 1329, the rulers of Navarre and France were again different individuals. After marrying Joan I of Navarre, becoming Philip I of Navarre, Philip ascended the French throne at the age of 17, he was crowned in 1286 in Reims. As king, Philip was determined to strength
Basilica of Saint-Denis
The Basilica of Saint-Denis is a large medieval abbey church in the city of Saint-Denis, now a northern suburb of Paris. The building is of singular importance and architecturally as its choir, completed in 1144, shows the first use of all of the elements of Gothic architecture; the site originated as a Gallo-Roman cemetery in late Roman times. The archeological remains still lie beneath the cathedral. Around 475 St. Genevieve built Saint-Denys de la Chapelle. In 636 on the orders of Dagobert I the relics of Saint Denis, a patron saint of France, were reinterred in the basilica; the relics of St-Denis, transferred to the parish church of the town in 1795, were brought back again to the abbey in 1819. The basilica became a place of pilgrimage and the burial place of the French Kings with nearly every king from the 10th to the 18th centuries being buried there, as well as many from previous centuries. "Saint-Denis" soon became the abbey church of a growing monastic complex. In the 12th century the Abbot Suger rebuilt portions of the abbey church using innovative structural and decorative features.
In doing so, he is said to have created the first Gothic building. The basilica's 13th-century nave is the prototype for the Rayonnant Gothic style, provided an architectural model for many medieval cathedrals and abbeys of northern France, England and a great many other countries; the abbey church became a cathedral in 1966 and is the seat of the Bishop of Saint-Denis, Pascal Michel Ghislain Delannoy. Although known as the "Basilica of St Denis", the cathedral has not been granted the title of Minor Basilica by the Vatican. Saint Denis, a patron saint of France, became the first bishop of Paris, he was decapitated on the hill of Montmartre in the mid-third century with two of his followers, is said to have subsequently carried his head to the site of the current church, indicating where he wanted to be buried. A martyrium was erected on the site of his grave, which became a famous place of pilgrimage during the fifth and sixth centuries. Dagobert, the king of the Franks, refounded the church as the Abbey of Saint Denis, a Benedictine monastery.
Dagobert commissioned a new shrine to house the saint's remains, created by his chief councillor, Eligius, a goldsmith by training. An early vita of Saint Eligius describes the shrine: Above all, Eligius fabricated a mausoleum for the holy martyr Denis in the city of Paris with a wonderful marble ciborium over it marvelously decorated with gold and gems, he composed a crest and a magnificent frontal and surrounded the throne of the altar with golden axes in a circle. He placed golden apples there and jeweled, he made a roof for the throne of the altar on silver axes. He made a covering in the place before the tomb and fabricated an outside altar at the feet of the holy martyr. So much industry did he lavish there, at the king's request, poured out so much that scarcely a single ornament was left in Gaul and it is the greatest wonder of all to this day. None of this work survives; the Basilica of St Denis ranks as an architectural landmark—as the first major structure of which a substantial part was designed and built in the Gothic style.
Both stylistically and structurally, it heralded the change from Romanesque architecture to Gothic architecture. Before the term "Gothic" came into common use, it was known as the "French Style"; as it now stands, the church is a large cruciform building of "basilica" form. It has an additional aisle on the northern side formed of a row of chapels; the west front has three portals, a rose one tower, on the southern side. The eastern end, built over a crypt, is apsidal, surrounded by an ambulatory and a chevet of nine radiating chapels; the basilica retains stained glass of many periods, including exceptional modern glass, a set of twelve misericords. The basilica measures 108 meters long, its width is 39 meters. Little is known about the earliest buildings on the site; the first church mentioned in the chronicles was begun in 754 under Pepin the Short and completed under Charlemagne, present at its consecration in 775. By 832 the Abbey had been granted a remunerative whaling concession on the Cotentin Peninsula.
