A chauffeur is a person employed to drive a passenger motor vehicle a luxury vehicle such as a large sedan or limousine. A woman employed to drive a passenger motor vehicle is a chauffeuse; such drivers were personal employees of the vehicle owner, but now in many cases specialist chauffeur service companies or individual drivers provide both driver and vehicle for hire, although there are service companies that just provide the driver. The term chauffeur comes from the French term for stoker because the earliest automobiles, like their railroad and sea vessel counterparts, were steam-powered and required the driver to stoke the engine. Early petrol/gasoline-powered motor cars, before the advent of electric ignition, were ignited by'hot tubes' in the cylinder head which had to be pre-heated before the engine would start. Hence the term chauffeur which, in this context, means something like "heater-upper"; the chauffeur would prime the hot tubes at the start of a journey, after which the natural compression cycle of the engine would keep them at the correct temperature.
The chauffeur maintained the car, including routine maintenance and cleaning, had to be a skilled mechanic to deal with breakdowns and tyre punctures en route, which were common in the earliest years of the automobile. Only the wealthy could afford the first automobiles, they employed chauffeurs rather than driving themselves. A 1906 article in The New York Times reported that "...the chauffeur problem to-day is one of the most serious that the automobilist has to deal with.", complained that "...young men of no particular ability, who have been earning from $10 to $12 a week, are elevated to salaried positions paying from $25 to $50..." and recommended the re-training of existing coach drivers. While the term may refer to anybody who drives for a living, it implies a driver of an elegant passenger vehicle such as a horse-drawn carriage, luxury sedan, motor coach, or a limousine. In some countries developing nations where a ready supply of labor ensures that the middle classes can afford domestic staff and among the wealthy, the chauffeur may be called the "driver".
People sometimes employ chauffeurs full-time to drive themselves in their own personal vehicles, yet there are professional services offering limousines or rental cars driven by chauffeurs. This is similar to but more luxurious than taking a taxicab. A variety of benefits are cited for using chauffeurs, including convenience and time savings, driving safety for businesspeople and seniors. Insurance costs for luxury vehicles are lower if the designated driver is a chauffeur; the legal requirements to be a chauffeur vary depending on the local jurisdiction and class of vehicle. In some cases, a simple permit is all, required, but in others an additional professional license with certain minimum standards in areas such as: age, driving experience, criminal record, local geographic knowledge, training attended. In addition to the minimum legal requirements, limousine companies require their chauffeurs to undergo specific extra training; these courses may involve evasive driving or defensive driving techniques, the proper methods to ensure safety in the most extreme conditions such as inclement weather, a flat tire at high speeds, or other exterior influences for loss of vehicular control, etc.
Most companies have their own courses as to what they expect from their chauffeurs. Chauffeurs may be taught proper etiquette for use, they may be trained for services to the client beyond the car itself, such as for a personal valet or bodyguard. Many companies and local licensing agencies require random drug screening – in the United States this was the case after professional ice hockey player Vladimir Konstantinov's career-ending injuries when his hired chauffeur, Richard Gnida serving a license suspension for drunken driving, lost control of their limousine and crashed injuring Konstantinov and his other passengers. In many places, proper physical presence is presented by the chauffeur at all times; this includes a well-groomed individual, conservatively dressed in a clean and crisply pressed black or dark suit or tuxedo, dress shirt, appropriately matching tie, with black leather gloves and freshly polished matching footwear. In some areas, such as Japan, white gloves are the norm; some companies have complete uniforms for their chauffeurs, some require that hats be worn as part of the uniform.
