FM broadcasting is a method of radio broadcasting using frequency modulation technology. Invented in 1933 by American engineer Edwin Armstrong, it is used worldwide to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio, FM broadcasting is capable of better sound quality than AM broadcasting, the chief competing radio broadcasting technology, so it is used for most music broadcasts. FM radio stations use the VHF frequencies, the term FM band describes the frequency band in a given country which is dedicated to FM broadcasting. Throughout the world, the FM broadcast band falls within the VHF part of the radio spectrum. Usually 87.5 to 108.0 MHz is used, or some portion thereof, with few exceptions, In the former Soviet republics, and some former Eastern Bloc countries, assigned frequencies are at intervals of 30 kHz. This band, sometimes referred to as the OIRT band, is slowly being phased out in many countries, in those countries the 87. 5–108.0 MHz band is referred to as the CCIR band. In Japan, the band 76–95 MHz is used, the frequency of an FM broadcast station is usually an exact multiple of 100 kHz.
In most of South Korea, the Americas, the Philippines, in some parts of Europe and Africa, only even multiples are used. In the UK odd or even are used, in Italy, multiples of 50 kHz are used. There are other unusual and obsolete FM broadcasting standards in countries, including 1,10,30,74,500. Random noise has a triangular spectral distribution in an FM system and this can be offset, to a limited extent, by boosting the high frequencies before transmission and reducing them by a corresponding amount in the receiver. Reducing the high frequencies in the receiver reduces the high-frequency noise. These processes of boosting and reducing certain frequencies are known as pre-emphasis and de-emphasis, the amount of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis used is defined by the time constant of a simple RC filter circuit. In most of the world a 50 µs time constant is used, in the Americas and South Korea,75 µs is used. This applies to both mono and stereo transmissions, for stereo, pre-emphasis is applied to the left and right channels before multiplexing.
They cannot be pre-emphasized as much because it would cause excessive deviation of the FM carrier, systems more modern than FM broadcasting tend to use either programme-dependent variable pre-emphasis, e. g. dbx in the BTSC TV sound system, or none at all. Long before FM stereo transmission was considered, FM multiplexing of other types of audio level information was experimented with. Edwin Armstrong who invented FM was the first to experiment with multiplexing and these original FM multiplex subcarriers were amplitude modulated
Cleveland is a city in the U. S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Cuyahoga County, the states second most populous county. The city proper has a population of 388,072, making Cleveland the 51st largest city in the United States, Greater Cleveland ranked as the 32nd largest metropolitan area in the United States, with 2,055,612 people in 2016. The city is the center of the Cleveland–Akron–Canton Combined Statistical Area, the city is located on the southern shore of Lake Erie, approximately 60 miles west of the Pennsylvania border. Clevelands economy has diversified sectors that include manufacturing, financial services, Cleveland is home to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Residents of Cleveland are called Clevelanders, Cleveland has many nicknames, the oldest of which in contemporary use being The Forest City. Cleaveland oversaw the plan for what would become the downtown area, centered on Public Square, before returning home. The first settler in Cleaveland was Lorenzo Carter, who built a cabin on the banks of the Cuyahoga River, the Village of Cleaveland was incorporated on December 23,1814.
In spite of the swampy lowlands and harsh winters, its waterfront location proved to be an advantage. The area began rapid growth after the 1832 completion of the Ohio, growth continued with added railroad links. Cleveland incorporated as a city in 1836, in 1836, the city, located only on the eastern banks of the Cuyahoga River, nearly erupted into open warfare with neighboring Ohio City over a bridge connecting the two. Ohio City remained an independent municipality until its annexation by Cleveland in 1854, the citys prime geographic location as a transportation hub on the Great Lakes has played an important role in its development as a commercial center. Cleveland serves as a point for iron ore shipped from Minnesota. In 1870, John D. Rockefeller founded Standard Oil in Cleveland, other manufacturers located in Cleveland produced steam-powered cars, which included White and Gaeth, as well as the electric car company Baker. Because of the significant growth, Cleveland was known as the Sixth City during this period, by 1920, due in large part to the citys economic prosperity, Cleveland became the nations fifth largest city.
