Big Four Bridge
The Big Four Bridge is a six-span former railroad truss bridge that crosses the Ohio River, connecting Louisville and Jeffersonville, Indiana. It was completed in 1895, updated in 1929; the largest single span is 547 feet, with the entire bridge spanning 2,525 feet. It took its name from the defunct Cleveland, Chicago and St. Louis Railway, nicknamed the "Big Four Railroad", it is now a converted bicycle bridge from Louisville into Jeffersonville, Indiana. Access to the Big Four Bridge is limited to bicycle use. A pedestrian ramp on the Kentucky side was opened on February 7, 2013; the original approaches that carried rail traffic onto the main spans were first removed in 1969, earning the Big Four Bridge the nickname "Bridge That Goes Nowhere". The George Rogers Clark Memorial Bridge downstream, which carries U. S. 31 across the river, was the only bridge allowing bicyclists and pedestrians to travel between Louisville and the neighboring Indiana cities of New Albany and Jeffersonville. In February 2011, Kentucky and Indiana announced that the two states, along with the City of Jeffersonville, would allocate $22 million in funding to complete the Big Four Bridge project, creating a pedestrian and bicycle path to link Louisville and Jeffersonville.
Indiana would spend up to $8 million and the City of Jeffersonville would provide $2 million in matching dollars to pay for construction of a ramp to the Big Four Bridge. Kentucky pledged $12 million to replace the deck on the bridge and connect it to the spiral ramp, completed in Waterfront Park. On February 7, 2013, the Louisville ramp was opened for bicycle traffic. Planned for August 2013, the Jeffersonville ramp opened on May 20, 2014; the Big Four Bridge is a six-span bridge, totaling 2,525 ft long, with a clearance of 53 ft. The northernmost span is a riveted, 8-panel Parker through truss; the next three spans are 547 ft long, are riveted, 16-panel Pennsylvania through trusses. The two southern spans are riveted, 10-panel Parker through trusses, it carried a single track of railway. The Big Four Bridge was first conceived in Jeffersonville in 1885 by various city interests; the Louisville and Jeffersonville Bridge Company was formed in 1887 to construct the Big Four Bridge, after a charter by the state of Indiana.
The riverboat industry, a big economic factor in Jeffersonville, had requested that the bridge be built further upstream from the Falls of the Ohio, but the United States Army Corps of Engineers approved the building site after the vocal protestations. Construction began on October 10, 1888; the Big Four Bridge would be the only Louisville bridge with serious accidents during its building. The first twelve died while working on a pier foundation when a caisson, supposed to hold back the river water flooded, drowning the workers. Another four men died a few months after that when a wooden beam broke while working on a different pier caisson; the Big Four Bridge had one of the biggest bridge disasters in the United States, occurring on December 15, 1893 when a construction crane was dislodged by a severe wind, causing the falsework support of a truss to be damaged and the truss—with forty-one workers on it—to fall into the Ohio River. Twenty of the workers survived, but twenty-one died; the accident cost more lives, as a ferry crossing the Ohio River just missed being hit by the truss.
Hours a span next to the damaged span fell into the river, but was unoccupied at the time, causing no injuries. As a result, falsework was longitudely reinforced to prevent further occurrences, to prevent strong winds from causing similar damage by using special bracing on the bottom frame of the truss. A new rule was enforced: "never trust a bolted joint any longer than is necessary to put a riveted one in place"; the Big Four Bridge was completed in September 1895. Due to the various accidents, the Louisville and Jeffersonville Bridge Company was financially strapped after building the bridge, in 1895 sold it to the Indianapolis-based Cleveland, Chicago and St. Louis Railway known as the Big Four Railroad; this gave the railway its first entry into the Louisville market, although the railroad would have used the bridge if they had not bought it, as they desired access to Louisville. One effect of the opening of the Big Four Bridge was increased transportation of freight by rail decreasing the number of packet boats that at one time crossed the Ohio River by the dozens.