Some companies do not keep to this standard, there is wide variation globally throughout the transportation industry. William Grover-Williams, chauffeur to William Orpen Julius Schreck, chauffeur to Adolf Hitler from 1926 to 1936 Kay Summersby, chauffeuse to Supreme Commander Allied Expeditionary Force Dwight D. Eisenhower Roosevelt Zanders, drove Fidel Castro, Richard Nixon, Winston Churchill, Eleanor Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman, many others Aloysius "Nosey" Parker Thomas Watkins Driving Miss Daisy Frank Martin, driver in The Transporter series of films Bitterman, chauffeur for Arthur Bach in the 1981 film Arthur Tom Branson, chauffeur turned son-in-law of Lord Grantham in Downton Abbey Alfred Pennyworth, Bruce Wayne's tireless valet, butler, confidant, best friend, surrogate father figure Bailey, chauffeur to the Crosswire family in Arthur Female chauffeur in "Desert Rose" Atra Mixta, Mikazuki Augus' childhood friend and chauffeuse in the second season of Mobile Suit Gundam: Iron-Blooded Orphans
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
An auto mechanic is a mechanic with a variety of automobile makes or either in a specific area or in a specific make of automobile. In repairing cars, their main role is to diagnose the problem and quickly, they have to quote prices for their customers before commencing work or after partial disassembly for inspection. Their job may involve the repair of a specific part or the replacement of one or more parts as assemblies. Basic vehicle maintenance is a fundamental part of a mechanic's work in modern industrialized countries while in others they are only consulted when a vehicle is showing signs of malfunction. Preventative maintenance is a fundamental part of a mechanic's job, but this is not possible in the case of vehicles that are not maintained by a mechanic. One misunderstood aspect of preventative maintenance is scheduled replacement of various parts, which occurs before failure to avoid far more expensive damage; because this means that parts are replaced before any problem is observed, many vehicle owners will not understand why the expense is necessary.
With the rapid advancement in technology, the mechanic's job has evolved from purely mechanical, to include electronic technology. Because vehicles today possess complex computer and electronic systems, mechanics need to have a broader base of knowledge than in the past. Due to the labyrinthine nature of the technology, now incorporated into automobiles, most automobile dealerships and independent workshops now provide sophisticated diagnostic computers to each technician, without which they would be unable to diagnose or repair a vehicle. In the United States, many programs and schools offer training for those interested in pursuing competencies as automotive mechanics or technicians. Areas of training include automobile repair and maintenance, collision repair and restoring, air-conditioning and heating systems, truck and diesel mechanics; the National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation is responsible for evaluating technician training programs against standards developed by the automotive industry.
NATEF accredits programs in four different categories: automotive, collision and alternative fuels. NATEF lists post secondary schools with accredited programs on their website; some mechanics are ASE certified, a standardized method of testing skill and knowledge level. While it's not required by law for a mechanic to be certified, some companies only hire or promote employees who have passed ASE tests; the technology used in automobiles changes rapidly and the mechanic must be prepared to learn these new technologies and systems. The auto mechanic has a physically demanding job exposed to extreme temperatures, lifting heavy objects and staying in uncomfortable positions for extended periods, they may deal with exposure to toxic chemicals. The internet is being applied to the field often, with mechanics providing advice on-line. Mechanics themselves now use the internet for information to help them in diagnosing and/or repairing vehicles. A popular resource for this type of research is the video website YouTube, where professional and DIY mechanics alike film and share their experiences on vehicle diagnostics and repair.
Paper based service manuals for vehicles have become less prevalent with computers that are connected to the Internet taking their position, giving quick access to a plethora of technical manuals and information. A mechanic works from the workshop in which the mechanic has access to a vehicle lift to access areas that are difficult to reach when the car is on the ground. Beside the workshop bound mechanic, there are mobile mechanics like those of the UK Automobile Association which allow the car owner to receive assistance without the car having to be brought to a garage. A mechanic may opt to engage in other careers related to her field. Teaching of automotive trade courses, for example, is entirely carried out by qualified mechanics in many countries. There are several other trade qualifications for working on motor vehicles, including panel beater, spray painter, body builder and motorcycle mechanic. In most developed countries, these are separate trade courses, but a qualified tradesperson from one can change to working as another.