The city counted Progressive Era politicians such as the populist Mayor Tom L. Johnson among its leaders, many prominent Clevelanders from this era are buried in the historic Lake View Cemetery, including President James A. Garfield, and John D. Rockefeller. In commemoration of the centennial of Clevelands incorporation as a city, conceived as a way to energize a city after the Great Depression, it drew four million visitors in its first season, and seven million by the end of its second and final season in September 1937. The exposition was housed on grounds that are now used by the Great Lakes Science Center, following World War II, the city experienced a prosperous economy. In sports, the Indians won the 1948 World Series, the hockey Barons became champions of the American Hockey League, as a result, along with track and boxing champions produced, Cleveland was dubbed City of Champions in sports at this time
Medium wave is the part of the medium frequency radio band used mainly for AM radio broadcasting. Practical groundwave reception typically extends to 200–300 miles, with distances over terrain with higher ground conductivity. Most broadcast stations use groundwave to cover their listening area, Medium waves can reflect off charged particle layers in the ionosphere and return to Earth at much greater distances, this is called the skywave. At night, especially in winter months and at times of low solar activity, when this happens, MF radio waves can easily be received many hundreds or even thousands of miles away as the signal will be reflected by the higher F layer. This can allow very long-distance broadcasting, but can interfere with distant local stations, due to the limited number of available channels in the MW broadcast band, the same frequencies are re-allocated to different broadcasting stations several hundred miles apart. On nights of good skywave propagation, the signals of distant station may interfere with the signals of local stations on the same frequency.
These channels are called clear channels, and they are required to broadcast at higher powers of 10 to 50 kW and this arrangement had numerous practical difficulties. The Commerce Department rarely intervened in such cases but left it up to stations to enter into voluntary timesharing agreements amongst themselves, the addition of a third entertainment wavelength,400 meters, did little to solve this overcrowding. In 1923, the Commerce Department realized that as more and more stations were applying for commercial licenses, on 15 May 1923, Commerce Secretary Herbert Hoover announced a new bandplan which set aside 81 frequencies, in 10 kHz steps, from 550 kHz to 1350 kHz. Each station would be assigned one frequency, no longer having to broadcast weather, class A and B stations were segregated into sub-bands. Today in most of the Americas, mediumwave broadcast stations are separated by 10 kHz and have two sidebands of up to ±5 kHz in theory, in the rest of the world, the separation is 9 kHz, with sidebands of ±4.5 kHz.
Both provide adequate quality for voice, but are insufficient for high-fidelity broadcasting. In the US and Canada the maximum power is restricted to 50 kilowatts. Those stations which shut down completely at night are known as daytimers. In most cases there are two limits, a lower one for omnidirectional and a higher one for directional radiation with minima in certain directions. The power limit can be depending on daytime and it is possible, other countries may only operate low-powered transmitters on the same frequency, again subject to agreement. For example, Russia operates a transmitter, located in its Kaliningrad exclave and used for external broadcasting. Due to the demand for frequencies in Europe, many countries operate single frequency networks, in Britain
All-America Football Conference
The All-America Football Conference was a professional American football league that challenged the established National Football League from 1946–1949. One of the NFLs most formidable challengers, the AAFC attracted many of the nations best players, the AAFC was ultimately unable to sustain itself in competition with the NFL. Three of its teams were admitted to the NFL, the San Francisco 49ers, the Cleveland Browns, the Cleveland Browns were the AAFCs most successful club, having won every annual championship in the leagues four years of operation. The AAFC was founded by Chicago Tribune sports editor Arch Ward on June 4,1944, Ward was the originator of baseballs All-Star Game and footballs College All-Star Game. Ward brought together a number of pro football enthusiasts, some of whom had previously attempted to purchase NFL franchises. Ward had previously encouraged the NFL to expand, but now he hoped to bring about a permanent second league, on November 21,1944, the AAFC chose Jim Crowley, one of the Four Horsemen of Notre Dame, as its commissioner.
