Clifford Lee Burton was an American musician and songwriter, best known as the bass guitarist for the American band Metallica from December 1982 until his death in September 1986. Burton joined Metallica in 1982 and performed on the band's first three studio albums: Kill'Em All, Ride the Lightning and Master of Puppets, he received a posthumous writing credit for the song "To Live Is to Die" from the band's fourth studio album... And Justice for All. On September 27, 1986 around 7:00 a.m. Burton died in a bus accident in Kronoberg County, a rural area of southern Sweden, as Metallica toured in support of the Master of Puppets album, he has been recognized as a influential musician both during his career and after his death, placing ninth in a 2011 Rolling Stone magazine online reader poll recognizing the greatest bassists of all time. He was posthumously inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of Metallica on April 4, 2009. Clifford Lee Burton was born in California, to Ray and Jan Burton.
He had two elder siblings and Connie. Burton's interest in music began when his father introduced him to classical music and he began taking piano lessons. In his teenage years, Burton had an interest in rock and heavy metal, he began playing the bass at age 13, after the death of his brother. His parents quoted him as saying, "I'm going to be the best bassist for my brother." He practiced up to six hours per day. Along with classical and jazz, Burton's other early influences varied from southern rock and country to the blues. Burton cited Geddy Lee, Geezer Butler, Stanley Clarke, Lemmy Kilmister and Phil Lynott as major influences on his style of bass playing. While still a student at Castro Valley High School, Burton formed; the band took its name from a Bay Area topless bar. Other members of EZ-Street included future Faith No More guitarist "Big" Jim Martin as well as Faith No More and Ozzy Osbourne drummer Mike Bordin. Burton and Martin continued their musical collaboration after becoming students at Chabot College in Hayward, California.
Their second band, Agents of Misfortune, entered the Hayward Area Recreation Department's Battle of the Bands contest in 1981. Their audition was recorded on video and features some of the earliest footage of Burton's playing style; the video shows Burton playing parts of what would soon be two Metallica songs: his signature bass solo, " - Pulling Teeth", the chromatic intro to "For Whom the Bell Tolls". Burton joined his first major band, Trauma, in 1982. Burton recorded the track "Such a Shame" with the band on the second Metal Massacre compilation. In 1982, Trauma traveled to Los Angeles to perform at the Whisky a Go Go. Among those in attendance were James Hetfield and Lars Ulrich, both members of Metallica, which had formed the previous year. Upon hearing, as Hetfield described it, "this amazing shredding", the two went in search of what they thought was an amazing guitar player; when they learned that what they had heard was a bass solo by Burton, they decided to recruit him for their own band.
They asked him to replace departed bassist Ron McGovney, since Burton thought that Trauma was "starting to get a little commercial", he agreed. The idea of having to move to Los Angeles did not sit well with him, said he would join only if the band would relocate from Los Angeles to his native San Francisco Bay Area. Metallica, eager to have Burton in the band, left their origin of Los Angeles to make a home in El Cerrito, a town located across the bay from San Francisco. Burton's first recording with Metallica was the Megaforce demo. A demo tape the band had made prior to Burton's joining, No Life'til Leather, managed to come into the hands of Jon Zazula, owner of Megaforce Records; the band relocated to Old Bridge, New Jersey and secured a recording contract with Zazula's label. Their debut album, Kill'Em All, features Burton's famous solo piece, " - Pulling Teeth", which showcased his use of effects, such as a wah-wah pedal, not used by bass guitarists. Metallica's debut album, Kill'Em All, was intended to inherit the name of one of their earlier demo releases, Metal Up Your Ass, but the record company did not like the title and insisted on changing it.
After the band learned of the change, Burton said "We should just kill'em all, man," which gave the band members an idea for the new title. The album was released on July 1983 through Megaforce Records; the band's second studio album, Ride the Lightning, showcased the band's increasing musical growth. Burton's songwriting abilities were growing, he received credit on six of the album's eight songs. Burton's playing style and use of effects is showcased on two tracks: the chromatic intro to "For Whom the Bell Tolls", the "lead bass" on "The Call of Ktulu"; the increase of musicianship on Ride the Lightning caught the attention of major record labels. Metallica was signed to Elektra Records, began working on its third album, Master of Puppets, considered by most critics to be a landmark album in heavy metal. Burton is featured on a number of tracks, most notably the instrumental "Orion", which again featured Burton's lead bass playing style; the album contained Burton's favorite Metallica song "Master of Puppets".
Master of Puppets was the band's commercial breakthrough, but it would be Burton's final album with Metallica. Burton's final performance was in Stockholm, Sweden, at the Solnahallen Arena on September 26, 1986, one day before his death. During the European leg of the Damage Inc. tour in support of Master of Puppets, the band co
The Palatine Anthology, sometimes abbreviated AP, is the collection of Greek poems and epigrams discovered in 1606 in the Palatine Library in Heidelberg. It is based on the lost collection of Constantine Cephalas of the 10th century, which in turn is based on older anthologies, it contains material from the 7th century BC until 600 AD and on was the main part of the Greek Anthology which included the Anthology of Planudes and more material. The manuscript of the Palatine Anthology was discovered by Saumaise in 1606 in the Palatine library at Heidelberg. In 1623, after the Thirty Years' War, it was sent with the rest of the Palatine Library to Rome as a present from Maximilian I of Bavaria to Pope Gregory XV and it was kept in the Vatican Library. In 1797 it was taken to Paris by order of the French Directory and in 1816 it was returned to Heidelberg when the war ended, but one part of it remained in Paris; the manuscript of the Palatine Anthology consists of 709 pages. The section of the manuscript, kept today at the Library of the University of Heidelberg consists of pages 1–614, the other part, housed in the Bibliothèque nationale de France, comprises the remaining 94 pages.
It was written by four scribes around 980. One of the scribes made comments and additions and part of the manuscript was corrected by a Corrector; the scribes were the following: scribe Α: pages 4–9.384.8 scribe J: pages 9.348.9-9.563 scribe Β: pages 9.564-11.66.3 scribe Β2: pages 11.66.4-11.118.1 scribe Β: pages 11.118.1-13.31Scribe J made corrections to the text written by scribe A and at the end, a Corrector, C, made many corrections to the text of Α and J. List of anthologies of Greek epigrams Digitized manuscript of the Palatine Anthology online at the Heidelberg University Library. Epigrammatum anthologia palatina cum planudeis et appendice nova, Johann Friedrich Dübner-Cougny, 3 voll. Parisiis, editore Ambrosio Firmin-Didot, Instituti francici typographo, 1881-90: vol. 1, vol. 2, vol. 3. Greek text at Perseus Digital Library of the Tufts University, in five volumes: volume 1, volume 2, volume 3, volume 4, volume 5. Bilingual edition at the Internet Archive, originals with English translation: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
In combinatorics, the Dinitz theorem is a statement about the extension of arrays to partial Latin squares, proposed in 1979 by Jeff Dinitz, proved in 1994 by Fred Galvin. The Dinitz theorem is that given an n × n square array, a set of m symbols with m ≥ n, for each cell of the array an n-element set drawn from the pool of m symbols, it is possible to choose a way of labeling each cell with one of those elements in such a way that no row or column repeats a symbol, it can be formulated as a result in graph theory, that the list chromatic index of the complete bipartite graph K n, n equals n. That is, if each edge of the complete bipartite graph is assigned a set of n colors, it is possible to choose one of the assigned colors for each edge such that no two edges incident to the same vertex have the same color. Galvin's proof generalizes to the statement that, for every bipartite multigraph, the list chromatic index equals its chromatic index; the more general edge list coloring conjecture states that the same holds not only for bipartite graphs, but for any loopless multigraph.
An more general conjecture states that the list chromatic number of claw-free graphs always equals their chromatic number. The Dinitz theorem is related to Rota's basis conjecture. Weisstein, Eric W. "Dinitz Problem". MathWorld. Retrieved 2008-08-17
Palaeoraphe is an extinct genus of palms, represented by one species, Palaeoraphe dominicana from early Miocene Burdigalian stage Dominican amber deposits on the island of Hispaniola. The genus is known from full flower; the holotype is deposited in the collections of the Oregon State University in Corvallis, Oregon, as number "Sd–9–158", where it was studied and described by Dr George Poinar. Dr Poinar published his 2002 type description for Palaeoraphe in the Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society volume number 139; the genus name is a combination of the Greek word palaios meaning "ancient" and Raphia a genus of palm, while the species name dominicana references the Dominican Republic where the fossil was discovered. The type specimen was excavated from the La Toca mine northeast of Santiago de los Caballeros. Palaeoraphe has been placed in the Corypheae subtribe Livistoninae, which has twelve modern genera found in both the old world and the new world. Of the three modern genera the Palaeoraphe flower is similar in character Brahea and Colpothrinax, with the structure being closest in structure to that of Brahea.
Both genera having distinct sepals, petals with furrows facing the axis of the flower, shaped and sized anthers. However the two genera can be told apart by the stigmas, which are united for their entire length in Brahea, by the more relaxed positioning of the anthers in Palaeoraphe; the flower of P. dominicana is a calyx of three broad sepals with irregular to fringed apices. The three petals are joined at their bases and of the six stamins, those paired with petals are relxed into depressions on the petal surface, while the remaining three stamins are erect, it is proposed by Dr. Poinar that Palaeoraphe may have been a stenotopic genus, restricted to the Greater Antilles and to just the island of Hispaniola; the extinction of Palaeoraphe may have been caused by floral and faunal shifts during the Pliocene and Pleistocene
Ann Hibner Koblitz is Professor Emerita of Women and Gender Studies at Arizona State University and was a pioneer in studying the history of women in science. She is the Director of the Kovalevskaia Fund, which supports women in science in developing countries, she received her B. A. in history of science from Princeton University, where she was in the first class of women admitted as undergraduates. She earned her Ph. D. in history from Boston University. She studied and did research in the Soviet Union in 1974-75, 1978, 1981–82, 1985, 1986. In 1984-85 she was a member of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, after which she had temporary teaching positions at Wellesley College, Oregon State University, the University of Puget Sound. From 1989-98 she taught at Hartwick College in New York. Since 1998 she has been a professor at Arizona State University. In a graduate seminar in 1977 Ann Hibner Koblitz criticized an article by political scientist Samuel Huntington for misusing mathematics in an attempt to buttress his arguments.
This led her husband Neal Koblitz to include her critique in an article he wrote on "Mathematics as Propaganda," and this in turn inspired Yale mathematician Serge Lang to lead a campaign against the election of Huntington to the National Academy of Sciences. The journalist Charles Sykes, who describes the episode in detail in his book Profscam, writes that Samuel Huntington's election to the National Academy of Sciences would have been little more than a formality if it had not been for a graduate student named Ann Koblitz; the dispute that would shake the social sciences to their quantitative foundations, featured on the front page of The New York Times, in articles in The New Republic and Discover, that would convulse the insouciant National Academy of Sciences, can be traced back to a single assignment in a graduate seminar on historical methodology at Boston University in 1977. Despite the vigorous defense of Huntington by Nobel Prize winning economist Herbert Simon, Lang's campaign was successful, Huntington was twice voted down by the Academy's members.
In the 1980s and 1990s Koblitz was a vocal critic of the gender essentialism of Evelyn Fox Keller, who maintained that modern science is inherently patriarchal and ill-suited for women. Koblitz argued that Keller failed to appreciate the multi-faceted nature of scientific research and the great diversity of experiences of women across cultures and time periods. For example, in the 19th century the first women to earn advanced university degrees in Europe in any field were all in the natural sciences and medicine. In an article about the first 20 years of the Association for Women in Mathematics, the mathematician and former AWM president Lenore Blum wrote In the mid-1980s, there was a flurry of work by a group of feminist theorists on gender and science. In commentary critical of this work, Ann Hibner Koblitz succinctly summarized the main ideas behind the theory: "Put in its most general guise, the new'gender theory' says that centuries of male domination of science have affected its content -- what questions are asked and what answers are found -- and that'science' and'objectivity' have become inextricably linked to concepts and ideologies of masculinity."
She lists eight criticisms of which I will mention only two, that gender theorists "seem unaware of the increasing numbers of women who have had satisfying lives as scientists" and "employ cartoon-character stereotypes of science, scientists and women." In the 1990s and early 2000s an influential group of archaeologists, led by Steven A. LeBlanc of Harvard, popularized the notion that warfare was endemic among all prehistoric peoples. Koblitz analyzed the writings of this group, compared them to other sources, concluded that the claim of pervasive warfare among the ancient Hohokam people of present-day central Arizona is a modern "masculinist narrative" that has little support in the archaeological record. After speaking at the Old Pueblo Archaeology Center near Tucson, Koblitz was asked to write a version of her Men and Masculinities article for the Center's Bulletin. In that article she wrote: On the basis of scant evidence, they have created a story of prehistoric militarism that harmonizes well with early 21st-century U.