On February 19, 1904, a Baltimore and Ohio train accidentally crossed the Big Four Bridge, due to engineer Dick Foreman falling asleep and going the wrong way at Otisco, Indiana. The fireman did not pay attention, it was the conductor that noticed the error midway across the Big Four Bridge. The wayward train had to back up all the way back to Otisco. On September 12, 1905, the first interurban crossed the Big Four Bridge. In January 1918, two interurbans collided on the Big Four Bridge, killing three and injuring twenty aboard. Due to the increasing weight of the rail traffic, contracts were finalized in June 1928 to build a bigger Big Four Bridge, which opened on June 25, 1929; the new Big Four Bridge was built on the piers of the old bridge, a "novel building process", as it sped up the time necessary to build the new bridge. The old piers would still be used, but the falsework was removed. During construction, the Big Four Bridge's usual rail traffic was routed over the Kentucky & Indiana Terminal
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The state's name, originates from the Ojibwe word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake". With a population of about 10 million, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area, is the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River, its capital is Lansing, its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's largest metropolitan economies. Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas; the Lower Peninsula is noted as shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan; the Mackinac Bridge connects the peninsulas. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake Saint Clair; as a result, it is one of the leading U.
S. states for recreational boating. Michigan has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds. A person in the state is never more than six miles from a natural water source or more than 85 miles from a Great Lakes shoreline; the area was first occupied by a succession of Native American tribes over thousands of years. Inhabited by Natives, Métis, French explorers in the 17th century, it was claimed as part of New France colony. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War in 1762, the region came under British rule. Britain ceded this territory to the newly independent United States after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War; the area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Michigan Territory was formed in 1805, but some of the northern border with Canada was not agreed upon until after the War of 1812. Michigan was admitted into the Union in 1837 as a free one, it soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Although Michigan developed a diverse economy, it is known as the center of the U. S. automotive industry, which developed as a major economic force in the early 20th century. It is home to the country's three major automobile companies. While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula is important for tourism thanks to its abundance of natural resources, while the Lower Peninsula is a center of manufacturing, agriculture and high-tech industry; when the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe groups of Ojibwe, Odaawaa/Odawa, the Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi. The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires; the Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest. The Ojibwe were established in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and northern and central Michigan, inhabited Ontario and southern Manitoba, Canada; the Ottawa lived south of the Straits of Mackinac in northern and southern Michigan, but in southern Ontario, northern Ohio and eastern Wisconsin.
The Potawatomi were in southern and western Michigan, in addition to northern and central Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, southern Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes in Michigan, in the south and east, were the Mascouten, the Menominee, the Miami, the Sac, the Fox; the Wyandot were an Iroquoian-speaking people in this area. French voyageurs and coureurs des bois settled in Michigan in the 17th century; the first Europeans to reach what became Michigan were those of Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions. Missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph. In 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present-day city of Niles.
In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Pontchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait, known as the Detroit River, between lakes Saint Clair and Erie. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and discourage British aspirations; the hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent and named it Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in what was considered the wilderness of Michigan; the town became a major fur-trading and shipping post. The Église de Saint-Anne was founded the same year. While the original building does not survive, the congregation remains active. Cadillac departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana from 1710 to 1716.
French attempts to consol
Soo Line Railroad
The Soo Line Railroad is the primary United States railroad subsidiary of the Canadian Pacific Railway, one of seven U. S. Class I railroads, controlled through the Soo Line Corporation. Although it is named for the Minneapolis, St. Paul and Sault Ste. Marie Railroad, known as the Soo Line after the phonetic spelling of Sault, it was formed in 1961 by the consolidation of that company with two other CP subsidiaries, the Duluth, South Shore and Atlantic Railroad and Wisconsin Central Railroad, it is the successor to other Class I railroads, including the Minneapolis and Southern Railway and Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad. On the other hand, a large amount of mileage was spun off in 1987 to Wisconsin Central Ltd. now part of the Canadian National Railway. The Soo Line and the Delaware and Hudson Railway, the CP's other major subsidiary, presently do business as the Canadian Pacific Railway, most equipment has been repainted into the CP's scheme, but the U. S. Surface Transportation Board groups all CP's U.
S. subsidiaries under the Soo Line name for reporting purposes. The Minneapolis headquarters are located in the Canadian Pacific Plaza building, having moved from the nearby Soo Line Building; the company's main line begins at Portal, North Dakota on the Canada–US border, extends southeast along former MStP&SSM trackage to the Twin Cities. Ex-Milwaukee Road trackage takes the Soo Line from the Twin Cities to Chicago via Milwaukee. Between Chicago and Detroit, where the CP-owned Detroit River Tunnel connects back into Canada, the Soo Line has trackage rights over the Norfolk Southern Railway and haulage rights over CSX Transportation. Major branches include a connection from the border at Noyes to Glenwood, Minnesota and, until it was sold to the Indiana Rail Road in 1983, a line from Chicago to Louisville, Kentucky. Through trackage rights over the BNSF Railway, the Soo Line serves Duluth from the Twin Cities. At the end of 1970, the Soo Line operated 4693 miles of road on 6104 miles of track.
