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A cliffhanger, or cliffhanger ending, is a plot device in fiction which features a main character in a precarious or difficult dilemma, or confronted with a shocking revelation at the end of an episode of serialized fiction. A cliffhanger is hoped to incentivize the audience to return to see how the characters resolve the dilemma; some serials end with the caveat "To Be Continued…" or "The End?" In movie serials and television series, the following episode sometimes begins with a recap sequence. Cliffhangers were used as literary devices in several works of the medieval era; the Arabic literary work One Thousand and One Nights involves Scheherazade narrating a series of stories to King Shahryār for 1,001 nights, with each night ending on a cliffhanger in order to save herself from execution. Some medieval Chinese ballads like the Liu chih-yuan chu-kung-tiao ended each chapter on a cliffhanger to keep the audience in suspense. Cliffhangers appeared as an element of the Victorian serial novel that emerged in the 1840s, with many associating the form with Charles Dickens, a pioneer of the serial publication of narrative fiction.

By the 1860s it had become a staple part of the sensation serials, while the term itself originated with Thomas Hardy in 1873 when a protagonist from one of his serials, Henry Knight, was left hanging off a cliff. Cliffhangers became prominent with the serial publication of narrative fiction, pioneered by Charles Dickens. Printed episodically in magazines, Dickens's cliffhangers triggered desperation in his readers. Writing in the New Yorker, Emily Nussbaum captured the anticipation of those waiting for the next installment of Dickens' The Old Curiosity Shop; the impact of Dickens' serial publications saw the cliffhanger become a staple part of the sensation serials by the 1860s. The term "cliffhanger" is considered to have originated with the serialised version of Thomas Hardy's A Pair of Blue Eyes in which Henry Knight, one of the protagonists, is left hanging off a cliff. Cliffhangers were popular from the 1910s through to the 1930s serials when nickelodeons and movie theaters filled the cultural niche primarily occupied by television.

During the 1910s, when Fort Lee, New Jersey was a center of film production, the cliffs facing New York and the Hudson River were used as film locations. The most notable of these films was The Perils of Pauline, a serial which helped popularize the term cliffhanger. In them, the serial would end leaving actress Pearl White's Pauline character hanging from a cliff. Cliffhangers are used in television series soap operas. Several Australian soap operas, which went off air over summer, such as Number 96, The Restless Years, Prisoner, ended each year with major and much publicized catastrophe, such as a character being shot in the final seconds of the year's closing episode. Cliffhangers are used in Japanese manga and anime. In contrast to American superhero comics, Japanese manga are much more written with cliffhangers with each volume or issue; this is the case with shōnen manga those published by Weekly Shōnen Jump, such as Dragon Ball, Shaman King, One Piece. During its original run, Doctor Who was written in a serialised format that ended each episode within a serial on a cliffhanger.

In the first few years of the show, the final episodes of each serial would have a cliffhanger that would lead into the next serial. Dragonfire Part One is notable for having a cliffhanger that involved The Doctor hanging from a cliff; this has been criticised by fans for being a pointless cliffhanger, but script editor Andrew Cartmel gave an explanation for the reasoning of it in an interview. Another British science fiction series, Blake's 7, employed end-of-season cliffhangers for three of the four seasons the series was on air, most notably for its final episode in 1981 in which the whole of the main cast are killed. Cliffhangers were rare on American television before 1980, as television networks preferred the flexibility of airing episodes in any order; the sitcom Soap was the first US television programme to utilise the cliffhanger, at the end of its first season in 1978. Cliffhangers went on to become a staple of American primetime soap operas. R.?" third season-ending cliffhanger of Dallas, the "Who Done It" fourth-season episode that solved the mystery, contributed to the cliffhanger becoming a common storytelling device on American television.

Another notable cliffhanger was the "Moldavian Massacre" on Dynasty in 1985, which fueled speculation throughout the summer months regarding who lived or died when all the characters attended a wedding in the country of Moldavia, only to have revolutionaries topple the government and machine-gun the entire wedding party. Cliffhanger endings in films date back to the early 20th century, were prominently used in the movie serials of the 1930s, though these tended to be resolved with the next installment the following week. A longer term cliffhanger was employed in the Star Wars film series, in The Empire Strikes Back in which Darth Vader made a shock revelation to Luke Skywalker that he was his father, the life of Han Solo was in jeopardy after he was frozen and taken away by a bounty hunter; these plotlines were left unresolved until the next film in the series three years later. The two main ways for cliffhangers to keep readers/viewers coming back is to either invo

William Wallace Brown

William Wallace Brown was a Republican member of the U. S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. William W. Brown was born in New York, he moved with his parents to Elk County, Pennsylvania, in 1838. He attended Smethport Academy, he graduated from Alfred University in Allegany County, New York, in 1861. He enlisted in the Twenty-third New York Volunteers in 1861, transferred to the First Pennsylvania Rifles on December 18, 1861. Brown was appointed recorder of deeds of McKean County, Pennsylvania, in 1864 and its superintendent of schools in 1866, he was admitted to the bar in 1866 and practiced. He was elected district attorney of McKean County the same year. In 1869 he moved to Corry, where he served three years as city attorney and two years in the city council, he was a member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives from 1872 to 1876. He was appointed aide-de-camp to Governor John F. Hartranft in 1876 and was associated with the Pennsylvania National Guard. In 1878 he moved to Bradford and continued the practice of law.