S. political culture. Whether this warlike image has much bearing on the actual lives and pursuits of indigenous Southwest populations of the 11th through 15th centuries is, open to doubt. In 1985 Koblitz and her husband Neal established the Kovalevskaia Fund as a nonprofit organization whose purpose is to support and encourage women in developing countries in science, mathematics and medicine, it was aimed at promoting women in the sciences in Vietnam. Grants were at first made in Vietnam, but were extended to other developing countries. BooksA Convergence of Lives: Sofia Kovalevskaia--Scientist, Revolutionary. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. 1993. ISBN 9780813519630. Science and Revolution in Russia. Harwood Academic. 2000. ISBN 978-9057026201. Sex and Herbs and Birth Control: Women and Fertility Regulation Through the Ages. Kovalevskaia Fund. 2014. ISBN 978-0989665506. Selected journal publications"A historian looks at gender and science". International Journal of Science Education. 9: 399–407.
Forgotten is a 2017 South Korean mystery thriller film directed by Jang Hang-jun. The film stars Kim Mu-yeol, Moon Sung-keun and Na Young-hee. Jin-seok is a young man, he narrates about his older brother, Yoo-seok, his admiration for him, he is in a car ride with his mother and brother to their new home. Things seem a bit strange to Jin-seok in their new home though, but he doesn't know what or why. On a rainy night, he witnesses the abduction of Yoo-seok, being dragged into a car and disappearing into the night, he collapses. Nineteen days pass since his brother's abduction, but he reappears at home one night, he tells Jin that he remembers nothing about his 19 days of disappearance, the family believes Yoo has a repressed memory because of the ordeal. However, Jin starts to notice discrepancies in Yoo-seok's personality and behavior, as well as those of his parents, he realizes that his parents and brothers are not who they are. He manages to escape the house that he was in and from the people who were in it, when he sees a police car in the streets during his escape and cries for their help.
He tells the senior officer that he is 21, his name and social security number, that he was held captive by people pretending to be his family. The officers are skeptical; when they ask him what year it is, he replies that it's 1997. Jin is in fact, 41 years old. A shocked Jin looks around and sees an officer reading on a tablet, sees delinquent teens that are at the station video recording him on a smartphone; the most shocking is when he sees himself in a mirror, no longer sees the youthful face of his 21 year old self, but an aged face of a 41 year old man instead. Jin leaves the police station confused, but is snatched up by the same group, holding him captive, led by the young man, pretending to be his older brother; the man tells Jin that twenty years ago, a young girl and her mother were brutally murdered inside their home. There was no leads and no suspects, the case went cold. However, the family of the victims hired the young man to find their murderer, after a lengthy investigation he was able to locate and determine that Jin-seok was the killer.
It is shown in flashbacks as the young man narrates, that Jin was abducted and tortured to confess, but maintains his innocence the whole entire time. A psychiatrist is called as part of the elaborate investigation, who suggested that Jin-seok has a repressed memory of the event because it was too much for his psyche to handle, so his brain blocked out that traumatic event altogether, it is shown that the investigating team has the psychiatrist hypnotize Jin back to his last happy memory from 1997, claiming that if the team can re-enact the events of the night of the murder, Jin might be able to uncover his repressed memories and tell the young man what happened. Everything was going as planned until the rainy night at the beginning of the movie, when Jin thought he saw Yoo-seok abducted by men in a car; the team tried again to recreate the night of the murder, but couldn't because it hadn't rain since so they had to keep stalling until they could get another rainy night. The young man tells Jin that he doesn't believe anything he just said, but Jin tells him he believes everything, except for one thing, that he never killed anyone.
Jin escapes the van by rolling out of it. In an ensuing chase, the young man crashes the van while chasing after Jin and is dead. Jin walks away from the scene, but as fate would have it, he gets accidentally hit by a car of an uninvolved stranger; the driver calls the police to report the accident. As Jin is laying on the ground, he regains his memories from 1997. In a flashback to 1997, he is shown in the scene from the start of the movie. All of a sudden they're in a car accident, what he's blocked out since then, his parents died from the accident, his brother is in critical condition. Six months passes, he needs money for Yoo-seok's recovery, is told by his brother's doctor that he'll need surgery soon, he goes on to one of those internet chatrooms that they had in 1997, seeking a job, is Instant Messaged by an anonymous person telling Jin he'll pay him to kill a woman. The anonymous man provides Jin with the address and keys to the house, directions that he is only to kill the wife, leave the two children that are there unharmed.
On the night of the planned murder, Jin goes to the house, but he comes to his senses and can't go through with it. He is about to leave but the mother sees him and screams, Jin tells her that it was all a mistake and that he'll leave if she'll just be quiet, he again starts to leave, but is discovered by the young daughter who sees Jin holding a large kitchen knife. She starts screaming, her mother tries to tell her to keep calm, as well as Jin yelling for her to stop screaming, but the daughter cannot stop screaming