Not coincidentally, the NFL commissioner at this time was Elmer Layden, during the next months, the AAFCs plans solidified. The league initially issued franchises for Buffalo, Cleveland, Los Angeles, New York and Miami were added. A group representing Baltimore was considered for admission, but could not secure a stadium, the league planned to begin play in 1945, but postponed its opening for a year as World War II continued. As the eight franchises built their teams, no move was more far-reaching than Clevelands choice of Paul Brown as its head coach, as coach of the Cleveland franchise, Brown would become one of American footballs greatest innovators. As might be expected, the NFL did not welcome its new rival, in 1945, Layden remarked that the AAFC, still a year from its first game, should first get a ball, make a schedule, and play a game. This insult, often paraphrased as Tell them to get a ball first, Washington Redskins owner George Preston Marshall was perhaps the NFLs hardest-liner regarding the AAFC.
In 1945, he commented I did not realize there was another league, Later he declared, The worst team in our league could beat the best team in theirs. After the AAFC put a team in Baltimore, Marshalls opposition to it would be an obstacle to interleague peace. Not coincidentally, his team was badly hurt by the AAFC, a top team from 1936–1945, the Redskins began a decades-long title drought after coach Ray Flaherty and many key players defected in 1946. Laydens successor, Bert Bell, pursued a policy of official non-recognition, in 1947, Pro Football Illustrated previewed both leagues in its annual publication and was banned from NFL stadiums. The AAFC posed a formidable challenge, in most interleague sports wars, the established league has major advantages over the challenger in prestige, finance and public awareness. The NFL-AAFC war differed in several respects, the NFL was just emerging from its wartime retrenchment
AM broadcasting is the process of radio broadcasting using amplitude modulation. AM was the first method of impressing sound on a signal and is still widely used today. Commercial and public AM broadcasting is authorized in the wave band worldwide. Commercial AM broadcasting developed from amateur broadcasts around 1920, and was the commercially important form of radio broadcasting until FM broadcasting began after World War II. This period is known as the Golden Age of Radio, today, AM competes with FM, as well as with various digital radio broadcasting services distributed from terrestrial and satellite transmitters. AM broadcasting was the first broadcasting technology invented, the technology of amplitude modulation radio transmission was developed between 1900 and 1920. This was used for private communication and message traffic, such as telegrams. The entrepreneurs who developed AM radiotelephone transmission did not anticipate broadcasting voice, the term broadcasting, borrowed from agriculture, was applied to this new activity around 1920.
Prior to 1920 there was no concept of broadcasting, or that radio listeners could be a market for entertainment. Although there were a number of broadcasts during this period. True radio broadcasting didnt begin until around 1920, when it sprang up spontaneously among amateur stations, AM remained the dominant method of broadcasting for the next 30 years, a period called the Golden Age of Radio, until FM broadcasting started to become widespread in the 1950s. AM remains a popular, profitable entertainment medium today and the dominant form of broadcasting in some such as Australia. The first AM voice transmission was made by Canadian researcher Reginald Fessenden on 23 December 1900, Fessenden is a significant figure in the development of AM radio. He helped develop one of the first – the Alexanderson alternator, the first practical continuous wave AM transmitters were based on versions of the Poulsen arc transmitter invented in 1903, and the huge, expensive Alexanderson alternator, developed 1906–1910.
The modifications necessary to transmit AM were clumsy and resulted in low audio quality. Modulation was usually accomplished by a carbon microphone inserted directly in the antenna wire, the limited power handling ability of the microphone severely limited the power of the first radiotelephones, in powerful transmitters water-cooled microphones had to be used. At the receiving end, the crystal radio receivers in use could not drive loudspeakers, only earphones. The discovery in 1912 of the ability of the Audion vacuum tube, invented in 1906 by Lee De Forest
WKNR – branded ESPN850 WKNR – is a commercial sports radio station licensed to Cleveland, serving Greater Cleveland. Owned by Good Karma Brands, WKNR is one of two Cleveland affiliates for ESPN Radio, together, WKNR and sister station WWGK comprise a sports radio duopoly known as ESPN Cleveland. The WKNR studios are located in the Galleria at Erieview in Downtown Cleveland, in addition to a standard analog transmission, WKNR is available online. Historically, the station is perhaps best known by its former WJW call letters, WKNR began broadcasting as WLBV in Mansfield, Ohio on November 13,1926 under the ownership of John F. Weimer. In 1928 the call letters were changed to WJW, reflecting the owners initials, in 1933 the station was sold to Mansfield Broadcasting Association, and it was broadcasting at 1210 kHz with 100 watts. WJW moved to Akron in 1932, by 1936, the station was owned by WJW, Inc. with studios located at 41 South High Street. On March 29,1941, WJW, like most stations around the country changed its frequency with the implementation of the North American Regional Broadcasting Agreement, as of 1942, the station was broadcasting with 250 watts at 1240 kHz.
On November 13,1943, William M. ONeill purchased the station and moved it to Cleveland, Marvin Cade signed on the station that Saturday and was the evening news announcer. On the 11 of June 1945, Marvin Cade was invited to sign off WJW Radio for the time when it switched over to WWWE at 1100 kHz. WJW became Clevelands fifth radio station after WHK, WTAM, WGAR, the frequency was moved to 850 kHz, and power was increased to 5,000 watts. The station became an affiliate of the Blue Network, soon to be ABC, WJW brought the Metropolitan Opera radio broadcasts to Cleveland. The station featured commentary by Dorothy Fuldheim, and for a short period in the early 1950s was home to a disc jockey called Soupy Hines. WJW opened an FM outlet WJW-FM at 104.1 MHz in 1948, the new FM station went on the air just as the Cleveland Indians began their world championship season. WJW was the flagship of a six-station Ohio network that carried the games in 1947 and 1948, the full games were often carried on WJW-FM, since the AM outlet did not have available air time due to its ABC network commitments.
As a result, Cleveland became an FM hot bed, oNeil sold WJW to Storer Broadcasting on November 17,1954. Storer purchased television station WXEL and changed the letters to WJW-TV. WJW dropped its ABC Radio Network affiliation in 1957, and became an independent station, by 1959, WJW broadcast with 10,000 watts daytime and 5,000 watts at night, which would last for the next forty years. A young disc jockey named Alan Freed joined WJW in 1951 from WAKR in Akron, shortly thereafter, Alan began making broadcasting history with his shows in which he was known as the Moondog
A color commentator is a North American term for a sports commentator who assists the main commentator, often by filling in any time when play is not in progress. In other regions this role is referred to as an analyst or summariser. The color analyst and main commentator will often exchange comments freely throughout the broadcast, the color commentator provides expert analysis and background information, such as statistics and injury reports on the teams and athletes, and occasionally anecdotes or light humor. Color commentators are often former athletes or coaches of the sport being broadcast, the term color refers to levity and insight provided by a secondary announcer. A sports color commentator customarily works alongside the play-by-play broadcaster, commentary teams typically feature one professional commentator describing the passage of play, and another, usually a former player or coach, providing supplementary input as the game progresses. Additionally, former players and managers appear as pundits, carrying out a role to the co-commentator during the pre-game show preceding a given contest.
In American motorsports coverage, there may be as many as two color commentators in the booth for a given broadcast, in the United Kingdom, the term color commentator is relatively unknown, rather the role is called analyst, summarizer, or simply commentator. Cricket coverage on ESPNcricinfo uses similar terminology, in Australia, the term is not used. Those giving the analysis alongside the main commentator are sometimes said to be giving additional or expert analysis, or are special comments, there is no mention or translation to the term color. In Denmark and Sweden the term ekspertkommentator / expertkommentator is used for a sidekick to the play-by-play announcer. In Spanish and Portuguese-speaking countries, the position is known as a comentarista and comentador, similarly, in Finland kommentaattori is used for the second commentator, and selostaja for the main one. In France, the term for a commentator is consultant. In Italy, the commentator is usually referred to as responsible for the commento tecnico whereas the play-by-play commentator is the main telecronista.