The present Soo Line Railroad Company was incorporated October 19, 1949 in Minnesota as the Duluth, South Shore and Atlantic Railroad, as part of the plan for reorganizing the Duluth, South Shore and Atlantic Railway and subsidiary Mineral Range Railroad. When CP consolidated several subsidiaries on January 1, 1961, it used this company to merge the Minneapolis, St. Paul and Sault Ste. Marie Railroad and Wisconsin Central Railroad into, renamed it to the present name, Soo Line Railroad; the Soo Line gained control of the Minneapolis and Southern Railway, a Twin Cities-area short line, in June 1982. Passenger service was eliminated by the 1961 merger, but several trains remained for a few more years; these were a Saint Paul to Duluth daytime train known only as Trains 62 and 63. It was discontinued in December 1963, the western Canada cars were handled on the Winnipeger for two more summers before they too were pulled; the Soo Line's last passenger train was the Copper Country Limited, a joint service with the Milwaukee Road inherited from the Duluth, South Shore and Atlantic.
This Chicago-Champion-Calumet service was discontinued May 8, 1968. In addition there were several mixed trains, with additional ones created to enable the discontinuance of the Saint Paul to Portal passenger train; some mixed train services gained notoriety. In 1984, CP incorporated the Soo Line Corporation in Minnesota as a holding company, exchanging stock in December to give the Soo Line Corporation total control over the railroad. Two months on February 19, 1985, the Soo Line purchased the property of the bankrupt Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad and assigned it to a newly created subsidiary, The Milwaukee Road, Inc; this company and the MN&S were both merged into the Soo Line Railroad effective January 1, 1986. To cut costs, the Soo Line created the Lake States Transportation Division on February 10, 1986 to operate the less-important lines, including the ex-Wisconsin Central line between Chicago and the Twin Cities. Unable to implement its proposed labor rule changes, the Soo Line sold the 2,000-mile LSTD to a new regional railroad, Wisconsin Central Ltd. in 1987 for $133 million.
In 1990, CP gained full control of the Soo Line Corporation, of which it had owned about 56% of the common stock. In the 2000s, the Soo line was consolidated into CP. Only a few Soo locomotives remain in the old paint scheme. Most have been scrapped; the railroad ran several long distance named trains. Laker, Minneapolis - Duluth - Ashland Soo-Dominion, Chicago - Seattle Winnipeger, St. Paul to Winnipeg, Manitoba The Presidents of the Soo Line Railroad were: Leonard H. Murray, 1961–1978. President of the Duluth, South Shore and Atlantic Railroad. Thomas M. Beckley, 1978–1983 Dennis Miles Cavanaugh, 1983–1986, 1987–1989 Robert C. Gilmore, 1986–1987 Edwin V. Dodge, 1989–1996 Some of the railroad's diesel locomotives have been preserved: Soo 700, an EMD GP30, at the Lake Superior Railroad Museum, Duluth. Restored for use on their North Shore Scenic Railroad. Soo 703
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, the tenth most densely populated; the state's capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, whose name in turn originated from the Seneca word ohiːyo', meaning "good river", "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, Ohio was the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, the first under the Northwest Ordinance. Ohio is known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees, Ohioans are known as "Buckeyes". Ohio rose from the wilderness of Ohio Country west of Appalachia in colonial times through the Northwest Indian Wars as part of the Northwest Territory in the early frontier, to become the first non-colonial free state admitted to the union, to an industrial powerhouse in the 20th century before transmogrifying to a more information and service based economy in the 21st.
The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives. Ohio is known for its status as both a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected. Ohio is an industrial state, ranking 8th out of 50 states in GDP, is the second largest producer of automobiles behind Michigan. Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic expansion; because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity. To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River, much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, West Virginia on the southeast.
Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows: Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid. Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U. S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia, the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.
The border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated till plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp; this glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests; the rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state.
In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region." This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia. While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River, the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio River and the Mississippi; the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton; as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.
