Sir Cliff Richard is a British singer, performer and philanthropist. Richard has sold more than 250 million records worldwide, he has total sales of over 21 million singles in the United Kingdom and is the third-top-selling artist in UK Singles Chart history, behind the Beatles and Elvis Presley. Richard was marketed as a rebellious rock and roll singer in the style of Elvis Presley and Little Richard. With his backing group, the Shadows, Richard dominated the British popular music scene in the pre-Beatles period of the late 1950s to early 1960s, his 1958 hit single "Move It" is described as Britain's first authentic rock and roll song. Increased focus on his Christianity and subsequent softening of his music led to a more middle-of-the-road image and he sometimes ventured into contemporary Christian music. Over a career spanning 60 years, Richard has amassed many gold and platinum discs and awards, including two Ivor Novello Awards and three Brit Awards. More than 130 of his singles, albums and EPs have reached the UK more than any other artist.
Richard has had 67 UK top the second highest total for an artist behind Elvis. Richard holds the record as the only act to make the UK singles charts in all of its first six decades, he has achieved 14 UK number-one singles, is the only singer to have had a number-one single in the UK in five consecutive decades. Richard has never achieved the same popularity in the United States despite eight US Top 40 singles, including the million-selling "Devil Woman" and "We Don't Talk Anymore". In Canada, he had a successful period in the early 1960s, again in the late 1970s and early 1980s with some releases certified gold and platinum, he has remained a popular music and television personality in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Northern Europe and Asia, retains a following in other countries. Richard has been a resident in the United Kingdom for most of his life, though in 2010, he confirmed that he had become a citizen of Barbados; when not touring, he divides his time between Portugal. In 2019, he relocated to the United States.
Cliff Richard was born Harry Rodger Webb in British India at King George's Hospital, Victoria Street, in Lucknow, part of British India. His parents were Rodger Oscar Webb, a manager for a catering contractor that serviced the Indian Railways, the former Dorothy Marie Dazely. Richard is of English heritage, but he had one great-grandmother, of half Welsh and half Spanish descent, born of a Spanish great-great-grandmother named Emiline Joseph Rebeiro; the Webb family lived near the main shopping centre of Hazratganj. Dorothy's mother served as the dormitory matron at the La Martiniere Girls' School. Richard has three sisters, Joan and Donna. In 1948, following Indian independence, the family embarked on a three-week sea voyage to Tilbury, England aboard the SS Ranchi; the Webbs moved from comparative wealth in India, where they lived in a company-supplied flat at Howrah near Calcutta, to a semi-detached house in Carshalton. Harry Webb attended Stanley Park Juniors, in Carshalton. In 1949 his father obtained employment in the credit control office of Thorn Electrical Industries and the family moved in with other relatives in Waltham Cross, where he attended Kings Road Junior Mixed Infants School until a three-bedroom council house in Cheshunt was allocated to them in 1950, at 12 Hargreaves Close.
He attended Cheshunt Secondary Modern School from 1952 to 1957.. As a member of the top stream, he stayed on beyond the minimum leaving age to take GCE Ordinary Level examinations and gained a pass in English literature, he started work as a filing clerk for Atlas Lamps. A development of retirement flats, Cliff Richard Court, has been named after him in Cheshunt. Harry Webb became interested in skiffle; when he was 16, his father bought him a guitar, in 1957 he formed the school vocal harmony group The Quintones, before singing in the Dick Teague Skiffle Group. Harry Webb became lead singer of the Drifters; the 1950s entrepreneur Harry Greatorex wanted the up-and-coming rock'n' roll singer to change from his real name of Harry Webb. The name Cliff was adopted as it sounded like "cliff face", which suggested "Rock", it was "Move It" writer Ian Samwell who suggested the surname "Richard" as a tribute to Webb's musical hero Little Richard. Before their first large-scale appearance, at the Regal Ballroom in Ripley, Derbyshire in 1958, they adopted the name "Cliff Richard and the Drifters".
