The Young Mens Christian Association is a worldwide organisation based in Geneva, with more than 57 million beneficiaries from 125 national associations. It was founded on 6 June 1844 by George Williams in London and aims to put Christian principles into practice by developing a body, mind. These three angles are reflected by the different sides of the triangle—part of all YMCA logos, from its inception, it grew rapidly and ultimately became a worldwide movement founded on the principles of Muscular Christianity. YMCAs continue to be religious organisations, many national or local organisations de-emphasise this aspect, the different local YMCAs are voluntarily affiliated through their national organisations. The national organisations in turn are part of both an Area Alliance and the World Alliance of YMCAs, the World Alliances main motto is empowering young people. It was associated with industrialisation and the movement of people to cities to work. The YMCA combined preaching in the streets and the distribution of religious tracts with a social ministry, philanthropists saw them as places for wholesome recreation that would preserve youth from the temptations of alcohol and prostitution and that would promote good citizenship.
The YMCA was founded by George Williams, a London draper and he and his colleagues were concerned about the lack of healthy activities for young men in major cities, the options available were usually taverns and brothels. By 1851, there were YMCAs in the United Kingdom, Belgium, France, the Netherlands and the United States. In 1855,99 YMCA delegates from Europe and North America met in Paris at the First World Conference of YMCAs and they discussed joining together in a federation to enhance cooperation amongst individual YMCA societies. This marked the beginning of the World Alliance of YMCAs, the conference adopted the Paris Basis, a common mission for all present and future national YMCAs. Its motto was taken from the Bible, That they all may be one, in 1865 The Fourth World Conference of YMCAs, held in Germany, affirmed the importance of developing the whole individual in body and spirit. The concept of work through sports, a new concept for the time, was recognised as part of this muscular Christianity.
Today the YMCA is more focused on inspiring youths and their families to exercise, in 1878, World Alliance of YMCAs offices were established in Geneva, Switzerland. Later, in 1900, North American YMCAs, in collaboration with the World Alliance, set up centres to work with emigrants in European ports, as millions of people were leaving for the USA. In 1885, Camp Baldhead, the first residential camp in the United States and North America, was established by A. Sanford and Sumner F. Dudley, both of whom worked for the YMCA. The camp, originally located near Orange Lake in New Jersey, moved to Lake Wawayanda in Sussex County the following year, by 1910, the YMCA was an early influence upon scouting, including the Boy Scouts of America and German Scouting. Edgar M. Robinson, a Chicago-area YMCA administrator, briefly left the YMCA to become the BSAs first director, the Blue Ridge Association for Christian Conferences and Training was formed in 1907, and shortly thereafter built the Blue Ridge Assembly conference centre
The Mitford family is a gentry English family whose main family line had seats at Mitford, Northumberland. Several heads of the served as High Sheriff of Northumberland. The Mitford sisters were William Mitfords great-great-great-granddaughters, the family traces its origins in Northumberland back to the time of the Norman conquest. In the Middle Ages they had been Border Reivers based in Redesdale, the main family line had seats at Mitford Castle and Mitford Old Manor House prior to Mitford Hall in 1828. Nancy and Jessica became well-known writers, Nancy the author of The Pursuit of Love and Love in a Cold Climate, Deborah managed one of the most successful stately homes in England, Chatsworth. Jessica and Deborah married nephews-by-marriage of prime ministers Winston Churchill and Harold Macmillan and Diana both married wealthy aristocrats. Unity and Diana were well-known during the 1930s for being close to Adolf Hitler, Jessica turned her back on her inherited privileges, ran away to become a communist, a result of the excitement of European politics in the 1930s.
Jessicas memoir and Rebels, describes their upbringing, in the early 1980s, Deborah became politically active when she and her husband Andrew Cavendish, 11th Duke of Devonshire joined the new Social Democratic Party. The sisters and their brother Thomas were the children of David Bertram Ogilvy Freeman-Mitford, 2nd Baron Redesdale, known to his children as Farve and their mother was Sydney Freeman-Mitford, Baroness Redesdale, known as Muv, the daughter of Thomas Bowles. David and Sydney married in 1904, the family homes changed from Batsford House to Asthall Manor beside the River Windrush in Oxfordshire, and Swinbrook Cottage nearby, with a house at Rutland Gate in London. They lived in a cottage in High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire which they used as a summer residence, there was a disregard for formal education of women of the family, and they were expected to marry at a young age to a financially well-off husband. The children had a language called Boudledidge, and each had a different nickname for the others.
Upon the outbreak of the Second World War, their views came into sharper relief. Farve remained a conservative, but Muv usually supported her fascist daughters, Nancy, a moderate socialist, worked in London during the Blitz. Pamela remained seemingly non-political, although reportedly a rabid anti-Semite, tom, a fascist, refused to fight Germany but volunteered to fight against Imperial Japan. He was killed in action a short time after arriving in Asia, married to Sir Oswald Mosley, leader of the British Union of Fascists, was imprisoned in London for three years under Defence Regulation 18B. Unity, distraught over the war declaration against Germany, tried to commit suicide by shooting herself in the head and she suffered brain damage which eventually led to her early death. Jessica, a communist supporter, had moved to the US, in numerous letters Jessica stated that her daughter received a pension from the Canadian government from Esmonds death until she turned 18
Walter Guinness, 1st Baron Moyne
Walter Edward Guinness, 1st Baron Moyne, DSO & Bar, PC was an Anglo-Irish politician and businessman. He served as the British minister of state in the Middle East until November 1944, the assassination of Lord Moyne sent shock waves through Palestine and the rest of the world. Walter Guinness was born in Dublin, the son of the 1st Earl of Iveagh. His family homes were at Farmleigh near Dublin, and at Elveden in Suffolk, at Eton, Guinness was elected head of Pop, the club for prefects, and was appointed Captain of Boats. On 24 June 1903, he married Lady Evelyn Hilda Stuart Erskine, third daughter of Shipley Gordon Stuart Erskine, the Earls of Buchan were an ancient family in the Scottish nobility. The company left for South Africa in February 1900, and during the service he was promoted to the rank of captain in the army. According to Wilson, they had an ethos and distaste for military discipline. They made lightning raids on Afrikaner positions, they skirmished ahead of advancing columns, at the end of May 1900, led by Major-General Hamilton, they assaulted the ridge at Doornkop, though Guinness was wounded immediately after the battle in mopping-up at Witpoortjie.
For his war effort, he was Mentioned in Despatches and was entitled to the Queens South Africa Medal with four clasps. Following the war, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant in the Suffolk Imperial Yeomanry on 12 March 1902. During World War I, he served with distinction in the Suffolk Yeomanry in Egypt and he was appointed a Brigade Major in the 25th division in 1916. In the fighting around Passchendaele, he was awarded the DSO in 1917, and a bar to it in 1918 during the German Spring Offensive, for personal bravery and he ended the war as a Lieutenant-Colonel attached to the 66th division. His laconic war diaries were published in 1987, edited by Professor Brian Bond, in the 1906 general election as a Conservative candidate, he unsuccessfully contested Stowmarket, a constituency in which he had a family estate. He took the line on Home Rule for Ireland, suffragism. In 1912, the editor of the magazine Guinness owned, The Outlook, broke the Marconi scandal, accusing Lloyd George, Other publications developed the story, but it could not be proven even after lengthy debate.
When his role was debated, Guinness explained that he was on safari in Africa at the start, and he visited eastern Anatolia in 1913 and reported that Armenians were being armed secretly by Russia. World War I reduced Guinnesss attendances and opponents accused him of cowardice for being in the House at all, Irish political developments after 1916 were a concern as the Guinness business was in Dublin. During the Easter Rebellion the brewery first-aid teams helped both sides, the Guinnesses were opposed to the Sinn Féin rebels, who hailed the Central Powers as gallant allies
Sarah Churchill (actress)
Sarah Millicent Hermione Touchet-Jesson, Baroness Audley, was a British actress and dancer. She was educated at Notting Hill High School as a day girl, only Sarahs third marriage to Lord Audley was greeted with warm approval by both parents. Sarahs marriage to Beauchamp in America in 1949 came as a shock to her parents since they had neither been introduced to Beauchamp nor informed of the forthcoming marriage. Despite her stubborn rebellion against the expectations of parents, Sarah reportedly felt guilty about this for the rest of her life, since she had craved her fathers approval in most matters. In 1964 Sarah became romantically involved with African-American émigré jazz singer and painter Lobo Nocho and her father was believed to have disapproved of this relationship. During the Second World War, Churchill joined the Womens Auxiliary Air Force, known by the name Sarah Oliver, Babington Smith says she was a quick and versatile interpreter. Aspects of Churchills wartime service are described in detail in Women of Intelligence.
American author Christopher Ogdens biography of Pamela Harriman and other sources indicate that during the war she had an affair with US Ambassador John Gilbert Winant, and that it ended badly. Churchill is best known for her role in the film Royal Wedding as Anne Ashmond, in the same year, she had her own television show. She appeared in He Found a Star, All Over the Town, Fabian of the Yard and she appeared on both the Jack Benny radio and television programmes. On television, she appeared on the episode How Jack Met Rochester, in 1961, she appeared as Rosalind in Shakespeares As You Like It at the Pembroke-in-the-round Theatre in West Croydon. Her parents were noted as paying a visit to watch her performance which was almost entirely attended by Croydon schoolchildren. During the course of her life she created several lithographic prints, in the 1950s Churchill produced several prints featuring Malibu, California. The series was constructed by Churchill to represent her fathers great drive.
In the series, most of the prints were based on chosen by famous photographs chosen by Churchill, each print was given a quote by Sir Winston Churchill and were signed by Sarah Churchill in pencil. Churchill appeared in a London revival of Shaw’s Pygmalion in the 1950s and she was arrested for making a scene in the street on a number of occasions and even spent a short spell on remand in HM Prison Holloway. She wrote frankly about this in her 1981 autobiography Keep on Dancing, Sarah Churchill died on 24 September 1982 at the age of 67. She is buried with her parents and siblings at St Martins Church, near Woodstock, Oxfordshire
Berkhamsted School is an independent school in Berkhamsted, England. The new merged school was initially called Berkhamsted Collegiate School, in 2011 Berkhamsted School merged with Heatherton House School, a girls preparatory school in Amersham, to form the Berkhamsted Schools Group. The Group acquired Haresfoot School in Berkhamsted and its on site day nursery in 2012, the school has four main sites, the Pre-Prep School, the Prep School, the Castle Street Campus and Kings Road Campus. Mr Richard Backhouse, previously principal of Monkton Combe School, became Principal of the School in January 2016, all Berkhamsted pupils belong to a House throughout their time at the School. Each House is run by a House-master supported by several house tutors, together they are responsible for providing pastoral support for their pupils and serve as the primary link between parents and the School. Houses are both physical environments and communities, each forming an entity within the larger organisation of the School itself.
Pupils attend their house for morning and afternoon registration, to games throughout the day. They participate in School events on behalf of their House, Adders was formed in 1915 to accommodate the so-called train boys who, by nature of their daily commute to school, were often excluded from School activities. Various explanations have been given for the name Adders and it may be a casual abbreviation of the add-on house, or a contraction of Adlebert House, now the Chaplains residence. However, according to a current in the 1960s, the boys were asked for suggestions. On being asked why, he explained, Puff adders, sir, an allusion to the steam trains on which the pupils travelled. Adders is situated in a building next to Newcroft and it takes the ground floor while Frys house uses the top floor. Current Head of House is Mrs Rachael Warburton, dating back to 1897 and situated on Mill Street next to Swifts. Current Head of House is Mr Daniel Van Noordwyk, opened in 1958 in response to the growing numbers of day boys.
Until September 2010, the house occupied a building located next to the Tesco carpark. Coxs moved from its present location to the site of the old swimming pool, the former Coxs house was renovated into a new Drama Studio. Current Head of House is Mr Rob Moseley, Frys is named after one of Berkhamsteds most successful Headmasters – Dr Fry. Current Head of House is Dr Andrew Harker, found along the Cloisters of the Grass Quad
A given name is a part of a persons personal name. It identifies a person, and differentiates that person from other members of a group, such as a family or clan. The term given name refers to the fact that the name usually is bestowed upon a person and this contrasts with a surname, which is normally inherited, and shared with other members of the childs immediate family. Given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner in informal situations. In more formal situations the surname is commonly used, unless it is necessary to distinguish between people with the same surname. The idioms on a basis and being on first-name terms allude to the familiarity of addressing another by a given name. The order given name – family name, commonly known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by Western Europe. The order family name – given name, commonly known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India.
The order given name - fathers family name - mothers family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed legally in Spain using given name - mothers family name - fathers family name, under the common Western naming convention, people may have one or more forenames. If more than one, there is usually a main forename for everyday use, sometimes however two or more forenames may carry equal weight. There is no particular ordering rule for forenames – often the main forename is at the beginning, a childs given name or names are usually chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a ceremony, with family. In most jurisdictions, a name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate. In western cultures, people normally retain the same name throughout their lives. However, in some cases names may be changed by petitioning a court of law. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions, in France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge.
Some jurisdictions, like in Sweden, restrict the spelling of names, parents may choose a name because of its meaning
Borneo is the third-largest island in the world and the largest island in Asia. At the geographic centre of Maritime Southeast Asia, in relation to major Indonesian islands, it is located north of Java, west of Sulawesi, the island is politically divided among three countries and Brunei in the north, and Indonesia to the south. Approximately 73% of the island is Indonesian territory, in the north, the East Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak make up about 26% of the island. Additionally, the Malaysian federal territory of Labuan is situated on an island just off the coast of Borneo. The sovereign state of Brunei, located on the north coast, antipodal to an area of Amazon rainforest, Borneo is itself home to one of the oldest rainforests in the world, and to Bornean orangutans. The island is known by names, internationally it is known as Borneo, after Brunei. The name Brunei possibly was derived from the Sanskrit word váruṇa, meaning either ocean or the mythological Varuna. Indonesian natives called it Kalimantan, which was derived from the Sanskrit word Kalamanthana, prior to that the island was known by other names.
In 977 Chinese records began to use the term Po-ni to refer to Borneo or Brunei, in 1225 it was mentioned by the Chinese official Chau Ju-Kua. The Javanese manuscript Nagarakretagama, written by Majapahit court poet Mpu Prapanca in 1365, mentioned the island as Nusa Tanjungnagara, to the west of Borneo are the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra. To the south and east are islands of Indonesia and Sulawesi, to the northeast are the Philippine Islands. With an area of 743,330 square kilometres, it is the third-largest island in the world and its highest point is Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, with an elevation of 4,095 m. The largest river system is the Kapuas in West Kalimantan, with a length of 1,143 km, other major rivers include the Mahakam in East Kalimantan, the Barito in South Kalimantan, and Rajang in Sarawak. Clearwater Cave, for example, has one of the worlds longest underground rivers, deer Cave is home to over three million bats, with guano accumulated to over 100 metres deep. The South China Sea and Gulf of Thailand now submerge the former low-lying areas of the peninsula, the Borneo rainforest is 140 million years old, making it one of the oldest rainforests in the world.
There are about 15,000 species of flowering plants with 3,000 species of trees,221 species of mammals and 420 species of resident birds in Borneo. There are about 440 freshwater fish species in Borneo and it is the centre of the evolution and distribution of many endemic species of plants and animals. The Borneo rainforest is one of the few remaining habitats for the endangered Bornean orangutan
Mary Soames, Baroness Soames, LG, DBE, FRSL was the youngest of the five children of Winston Churchill and his wife, Clementine. She was the wife of Christopher Soames, Mary Spencer-Churchill was raised at Chartwell and educated at the Manor House at Limpsfield. She accompanied her father as aide-de-camp on several of his overseas journeys, including his trip to Potsdam. She was Patron of the National Benevolent Fund for the Aged, a successful author, Lady Soames wrote an acclaimed biography of her mother, Clementine Churchill, in 1979. Lady Soames was made a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire for her public service and she was appointed a Lady Companion of the Order of the Garter on 23 April 2005, and was invested on 13 June at Windsor Castle. On 31 May 2014, Lady Soames died at her home in London at the age of 91 following a short illness and her ashes are buried next to those of her husband within the Churchill plot at St Martins Church, near Woodstock, Oxfordshire. The sale far exceeded pre-auction estimates, Mary Soames married the Conservative politician Christopher Soames in 1947 and they had five children, The Rt.
He married Catherine N. Weatherall on 4 June 1981 and they were divorced in 1988 and he remarried Serena Mary Smith on 21 December 1993. They have two children, a son and a daughter and she married James MacManus on 4 July 1981 and they were divorced in 1989. He married Susanna Keith in 1978 and she married Richard Hambro in 1973 and they were divorced in 1982. She remarried William Peel, 3rd Earl Peel on 15 April 1989 and he married Camilla Rose Dunne in 1988. Christopher Soames, MBE May 1965 –1972, The Hon, mrs. Soames, MBE1972 –19 April 1978, The Hon. Lady Soames, MBE19 April 1978 –14 June 1980, the Lady Soames, MBE14 June 1980 –23 April 2005, The Rt Hon. The Lady Soames, DBE23 April 2005 –31 May 2014, a film clip ALLIES TAKE KISKA ETC. is available at the Internet Archive
Aubrey Vincent Beardsley was an English illustrator and author. His drawings in ink, influenced by the style of Japanese woodcuts, emphasized the grotesque, the decadent. He was a figure in the Aesthetic movement which included Oscar Wilde. Beardsleys contribution to the development of the Art Nouveau and poster styles was significant, Beardsley was born in Brighton, England, on 21 August 1872, and christened on 24 October 1872. Vincents wife, Ellen Agnus Pitt, was the daughter of Surgeon-Major William Pitt of the Indian Army, the Pitts were a well-established and respected family in Brighton, and Beardsleys mother married a man of lesser social status than might have been expected. Soon after their wedding, Vincent was obliged to sell some of his property in order to settle a claim for his breach of promise from another woman who claimed that he had promised to marry her. At the time of his birth, Beardsleys family, which included his sister Mabel who was one year older, were living in Ellens familial home at 12 Buckingham Road.
The number of the house in Buckingham Road was 12, but the numbers were changed years ago, in 1883 his family settled in London, and in the following year he appeared in public as an infant musical phenomenon, playing at several concerts with his sister. In January 1885 he began to attend Brighton and Sussex Grammar School and his first poems and cartoons appeared in print in Past and Present, the schools magazine. In 1888 he obtained a post in an office, and afterwards one in the Guardian Life. In 1891, under the advice of Sir Edward Burne-Jones and Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, in 1892 he attended the classes at the Westminster School of Art, under Professor Fred Brown. Beardsleys first commission was Le Morte dArthur by Thomas Malory, which he illustrated for the publishing house J. M. Dent and his six years of major creative output can be divided into several periods, identified by the form of his signature. In the early period his work is mostly unsigned, during 1891 and 1892 he progressed to using his initials, A. V. B.
In mid-1892, the period of Le Morte dArthur and The Bon Mots he used a Japanese-influenced mark which became progressively more graceful, sometimes accompanied by A. B. in block capitals. He co-founded The Yellow Book with American writer Henry Harland, and for the first four editions he served as Art Editor and produced the cover designs and he was closely aligned with Aestheticism, the British counterpart of Decadence and Symbolism. Most of his images are done in ink, and feature large dark areas contrasted with blank ones. Beardsley was the most controversial artist of the Art Nouveau era, renowned for his dark and perverse images and grotesque erotica and his illustrations were in black and white, against a white background. Some of his drawings, inspired by Japanese shunga artwork, featured enormous genitalia, other major illustration projects included an 1896 edition of The Rape of the Lock by Alexander Pope, and the collection A Book of Fifty Drawings by Aubrey Beardsley
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Randolph Frederick Edward Spencer-Churchill MBE was a journalist and a Conservative Member of Parliament for Preston from 1940-45. He was the son of British Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill and he wrote the first two volumes of the official life of his father, complemented by an extensive archive of materials. His first wife was Pamela Digby, their son, Randolph was educated at Eton College and Christ Church and became a journalist. In 1931 he shared Edward Jamess house in London with John Betjeman, shortly after leaving Oxford, Churchill became embroiled in the controversy of the February 1933 King and Country debate. Three weeks after the associated pacifist resolution was passed and his friend Lord Stanley proposed a resolution to delete the King and Country motion from the Oxford Unions records. After a poor speech from Lord Stanley, the President Mr Frank Hardie temporarily handed over the chair to the Librarian and opposed the motion on behalf of the Union, the minutes record that he received “a very remarkable ovation”.
Churchill was met by a barrage of hisses and stink bombs and his speech, facing what the minutes describe as a “very antipathetic and even angry house” was “unfortunate in his manner and phrasing” and was met with “delighted jeers”. He attempted to withdraw the motion, Hardie was willing to permit this, but an ex-President pointed out from the floor that a vote of the whole house was required to allow a motion to be withdrawn. The request to withdraw was defeated by acclamation and the motion was defeated by 750 votes to 138. Churchill had persuaded a number of former students, life members of the Union. A bodyguard of Oxford Conservatives and police escorted Churchill back to his hotel after the debate and his first marriage, to socialite Pamela Digby produced a son, who became a Member of Parliament. The marriage ended in divorce in 1945 and his second marriage to June Osborne produced a daughter, Arabella. For the last twenty years of his life, he conducted an affair with Natalie Bevan. Randolph Churchills political career was not as successful as that of his father or grandfather Lord Randolph Churchill and his involvement was criticised by his father for splitting the official Conservative vote and letting in a winning Labour candidate, although Winston appeared to support Randolph on the hustings.
Early in the campaign in March 1935, he sponsored an Independent Conservative candidate, Richard Findlay, a member of the British Union of Fascists, having blamed Baldwin and the party organization for his loss, he libeled Sir Thomas White. In the 1935 general election he stood as the official Conservative candidate at Labour-held West Toxteth, Lord Derby lent his support, and Randolph continued to aid the Conservative campaigning across the city. He stood as a Unionist on 10 February 1936 in a bye-election at Ross, Randolph Churchill served with his father’s old regiment, the 4th Queens Own Hussars. He was one of the oldest of the officers