Grand Lake St. Marys in the west-central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for ca
New York Central Railroad
The New York Central Railroad was a railroad operating in the Great Lakes region of the United States. The railroad connected greater New York and Boston in the east with Chicago and St. Louis in the Midwest along with the intermediate cities of Albany, Cleveland and Detroit. New York Central was headquartered in New York City's New York Central Building, adjacent to its largest station, Grand Central Terminal; the railroad was established in 1853. In 1968 the NYC merged with the Pennsylvania Railroad, to form Penn Central. Penn Central went bankrupt in 1970 and merged into Conrail in 1976. Conrail was broken up in 1998, portions of its system were transferred to CSX and Norfolk Southern Railway, with CSX acquiring most of the old New York Central trackage. Extensive trackage existed in the states of New York, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and West Virginia plus additional trackage in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. At the end of 1925, the NYC operated 26,395 miles of track; the railroad was formed in 1853 through a consolidation of earlier independent companies running between Albany and Buffalo: The Mohawk and Hudson Railroad was the oldest segment of the NYC merger and was the first permanent railroad in the state of New York and one of the first railroads in the United States.
It was chartered in 1826 to connect the Mohawk River at Schenectady to the Hudson River at Albany, providing a way for freight and passengers to avoid the extensive and time-consuming locks on the Erie Canal between Schenectady and Albany. The Mohawk and Hudson opened on September 24, 1831, changed its name to the Albany and Schenectady Railroad on April 19, 1847; the Utica and Schenectady Railroad was chartered April 29, 1833. Revenue service began August 2, 1836, extending the line of the Albany and Schenectady Railroad west from Schenectady along the north side of the Mohawk River, opposite the Erie Canal, to Utica. On May 7, 1844 the railroad was authorized to carry freight with some restrictions, on May 12, 1847 the ban was dropped, but the company still had to pay the equivalent in canal tolls to the state; the Syracuse and Utica Railroad was chartered May 1, 1836, had to pay the state for any freight displaced from the canal. The full line opened July 1839, extending the line further to Syracuse via Rome.
This line was not direct, going out of its way to stay near the Erie Canal and serve Rome, so the Syracuse and Utica Direct Railroad was chartered January 26, 1853. Nothing of that line was built, though the West Shore Railroad, acquired by the NYC in 1885, served the same purpose; the Auburn and Syracuse Railroad was chartered May 1, 1834, opened in 1838, the remaining 4 miles opening on June 4, 1839. A month with the opening of the Syracuse and Utica Railroad, this formed a complete line from Albany west via Syracuse to Auburn, about halfway to Geneva; the Auburn and Rochester Railroad was chartered May 13, 1836, as a further extension via Geneva and Canandaigua to Rochester, opening on November 4, 1841. The two lines merged on August 1850, to form the rather indirect Rochester and Syracuse Railroad. To fix this, the Rochester and Syracuse Direct Railway was chartered and merged into the Rochester and Syracuse Railroad on August 6, 1850; that line opened June 1, 1853, running much more directly between those two cities parallel to the Erie Canal.
The Tonawanda Railroad, to the west of Rochester, was chartered April 24, 1832 to build from said city to Attica. The first section, from Rochester southwest to Batavia, opened May 5, 1837, the rest of the line to Attica opened on January 8, 1843; the Attica and Buffalo Railroad chartered in 1836 and opened on November 24, 1842, running from Buffalo east to Attica. When the Auburn and Rochester Railroad opened in 1841, there was no connection at Rochester to the Tonawanda Railroad, but with that exception there was now an all-rail line between Buffalo and Albany. On March 19, 1844, the Tonawanda Railroad was authorized to build the connection, it opened that year; the Albany and Schenectady Railroad bought all the baggage and emigrant cars of the other railroads between Albany and Buffalo on February 17, 1848, began operating through cars. On December 7, 1850, the Tonawanda Railroad and Attica and Buffalo Railroad merged to form the Buffalo and Rochester Railroad. A new direct line opened from Buffalo east to Batavia on April 26, 1852, the old line between Depew and Attica was sold to the Buffalo and New York City Railroad on November 1.