This requires that they work under another tradesperson in much the same way as an apprentice. Auto body repair involves less work with oily and greasy parts of vehicles, but involves exposure to particulate dust from sanding bodywork and toxic chemical fumes from paint and related products. Salespeople and dealers also need to acquire an in-depth knowledge of cars, some mechanics are successful in these roles because of their knowledge. Auto mechanics need to stay updated with all the leading car companies as well as new launching cars. One has to study continuously on their work systems. Pit crews for motor racing are a specialized form of work undertaken by some mechanics, it is sometimes portrayed as glamorous in movies and television and is considered prestigious in some parts of the automotive industry. Working in a pit crew in professional racing circuits is dangerous and stressful work due to the tight margins for error, the potential financial losses and gains by the racing teams, but a pit crew mechanics pay is high to reflect the extra skill/stress levels.
Exhaust gas analyzer Service
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Compression release engine brake
A compression release engine brake called a Jacobs brake or Jake brake, is an engine braking mechanism installed on some diesel engines. When activated, it opens exhaust valves in the cylinders after the compression stroke, releasing the compressed gas trapped in the cylinders, slowing the vehicle; the term Jake brake, which properly refers to the Jacobs brand of engine brakes, has become a genericized trademark, is used to refer to engine brakes or compression release engine brakes in general on large vehicles or heavy equipment. The name is derived from the manufacturer and was patented 1962–1965 by Clessie Cummins; when the driver releases the accelerator on a moving vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine, the vehicle's forward momentum continues to turn the engine's crankshaft. Most diesels by design do not have a throttle, so regardless of throttle setting a full charge of air is always drawn into the cylinders. Compressed air generated during the compression stroke acts as an air spring to push back against the rotating piston.
As such with fuel supply cut off and no power strokes taking place 100% of the energy absorbed by the compression stroke within each cylinder is returned to the crankshaft. This results in little engine braking being applied to the vehicle; the typical compression release engine brake consists of an add-on hydraulic system using engine oil which transfers the motion of the fuel injector rocker arm to the engine exhaust valve. When activated, the exhaust valve opens briefly near the engine's top dead center, releases the compressed air in the cylinder so that the energy is not returned to the crankshaft. If used properly, a compression release brake can assist a vehicle to maintain or reduce speed with minimal use of the service brakes; the power of this type can be around the same as the engine power. Contrast a gasoline engine under deceleration, where a closed throttle prevents free flow of air into the cylinders, resulting in little pressure to release at the top of the compression stroke.
The closed throttle provides engine braking by forcing the engine to generate a vacuum between the throttle and the cylinders. Diesel compression release brake controls consist of an on/off switch and a multi-position switch that controls the number of cylinders on which the brake is active. Throttle and clutch switches are integral with the system. Activation occurs when both the throttle are released with the transmission in gear, it is the driver's job to ascertain the correct transmission gear to use, depending on, for example, the steepness of the grade and the truck's load. The use of compression release engine brakes may cause a vehicle to make a loud chattering or "machine gun/jackhammer-like" exhaust noise vehicles having high flow mufflers, or no mufflers at all, causing many communities in the United States and Australia to prohibit compression braking within municipal limits. Drivers are notified by roadside signs with legends such as "Brake Retarders Prohibited," "Engine Braking Restricted," "Jake Brakes Prohibited," "No Jake Brakes," "Compression Braking Prohibited," "Limit Compression Braking," "Avoid Using Engine Brakes," or "Unmuffled Compression Braking Prohibited," and enforcement is through traffic fines.