Most of what is now known about the Carolingian church at St Denis resulted from a lengthy series of excavations begun under the American art historian Sumner McKnight Crosby in 1937. The building was about 60m long, with a monumental westwork, single transepts, a crossing tower and a lengthy eastern apse over a large crypt. According to one of the Abbey's many foundation myths a leper, sleeping in the nearly completed church the night before its planned consecration, witnessed a blaze of light from which Christ, accompanied by St Denis and a host of angels, emerged to conduct the consecration ceremony himself. Before leaving, Christ healed the leper, tearing off his diseased skin to reveal a perfect complexion underneath. A misshapen patch on a marble column was said to be the leper's former skin, which stuck there when Christ discarded it. Having been consecrated by Christ, the fabric of the bui
Philip V of France
Philip V, knowns as the Tall, was King of France and Navarre. He reigned from 1316 to his death and was the fourteenth and penultimate monarch of the main line of the House of Capet; as the second son of king Philip IV, he was granted an appanage, the County of Poitiers, while his elder brother, Louis X, inherited the throne in 1314. When Louis died in 1316, he left Clementia of Hungary. Philip the Tall claimed the regency. Queen Clementia gave birth to a boy, proclaimed king as John I, but the infant king lived only for five days. At the death of his nephew, Philip had himself crowned at Reims. However, his legitimacy was challenged by the party of Louis X’s daughter Joan. Philip V contested her claims for a number of reasons, including her youth, doubts regarding her paternity, the Estates General's determination that women should be excluded from the line of succession to the French throne; the succession of Philip, instead of Joan, set the precedent for the French royal succession that would be famously known as the Salic law.
Philip V restored somewhat good relations with the County of Flanders, which had entered into open rebellion during his father’s rule, but his relations with Edward II of England worsened as the English king, Duke of Guyenne refused to pay him homage. A spontaneous popular crusade started in Normandy in 1320 aiming to liberate Iberia from the Moors. Instead the angry populace marched to the south attacking castles, royal officials, priests and Jews. Philip V engaged in a series of domestic reforms intended to improve the management of the kingdom; these reforms included the creation of an independent Court of Finances, the standardization of weights and measures, the establishment of a single currency. Philip V died from dysentery in 1322 without a male heir and was succeeded by his younger brother Charles IV. Philip was born in the second son of King Philip IV of France and Queen Joan I of Navarre, his father granted to him the county of Poitiers in appanage. Modern historians have described Philip V as a man of "considerable intelligence and sensitivity", the "wisest and politically most apt" of Philip IV's three sons.
Philip was influenced by the troubles and unrest that his father had encountered during 1314, as well as by the difficulties his older brother, Louis X, known as "the Quarreler", had faced during the intervening few years. At the heart of the problems for both Philip IV and Louis X were taxes and the difficulty in raising them outside of crises. Philip married Joan of Burgundy, the eldest daughter of Otto IV, Count of Burgundy and Mahaut, Countess of Artois, in 1307; the original plan had been for Louis X to marry Joan, but this was altered after Louis was engaged to Margaret of Burgundy. Modern scholars have found little evidence as to whether the marriage was a happy one, but the pair had a considerable number of children in a short space of time, Philip was exceptionally generous to Joan by the standards of the day. Philip went to great lengths not only to endow Joan with lands and money but to try to ensure that these gifts were irrevocable in the event of his early death. Amongst the various gifts were a palace, additional money for jewels, her servants and the property of all the Jews in Burgundy, which he gave to Joan in 1318.
Joan was implicated in Margaret's adultery case during 1314. Joan was suspected of having secretly known about the adultery. With Philip's support she continued to protest her innocence, by 1315 her name had been cleared by the Paris Parlement through Philip's influence, she was allowed to return to court, it is unclear. One theory has been that he was concerned that if he were to abandon Joan, he might lose Burgundy. Philip's older brother, Louis X, died in 1316 leaving the pregnant Clementia of Hungary as his widow. There were several potential candidates for the role of regent, including Charles of Valois and Duke Odo IV of Burgundy, but Philip outmanoeuvred them, being appointed regent himself. Philip remained as regent for the remainder of the pregnancy and for a few days after the birth of his nephew John I, who lived for only five days; the death of John I was unprecedented in the history of the Capetian Kings of France. For the first time, the king of France died without a male heir; the heir to the throne was now a subject of some dispute.
Joan, the remaining daughter of Louis X by Margaret of Burgundy, was one obvious candidate, but suspicion still hung over her as a result of the scandal in 1314, including concerns over her actual parentage. With only his niece between himself and the throne, Philip engaged in some rapid political negotiations and convinced Charles of Valois, who along with Odo IV was championing Joan's rights, to switch sides and support him instead. In exchange for marrying Philip's daughter, Odo IV abandoned his niece's cause, not only her claim to the French throne but her claim to Navarre's. On 9 January 1317, with Charles's support, Philip was hastily crowned at Rheims; the majority of the nobility, refused to attend, there were demonstrations in Champagne and Burgundy, Philip called a rapid assembly of the nobility