The line was added to the New York and Erie Railroad system and converted to the Erie's 6 ft broad gauge. The Schenectady and Troy Railroad was chartered in 1836 and opened in 1842, providing another route between the Hudson River and Schenectady, with its Hudson River terminal at Troy; the Lockport and Niagara Falls Railroad was incorporated April 24, 1834 to run from Lockport on the Erie Canal west to Niagara Falls. On December 14, 1850, it was reorganized as the Rochester and Niagara Falls Railroad, an extension east to Rochester opened on July 1, 1852; the railroad was consolidated into the New York Central Railroad under the act of 1853. A portion of the line is operate
Delaware and Hudson Railway
The Delaware and Hudson Railway is a railroad that operates in the northeastern United States. In 1991, after more than 150 years as an independent railroad, the D&H was purchased by Canadian Pacific Railway. CP operates D&H under its subsidiary Soo Line Corporation which operates Soo Line Railroad. D&H's name originates from the 1823 New York state corporation charter listing "The President and Company of the Delaware & Hudson Canal Co." authorizing an establishment of "water communication" between the Delaware River and the Hudson River. Nicknamed "The Bridge Line to New England and Canada," D&H connected New York with Montreal and New England. D&H has been known as "North America's oldest continually operated transportation company." On September 19, 2015, Norfolk Southern Railway completed acquisition of the D&H South Line from CP. The D&H South Line connects Schenectady, New York to Sunbury, Pennsylvania; the D&H South Line consists of the Sunbury Line and the Freight Line. The Nicholson Cutoff is located on the Sunbury Line, a former mainline of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad.
By the 1790s, industrializing eastern population centers were having increasing troubles getting charcoal to fuel their growing kilns and foundries. As local timber was denuded, efforts to find an alternative energy source began. During a fuel shortage in Philadelphia during the War of 1812 an employee by the direction of industrialist Josiah White conducted a series of experiments and discovered a number of ways that'rock coal' or anthracite could be ignited and burned; the fuel theretofore, had been seen more as a way to put out a fire, than a fuel to build one up, so its use had to overcome a lot of prejudice and his partner Erskine Hazard would found the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company, creating the Lehigh Canal, inspiring the exploitation of the anthracite deposits found by William Wurts around Carbondale, Pennsylvania which lead to the development of Scranton. The Mills of White and Hazard, the regular large boatloads they proved they could supply had tipped the prejudice against anthracite to a wary plausibility in Philadelphia by 1822-1824 when the Lehigh was much damaged by flooding.
The news of its rapid repair and restoration together with the fact anthracite stocks had for a time run down, but not out establishing the reliable sourcing finished off the bias, as did the beginning of mine output reaching the Delaware basin markets due to the long delayed completion of the Schuylkill CanalWurts was a large thinker, inspired his brothers to back forming a company to deliver the new High Tech fuel, anthracite to New York City by building an ambitious canal to connect the Hudson River and the Delaware River, both to the coaldale coal deposits by chartering a Pennsylvania subsidiary corporation. The Delaware and Hudson Gravity Railroad to bring coal to the new canal; this cable railroad would grow in importance and become the far flung class I railroad, the Delaware and Hudson Railway. In the early 1820s, Philadelphia merchant William Wurts, who enjoyed walking about along Amerindian paths, what we today term, taking nature hikes—had heard of possible anthracite in the area, so took a trip to explore the sparsely settled regions of Northeastern Pennsylvania.
Finding coal outcrops, he realized the value of the extensive anthracite deposits. Returning to Philadelphia, he interested his brothers in backing the idea of building a canal to make it easier to transport coal to New York City, still feeling the effects of the depletion of stands of woodlands providing heating & cooking fire wood and squeezed by continuing post-War of 1812 import restrictions on British bituminous coal which it had once been relying on; the canal he proposed would tie the developing industries along the Delaware to the Hudson, which helped raise financing. At the time, nearly all the eastern cities were experiencing energy cost increases and difficulty in getting large quantities of fuel as most nearby timber stands had been used up; this general condition around most long establish cities and towns in the United States is one reason so much venture capital was raised for coal and coal transportation projects after 1823 and into the early 1840s, once Lehigh Coal & Navigation Company had blazed a way forward increasing annual shipping to over a remarkable 28,000 long tons by 1825.
The Delaware and Hudson Canal Company originates from the 1823 New York state corporation charter listing the unusual name of "The President and Company of the Delaware & Hudson Canal Co." authorizing an establishment of "water communication" between the Delaware River and the Hudson River. The D&H was chartered by separate laws in the states of New York and Pennsylvania in 1823 and 1826 allowing William Wurts and his brother Maurice to construct the Delaware and Hudson Canal and the gravity railroad which served it. In January 1825, following a demonstration of anthracite heating in a Wall Street coffeehouse, the D&H's public stock offering raised a million dollars. At the time, the Lehigh Canal had established a reliable flow of increasing annual tonnages, the industrial and heating uses of'rock coal' were well established. Ground was broken on July 13, 1825, the canal was opened to navigation in October 1828, it began at Rondout Creek at the location known as Creeklocks, between Rosendale.
From there it proceeded southwest a
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea