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Client state

A client state is a state, economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs. Types of client states include: satellite state, associated state, puppet state, neo-colony, vassal state, tributary state. Ancient states such as Persia and Parthia, Greek city-states, Ancient Rome sometimes created client states by making the leaders of that state subservient, having to provide tribute and soldiers. Classical Athens, for example, forced weaker states into the Delian League and in some cases imposed democratic government on them. Philip II of Macedon imposed the League of Corinth. One of the most prolific users of client states was Republican Rome which, instead of conquering and absorbing into an empire, chose to make client states out of those it defeated, a policy, continued up until the 1st century BCE when it became the Roman Empire. Sometimes the client was not a former enemy but a pretender whom Rome helped, Herod the Great being a well-known example.

The use of client states continued through the Middle Ages. In the 13th century, Goryeo dynasty of Korea was overrun by the Mongols who founded the powerful Mongol Empire. After the peace treaty in 1260 and the Sambyeolcho Rebellion in 1270, Goryeo became a semi-autonomous client state of the Yuan dynasty for about 80 years; the number of tributary or vassal states varied over time but notable were the Khanate of Crimea, Moldavia, Sharifate of Mecca and the Sultanate of Aceh. The Austro-Hungarian Empire tried to make Serbia a client state in order to form a Christian opposition to the Ottoman Empire; that changed after a revolution in Serbia in 1900. Serbia now came under Russian protection, forming a pan-Orthodox opposition to the Latin Christianity represented by the Austro-Hungarian empire. In 1914, Russia warned the Austro-Hungarian Empire against attacking Serbia; when it did attack, Russia mobilized its army. Russia wanted Bulgaria and Montenegro as client states. Great Britain and Austria both considered Serbia as a client state controlled by Russia.

Most historians call Serbia a client state but historian Christopher Clark disagrees. He says. In an unpublished commentary Clark argues: "It was a risk enhancing initiative to allow Serbia to become to see Serbia as a kind of client. Serbia, to my knowledge, has never been a client of anyone; this is a mistake, when Great Powers think they can secure the services of "client states". That's a mistake, going to continue being made by our political leaderships, though one hopes one day it will stop." During the Revolutionary and Napoleonic eras, France conquered most of western Europe and established several client states. At first, during the French revolutionary wars these states were erected as republics, they were established in Italy, Switzerland and the Netherlands. During the First French Empire, while Napoleon and the French army conquered Europe, such states changed, several new states were formed; the Italian republics were transformed into the Kingdom of Italy under Napoleon's direct rule in the north, the Kingdom of Naples in the south, first under Joseph Bonaparte's rule and under Marshal Joachim Murat.

A third state was created in the Kingdom of Etruria. The Batavian Republic was replaced by the Kingdom of Holland, ruled by Napoleon's third brother, Louis Bonaparte. A total of 35 German states, all of them allies of France, seceded from the Holy Roman Empire to create the Confederation of the Rhine, a client state created to provide a buffer between France and its two largest enemies to the east and Austria. Two of those states were Napoleonic creations: the huge Kingdom of Westphalia, controlled by Jerome Bonaparte, the Emperor's youngest brother. Following the French invasion of the Iberian Peninsula, Spain too was turned into a client Kingdom of Spain under Joseph Bonaparte. In the 20th century, France started to apply the concept of Françafrique, its name for its former African colonies, sometimes extended to the former Belgian colonies. At present the term is used on some occasions to criticise the neocolonial relationship France has with its former colonies in Africa; the countries involved provide oil and minerals important to the French economy.

In addition, French companies have commercial interests in several countries of the continent. As if that were not enough, Francophone countries in Africa help to sustain the image of France as a world power, by giving votes of support for French initiatives at the UN. In the British Empire the Indian Princely States were technically independent and were technically given their separate independence in 1947. Egyptian Independence in 1922 technically ended a British protectorate in Egypt. Sudan continued to be governed as Anglo-Egyptian Sudan until Sudanese independence in 1956. Iraq was made a kingdom in 1932. In each case the economic and military reality did not amount to full independence, but a st

Roger Mears

Roger Mears, is a former off-road driver who drove in the USAC and CART Championship Car series. He raced in the 1978–1984 seasons, with 31 combined career starts, started in the 1982 and 1983 Indianapolis 500s, he finished in the top ten 17 times, with his best finish in 4th position achieved 3 times. Following his IndyCar career, Mears returned to desert racing. Late in his career, he raced in four events during the 1995 NASCAR SuperTruck Series season, racing for Hendrick Motorsports, including the inaugural series race at Phoenix, his best career finish, was a 16th at Mesa Marin. Roger is the father of NASCAR driver Casey Mears, is 5 years older than his brother, Rick Mears, a 4-time Indianapolis 500 winner, he is an atheist. Since his own racing career ended, Mears has been involved in Casey's career, he ran an Indy Lights team, with Casey as the driver, before working as a consultant with both Ganassi and Hendrick Motorsports. Roger Mears driver statistics at Racing-Reference

List of highways numbered 303

The following highways are numbered 303: New Brunswick Route 303 Nova Scotia Route 303 Prince Edward Island Route 303 Quebec Route 303 Saskatchewan Highway 303 China National Highway 303 National Highway 303 Japan National Route 303 A303 road Arizona State Route 303 Arkansas Highway 303 Georgia State Route 303 Indiana State Road 303 Kentucky Route 303 Louisiana Highway 303 Maryland Route 303 Minnesota State Highway 303 New Jersey Route 303 New York: New York State Route 303 County Route 303 County Route 303 County Route 303 North Carolina Highway 303 Ohio State Route 303 Pennsylvania Route 303 South Carolina Highway 303 Tennessee State Route 303 Texas: Texas State Highway 303 Texas State Highway Spur 303 Farm to Market Road 303 Urban Road 303 Utah State Route 303 Virginia State Route 303 Washington State Route 303Other areas: Puerto Rico Highway 303 U. S. Virgin Islands Highway 303