Such prohibitions have led to the development of new types of mufflers and turbochargers to better silence compression braking noise. Jacobs claims that the use of the term "Jake Brakes" on signs prohibiting engine retarding brakes violates their trademark and discriminates against Jacobs brand products. Engine braking Compression release Exhaust brake Retarder Jacobs Vehicle Systems
Entrepreneurship is the process of designing and running a new business, initially a small business. The people who create these businesses are called entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship has been described as the "capacity and willingness to develop and manage a business venture along with any of its risks in order to make a profit". While definitions of entrepreneurship focus on the launching and running of businesses, due to the high risks involved in launching a start-up, a significant proportion of start-up businesses have to close due to "lack of funding, bad business decisions, an economic crisis, lack of market demand—or a combination of all of these. A broader definition of the term is sometimes used in the field of economics. In this usage, an Entrepreneur is an entity which has the ability to find and act upon opportunities to translate inventions or technology into new products: "The entrepreneur is able to recognize the commercial potential of the invention and organize the capital and other resources that turn an invention into a commercially viable innovation."
In this sense, the term "Entrepreneurship" captures innovative activities on the part of established firms, in addition to similar activities on the part of new businesses. Entrepreneurship is the act of being an entrepreneur, or "the owner or manager of a business enterprise who, by risk and initiative, attempts to make profits". Entrepreneurs oversee the launch and growth of an enterprise. Entrepreneurship is the process by which either an individual or a team identifies a business opportunity and acquires and deploys the necessary resources required for its exploitation. Early-19th-century French economist Jean-Baptiste Say provided a broad definition of entrepreneurship, saying that it "shifts economic resources out of an area of lower and into an area of higher productivity and greater yield". Entrepreneurs create something new, something different—they change or transmute values. Regardless of the firm size, big or small, they can partake in entrepreneurship opportunities; the opportunity to become an entrepreneur requires four criteria.
First, there must be situations to recombine resources to generate profit. Second, entrepreneurship requires differences between people, such as preferential access to certain individuals or the ability to recognize information about opportunities. Third, taking on risk is a necessity. Fourth, the entrepreneurial process requires the organization of resources; the entrepreneur is a factor in and the study of entrepreneurship reaches back to the work of Richard Cantillon and Adam Smith in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. However, entrepreneurship was ignored theoretically until the late 19th and early 20th centuries and empirically until a profound resurgence in business and economics since the late 1970s. In the 20th century, the understanding of entrepreneurship owes much to the work of economist Joseph Schumpeter in the 1930s and other Austrian economists such as Carl Menger, Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich von Hayek. According to Schumpeter, an entrepreneur is a person, willing and able to convert a new idea or invention into a successful innovation.
Entrepreneurship employs what Schumpeter called "the gale of creative destruction" to replace in whole or in part inferior innovations across markets and industries creating new products including new business models. In this way, creative destruction is responsible for the dynamism of industries and long-run economic growth; the supposition that entrepreneurship leads to economic growth is an interpretation of the residual in endogenous growth theory and as such is hotly debated in academic economics. An alternative description posited by Israel Kirzner suggests that the majority of innovations may be much more incremental improvements such as the replacement of paper with plastic in the making of drinking straws; the exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities may include: Developing a business plan Hiring the human resources Acquiring financial and material resources Providing leadership Being responsible for both the venture's success or failure Risk aversionEconomist Joseph Schumpeter saw the role of the entrepreneur in the economy as "creative destruction" – launching innovations that destroy old industries while ushering in new industries and approaches.
For Schumpeter, the changes and "dynamic disequilibrium brought on by the innovating entrepreneur the norm of a healthy economy". While entrepreneurship is associated with new, for-profit start-ups, entrepreneurial behavior can be seen in small-, medium- and large-sized firms and established firms and in for-profit and not-for-profit organizations, including voluntary-sector groups, charitable organizations and government. Entrepreneurship may operate within an entrepreneurship ecosystem which includes: Government programs and services that promote entrepreneurship and support entrepreneurs and start-ups Non-governmental organizations such as small-business associations and organizations that offer advice and mentoring to entrepreneurs Small-business advocacy organizations that lobby governments for increased support for entrepreneurship programs and more small business-friendly laws and regulations Entrepreneurship resources and facilities Entrepreneurship education and training programs offered by schools and universities Financing In the 2000s, usage of the term "entrepreneurship" expanded to include how and why some individuals ide