The four members were Harry Webb, Ian Samwell on guitar, Terry Smart on drums and Norman Mitham on guitar. None of the other three played with the and better known Shadows, although Samwell wrote songs for Richard's career. For his debut session, Norrie Paramor provided Richard with "Schoolboy Crush", a song recorded by an American, Bobby Helms. Richard was permitted to record one of his own songs for the B-side. For the "Move It" session, Paramor used the session guitarist Ernie Shears on lead guitar and Frank Clark on bass. There are various stories about. One is that N
"My Name Is Jack" is a song written by American record producer John Simon and released as a single by British group Manfred Mann in 1968. Their version reached number 8 on UK record charts, it became an international Top 10 hit, but only reached number 104 in the US. The lyrics and music were written by John Simon, his own version was included on the soundtrack of the 1968 film You Are What You Eat; the song tells the story of a resident of the "Greta Garbo Home for Wayward Boys and Girls", the nickname of a real hostel, the Kirkland Hotel, in San Francisco, where part of the movie was filmed. The Kashu Hotel, the building became dilapidated and was demolished; the song was one of the first high-profile sessions at the newly constructed Trident Studios in London, which would become renowned for its use by artists like The Beatles, David Bowie and others. 1978 – Moonriders, Nouvelles Vagues 1994 – Pizzicato Five, Great White Wonder MetroLyrics
In animal behaviour, escape response, escape reaction, or escape behaviour is a rapid series of movements performed by an animal in response to possible predation. Some types of escape response may include camouflage, freezing behaviour, fleeing, among others It is an anti-predator behaviour that varies from species to species. In fact, variation between individuals is linked to increased survival. In addition, it is not increased speed that contributes to the success of the escape response; the individual escape response of a particular animal can vary based on an animal's previous experience and current state The escape response, a particular type of anti-predator behaviour, is vital to the survival of species. Individuals that are able to execute an escape response are more to flee from predators and avoid predation. Arjun et al. found that it is not the speed of the response itself, but the greater distance between the targeted individual and the predator when the response is executed. In addition, the escape response of an individual is directly related to the threat of the predator.
Predators that pose the biggest risk to the population will evoke the greatest escape response. Therefore, it may be an adaptive trait selected for by natural selection. Law & Blake argue that many morphological characteristics could contribute to an individual's efficient escape response, but the escape response has undoubtedly been molded by evolution. In their study, they compared more recent sticklebacks to their ancestral form, the Paxton Lake stickleback, found that the performance of the ancestral form was lower. Therefore, one may conclude; the neurobiology of the escape response varies from species to species, but some consistencies exist. In fish and amphibians, the escape response appears to be elicited by Mauthner Cells, two giant neurons located in the rhombomere 4 of the hindbrain. In larval zebrafish, they sense predators using their lateral line system; when larvae are positioned lateral to a predator, they will escape in a lateral direction. According to game theory, zebrafish who are positioned lateral and ventral to the predator are more to survive, rather than any alternate strategy.
The faster the predator is moving, the faster downward the fish will move to escape predation. In vertebrates, the avoidance behaviour appears to be processed in the telencephalon; this has been shown in goldfish, as individuals with ablated telencephalons were impaired in acquiring avoidance behaviour. As a result, some researchers conclude that damage to the telencephalon can interfere with the emotion internal fear to produce an avoidance response. Researchers will evoke an escape response to test the potency of hormones and/or medication and their relationship to stress; as such, the escape response is fundamental to anatomical and pharmacological research Research has found that habituation, the process that allows individuals to learn to identify harmless events, has a significant impact on the perception of fear in the presence of a predator. Habituation allows animals to discriminate between real, dangerous events. While many do not consider habituation a form of learning, many researchers are beginning to suggest that it could be a form of associative learning.
For example, zebra danios who are habituated to predators are more latent to flee than those who were not habituated to predators. However, habituation did not affect the fish's angle of escape from the predator. If an animal engages in an escape response, but is unable to escape, they will cease to escape; this is known as learned helplessness. In Drosophila melanogaster, the frequency of an escape reaction will decrease in an individual, subjected to uncontrollable shocks. However, this learning is context-dependent, as when these flies are placed in a new environment, they will again exhibit the escape response Avian species display unique escape responses; the escape response of birds may be important when considering aircraft and vehicle traffic. In one experiment by Devault et al. brown-headed cowbirds were exposed to a demonstration of traffic travelling at speeds between 60 – 360 km/hr. When approached by a vehicle travelling at 120 km/h, the birds only allotted 0.8s to escape before a possible collision.
This study showed that fast traffic speeds may not allow enough time for birds to initiate an escape response. When faced with a dangerous stimuli, fish will contract their axial muscle, resulting a C-shaped contraction away from the stimulus; this response occurs in two separate stages: a muscle contraction that allows them to speed away from a stimulus, a sequential contralateral movement. This escape is known as a "fast-start response"; the majority of the fish respond to an external stimulus within 5 to 15 milliseconds, while some will exhibit a slower response taking up to 80 milliseconds. While the escape response only propels the fish a small distance away, this distance is long enough to prevent predation. While many predators use water pressure to catch their prey, this short distance prevents them from feeding on the fish via suction. In the case of fish, it has been hypothesized that the differences in escape response are due to the evolution of neural circuits over time; this can be witnessed by observing the difference in the extent of stage 1 behaviour, the distinct muscle activity in stage 2 of the C-start or fast-start response.
Recent research in guppies has shown that