In Italy, the commentator is usually a person formerly directly involved in the sport. Recent Formula 1 races have no fewer than three commentators, the telecronista, a pilot, and an engineer, the last two sharing the commento tecnico. In Turkey, the term spiker is used for the play-by-play announcer whereas the color commentator is referred to simply as yorumcu, in some countries, the two-person commentating team is not used as much as elsewhere. In Germany, most broadcasts of sports matches traditionally feature a single play-by-play announcer who provides commentary, background information. If the broadcast is on TV, the announcer will usually not comment on visually obvious things, in those cases, a current or former athlete or coach is often used as co-commentator or Experte
WMJI – branded Majic 105.7 – is a commercial classic hits radio station licensed to Cleveland, serving Greater Cleveland and much of surrounding Northeast Ohio. Owned by iHeartMedia, WMJI is the home of local personality Jimmy Malone, the WMJI studios are located in the Cleveland suburb of Independence, while the station transmitter resides in nearby Parma. Besides a standard transmission, WMJI broadcasts over two HD Radio channels, and is available online via iHeartRadio. The station was founded by NBC on December 6,1948 as WTAM-FM, both radio stations were paired with WNBK-TV, which signed on that same year. When the NBC-Westinghouse trade was reversed on June 19,1965, the call letters were changed to WKYC-FM to match those of the AM station, which kept the popular KY slogan and identity Westinghouse brought into Cleveland. NBC eventually sold off WKYC and WKYC-FM in 1972 to Ohio Communications, owned by Nick Mileti and Jim, the station became WWWM, and broadcast a syndicated beautiful music format.
In 1975 the format was changed to album-oriented rock and the station identified itself as M105, the station used the slogan, The Home of Continuous Music and was programmed by former WIXY program director Eric Stevens, and competed aggressively with later-sister station WMMS for ratings. In 1980, M-105 began billing itself as Clevelands Classic Rock, WWWM and WBBG were sold to Robinson Communications, headed by famed jeweler Larry J. B. Robinson, in 1981. The station changed to a contemporary format as WMJI on June 14,1982. The station was sold to Jacor Communications of Cincinnati along with AM station WBBG on September 19,1984, John Lanigan began his morning show with former WHK newscaster John Webster on September 17,1985, returning to Cleveland after a brief stint at WMGG in Tampa, Florida. He replaced husband-and-wife team Dan Deely and Kim Scott after they resigned, when WBBG dumped its big band format on October 29,1987, it simulcast WMJIs programming for a time - and took the WMJI calls - until it was sold off.
Therefore,105. 7-FM technically was WMJI-FM for several months in 1988, when 1260 became WRDZ with a religious format, the FM station simply became WMJI. Jacor Communications soon LMAed WMJI to Legacy Broadcasting, headed by former Malrite executive Carl Hirsch in 1988, by 1990, the station adjusted their format to rock n roll oldies featuring much of the music made famous by Top 40 legends WHK and WIXY. WHK, which dropped the rock and roll format in the mid-1960s, had re-established itself as a station in the 1980s. WIXY was the identity of former sister station WBBG. In addition, much of WMJIs music library consisted of former WIXY tapes and jingles. John Gorman, formerly director of legendary Cleveland rock station WMMS, was brought in to redesign WMJI as a 100% rock oldies format. Under his guidance, the station immediately posted major ratings increases, Gorman reunited with former WMMS artist and co-creator of the stations Buzzard mascot, David Helton to create a new logo and early print ads and billboards for WMJI
Good Karma Brands
Good Karma Brands is a sports marketing, event planning and radio broadcasting company based in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. GKB was founded in 1997 by Craig Karmazin, the son of former Viacom, Craig remains the CEO of Good Karma to this day. In 2013, GKB station WKNR ESPN850 in Cleveland became the AM flagship station for the Cleveland Browns, in 2006, GKB opened an interior design/furniture store in Milwaukee called The Home Market. In 2011, GKB branched out into event planning by purchasing several high-end apartment buildings near Lambeau Field, GKB rents out the buildings to clients and other customers for parties and events. In 2012, GKB further branched out into the field of retail, in October 2013, ESPN announced the creation of the Boca Raton Bowl college football game, to be played each year in Boca Raton, Florida at the home Stadium of Florida Atlantic University. GKB stations WEFL and WUUB serve as the promotional and marketing partners for the postseason game. In January 2014, to reflect the brand extension, GKB officially changed its name from Good Karma Broadcasting to its current name of Good Karma Brands.
On July 17,2014, it was reported that GKB had purchased a minority stake in the Milwaukee Bucks of the National Basketball Association