Clerkenwell is an area of central London, England. The area includes the sub-district of Finsbury. Clerkenwell was an ancient parish from the mediaeval period onwards, becoming part of the Metropolitan Borough of Finsbury from 1900 to 1965, an authority which in turn merged into the modern London Borough of Islington; the well after which it was named was rediscovered in 1924. The watchmaking and watch repairing trades were once of great importance. For a list of street name etymologies in the Clerkenwell area see Street names of Clerkenwell and Finsbury. Clerkenwell took its name from the Clerks' Well in Farringdon Lane. In the Middle Ages, the London Parish clerks performed annual mystery plays there, based on biblical themes. Part of the well remains visible, incorporated into a 1980s building called Well Court, it is visible through a window of that building on Farringdon Lane. Access to the well is managed by Islington Local History Centre and visits can be arranged by appointment; the Monastic Order of the Knights Hospitallers of St John of Jerusalem had its English headquarters at the Priory of Clerkenwell.

St John's Gate survives in the rebuilt form of the Priory Gate. Its gateway, erected in 1504 in St John's Square, served various purposes after the Dissolution of the Monasteries. For example, it was the birthplace of the Gentleman's Magazine in 1731, the scene of Dr Johnson's work in connection with that journal. In modern times the gatehouse again became associated with the order and was in the early 20th century the headquarters of the St John Ambulance Association. An Early English crypt remains beneath the chapel of the order, otherwise rebuilt in the 1950s after wartime bombing; the notorious deception of the "Cock Lane Ghost", in which Johnson took great interest, was perpetrated nearby. Adjoining the priory was St Mary's nunnery of the Benedictine order, now disappeared, St James's Church, rebuilt in 1792 on the site of the original church, of Norman provenance; the Charterhouse, near the boundary with the City of London, was a Carthusian monastery. Following the Dissolution of the Monasteries the Charterhouse became a private mansion and one owner, Thomas Sutton, subsequently left it with an endowment as a school and almshouse.

The almhouse remains but the school relocated to Surrey and its part of the site is now a campus of Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry. As it was a suburb beyond the confines of the London Wall, Clerkenwell was outside the jurisdiction of the somewhat puritanical City fathers. "base tenements and houses of unlawful and disorderly resort" sprang up, with a "great number of dissolute and insolent people harboured in such and the like noisome and disorderly houses, as namely poor cottages, habitations of beggars and people without trade, inns, taverns, garden-houses converted to dwellings, dicing houses, bowling alleys, brothel houses". During the Elizabethan era Clerkenwell contained a notorious brothel quarter. In Shakespeare's Henry IV, Part 2, Falstaff complains about Justice Shallow boasting of "the wildness of his youth, the feats he has done about Turnbull Street". Known now as Turnmill Street and adjoining Farringdon station, it had an infamous reputation for brothel-keeping and was described in Sugden's Topographical Dictionary as "the most disreputable street in London, a haunt of thieves and loose women".

The Clerkenwell Bridewell, a prison and correctional institute for prostitutes and vagrants, was known for savage punishment and endemic sexual corruption. In the 17th century South Clerkenwell became a fashionable place of residence. Oliver Cromwell owned a house on Clerkenwell Close, just off the Green. Several aristocrats had houses there, most notably the Duke of Northumberland, as did people such as Erasmus Smith. Before Clerkenwell became a built-up area, it had a reputation as a resort a short walk out of the city, where Londoners could disport themselves at its spas, of which there were several, based on natural chalybeate springs, tea gardens and theatres; the present day Sadler's Wells has survived as heir to this tradition, after being rebuilt many times and many changes of use including pleasure gardens, aquatic display venue and music hall. Today it is modern dance venue. Clerkenwell was the location of three prisons: the Clerkenwell Bridewell, Coldbath Fields Prison and the New Prison the Clerkenwell House of Detention, notorious as the scene of the Clerkenwell Outrage in 1867, an attempted prison break by Fenians who killed many in the tenement houses on Corporation Row in trying to blow a hole in the prison wall.

The House of Detention was demolished in 1890 but the extensive vaults and cells beneath, now known as the Clerkenwell Catacombs, remained. They were reopened as air raid shelters during the Blitz, for a few years were open as a minor tourist attraction. Various film scenes have been shot in the catacombs; the Industrial Revolution changed the area greatly. It became a centre for breweries and the printing industry, it gained an especial reputation for the making of clocks, marine chronometers and watches, which activity once employed many people from around the area. Flourishing craft workshops still carry on some such as jewellery-making. Clerkenwell was home to Witherbys a printing company, it was during the Industrial Revolution tha

KMB Route 51

Route 51 is a bus service operated by Kowloon Motor Bus in Hong Kong's New Territories. It connects Tsuen Wan West Station with Sheung Tsuen, running via the steep and tortuous Route Twisk; this route is the only public transport running along the whole length of Route Twisk, considered by its operator to be a kind of corporate social responsibility, providing a minimum service for the area along. The route was started on 24 June 1961 as Route 26, when Route Twisk a military road, was opened to the public. KMB operated it as a test route only, but because of the positive response received, the route became a permanent route. Due to the steepness of Route Twisk, the route was served using Albions for a long period of time. At that time, the route ran between Jordan Road Ferry Pier and Yuen Long, was an express route, having only two stops between Lai Chi Kok and Shek Kong, which were at Tsuen Wan Town Centre and Tai Mo Shan. On 16 July 1973, as part of KMB's bus service arrangement scheme, the route was renumbered 51, service was cut back to Tai Kok Tsui Ferry Pier.

Since Route Twisk was the most direct route between Yuen Long and Tsuen Wan, Route 51 received a high level of patronage, at one time congestion was observed. In a 1970s report by the Works Department, a capacity deficit of 15% was recorded at Shek Kong during morning peak hours, the deficit towards Yuen Long reached 30% during 12:00 to 13:00. So, KMB could not alter the type of bus due to technical problems, could only increase the frequency of the route as a solution. On 16 May 1982 Tsuen Wan Line was opened, Route 51 was cut further back to Tsuen Wan Station, the number being changed to 51M. After 50M and 68M started service, both using Tuen Mun Road, the role of Route 51 being a main route between Yuen Long and Tsuen Wan diminished, so the northern terminus was changed to Kam Tin on 17 April 1983 with Tsuen Wan bound diverted via Kam Sheung Road; the northern section of the original route was relegated to route 54. On 16 December 1984 the Tsuen Wan terminus was changed to Tsuen Wan Ferry Pier with diversion via Tai Ho Road Flyover with the number changed back to 51.

In the late 1980s the Albions servicing on the route were needed replacements. However, no other suitable single-deckers in the KMB fleet were available at that time. KMB turned to its double deckers, but again none was suitable for the steep inclination of the route. So KMB fitted a manual decelerator into a 9.7 m MCW Metrobus. The solution worked out, KMB bought eight more 9.7m MCW Metrobuses with special air-drawing fans to serve Route 51 with special limitation of 3 standing passengers for the safety issues. After that, the buses that serving 51 were altered, so other buses cannot run on the route, if a bus on the route needed a repair, a replacement could not be found, affecting the frequency of the route. KMB fitted the Cummins engine into more Metrobuses for operating on the route due to high repair frequency of M81-M88. On 10 August 1992 51P, was started, from Shek Kong swimming pool to Tsuen Wan. In 1996 KMB assigned two air-conditioned Dennis Dart buses fitted with manual decelerators to Route 51.

In the same year the District Councils of Tsuen Wan and Yuen Long planned to divert Route 51 to Tai Lam Tunnel once it had been completed with terminus relocated to Sheung Tsuen via Kam Sheung Road, but to avoid loss of bus service on Route Twisk, KMB ended up creating a new route numbered 251M. Patronage on 51 dropped so much. On 19 March 2000 the Tsuen Wan terminus was moved to a newly built one at Nina Tower. On 2008-09-07, the other end was relocated, after over 25 years of stationing of Kam Tin Bus Terminus, to Kam Sheung Road Railway Station; this has improved connections for West Rail Line commuters of Tuen Mun and Yuen Long to Tai Mo Shan Country Park. On 27 January 2013 the Tsuen Wan Terminus was moved to Tsuen Wan West Station Public Transport Interchange to tie in with the TW5 property development and permanent closure of the Tsuen Wan Transport Complex. On 4 October 2014 the northern terminus was cut to Sheung Tsuen and became a circular route, with service frequency cut to one departure per hour except on weekends daytime.

The route used to be served by Dennis Dart single deckers from Tuen Mun Depot. From mid-2011, most of the Darts have been replaced by Alexander Dennis Enviro200 Darts, owing to their age; as of August 2011, all of the Darts have been replaced by the Enviro200 Darts. The journey distance is 26.5 km in 55 minutes time, via: Tai Ho Road Tai Ho Road North Tsuen Kam Interchange Route Twisk Sheung Tsuen Bus Terminus Route Twisk Tsuen Kam Interchange Tai Ho Road North Tai Ho Road


Ploština was a small settlement situated near to Valašské Klobouky, Zlín District, Moravian Wallachia, today's Czech Republic. On April 19, 1945, at the end of World War II, it was burned and its people were massacred by Nazis in response to their support of the anti-Nazi resistance movement; the massacre was conducted by the German special SS unit Zur besonderen Verwendung-Kommando Nr. 31, led by Walter Pawlofski, by the SS anti-partisan unit Josef consisting of members of Slovak Hlinka-Guard, whose headquarters was in Vizovice. Twenty-four people were burned alive, three more people were executed, one person was tortured to death during interrogation. After the unsuccessful Slovak National Uprising, part of the resistance movement centered in Moravian Wallachia. Partisans formed armed groups along with local volunteers under Soviet commanders, they searched for help from villagers from surrounding settlements, who provided them with food and basic treatment, sometimes helped them with military actions.

The unit operating near Ploština was, infiltrated by Gestapo confidants and traitors who informed Nazis about the collaboration. This led to the punitive action conducted by Nazis on April 19, 1945, a few days before the end of World War II. According to Božena Húšťová, a witness whose brother was killed during the massacre, the men were forced to enter burning houses after a detonation of hidden ammunition in one of the houses; those who attempted to escape were shot. A similar tragedy occurred on April 23, 1945 in the nearby village of Prlov, where fifteen people were burned, three hanged and one shot; the last Nazi punitive action occurred in the settlement Vařákovy Paseky on May 2 and 3, 1945. Four people were killed and eight houses burned. SS-Mann Werner Tutter, a commander of the unit Josef during the massacre in Ploština, was sentenced to six years in prison in 1948. While serving his sentence, he was contacted by the Communist Czechoslovak State Security Service. In 1953, he became an agent of StB and worked for Communist Czechoslovakia in West Germany, under the code name Konrad II.

His criminal past was revealed again in 1962, but the investigation was interrupted and Tutter died as an honorable German citizen in 1983. Ladislav Mňačko, writer and a member of the partisan group "Ploština", described this tragedy in his book Death Is Called Engelchen; the topic was developed in the 1963 Czechoslovak war film Death Is Called Engelchen, directed by Ján Kadár and Elmar Klos. Lidice Ležáky Navara, Luděk. Smrt si říká Tutter. Host, Větrné mlýny. ISBN 9788072940592. NKP Ploština