Brown was elected as a Republican to the Forty-ninth Congresses. He was an unsuccessful candidate for renomination in 1886, he resumed the practice of law, served as city solicitor of Bradford from 1892 to 1897. He worked as auditor for the War Department from 1897 to 1899 and auditor for the Navy Department from 1899 to 1907, he was appointed Assistant Attorney General by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1907, served until 1910. He was in charge of defense of Spanish treaty claims, he resumed the practice of law in Bradford where he died 1926. He was interred in Alfred Cemetery in New York. United States Congress. "William Wallace Brown". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved on 2008-02-14 The Political Graveyard

Christian Seibert

Christian Seibert is a German classical pianist who recorded the complete piano works by composers such as Krzysztof Meyer. He founded the Kleist Music School in Frankfurt. Seibert was born in Delmenhorst to a family of musicians, his father is chamber musician and academic teacher Kurt Seibert. Christian first appeared in public at age 10. From age 16, he studied with Pavel Gililov in Cologne, he continued his studies in Vienna, taking master classes with pianists such as Bruno Leonardo Gelber and Rudolf Kehrer. He achieved prizes at competitions such as the Ferruccio Busoni International Piano Competition and the Robert Schumann International Competition for Pianists and Singers in Zwickau, which led to international concerts. In March 2013, Seibert founded the Kleist Music School in Frankfurt, he has been artistic director of the lounge concerts of the Viadrina European University in Frankfurt. Seibert is interested in the music of around 1900, he has performed at festivals such as the Alpenklassik Festival Bad Reichenhall, the Bodenseefestival, the Czech Dvořák Festival, the Echternach Music Festival in Luxembourg, the Festival Internacional de Santander in Spain, the Klavier-Festival Ruhr.

He has given recitals at the Gasteig in Munich, the Salzburg Residenz, the Glocke in Bremen, Wigmore Hall in London, in Atlanta, New York City and Dubai. He is the organizer of the 2017 PianOdra piano festival in Frankfurt/Slubice. Seibert played for broadcasters including the WDR in Cologne, his first recording was dedicated to music by Ernst Toch, taken by the label CPO. His second recording contained music by Paul Hindemith; the complete sonata piano work by Krzysztof Meyer was released by the label EDA in 2011. In 2012, he recorded the complete works for piano and orchestra by Alexander Tansman with the Brandenburgisches Staatsorchester Frankfurt conducted by Howard Griffiths. A reviewer noted his precision, sovereignty and his touch well suited to Tansman's colourful tonal language; the piano works by Nino Rota have been recorded. 2004 Ernst Toch: Capriccetti op. 36, Kleinstadtbilder op. 49, Sonata op. 47, Burlesken op. 31, Konzert Etüden op. 55, CPO 999 926 2 2007 Paul Hindemith: Klaviersonate Nr.

3, Tanzstücke op. 19, In einer Nacht op. 15, CPO 777 171 2 2011 Krzysztof Meyer: Klaviersonaten Nr. 1 6, Aphorismen op. 3, Quasi una fantasia op. 104, EDA 36 2012 Alexandre Tansman: Concertino, Konzert für Klavier und Orchester, CPO 777 449 2 Official website Christian Seibert at AllMusic Christian Seibert discography at Discogs KleistMusikSchule, Frankfurt

Alice Echo-News Journal

Alice Echo-News Journal is a newspaper based in Alice, covering the Jim Wells County area of South Texas and published Wednesday and Sunday. D. S. Boother founded the Alice Echo in 1894, he sold to a group headed by publisher Kenneth Fellows in 1935, which sold to V. D. Ringwald three years later. Ringwald made the paper a daily in 1946. Gulf Enterprises bought the newspaper in 1966; the next year, the owners renamed the product the Alice Echo-News. The owners of a newspaper chain headed by the Brownwood Bulletin bought the newspaper in 1975, with co-ownership by Brownwood's Craig Woodson and Hunt; the Echo-News was bought by Boone Newspapers in 1990 and American Consolidated Media in 2000. ACM bought the free semiweekly Alice Journal in 2002 and renamed the paper the Alice Echo-News Journal. In 2010, the paper reduced its output to three days a week, it changed its printing schedule from afternoons to mornings. In 2014, ACM sold its Oklahoma newspapers to New Media Investment Group. Echo reporter Caro Brown won the Pulitzer Prize for Local Reporting, Edition Time in 1955 for coverage of the "one-man political rule" of George Berham Parr in neighboring Duval County.

The Pulitzer judges praised her story, "written under unusual pressure both of edition time and difficult dangerous, circumstances." Official website

William Sharman Crawford

William Sharman Crawford was an Irish politician with liberal and radical views. He was a member of the landed gentry, he was a Member of the British parliament for Dundalk in 1835–1837 and for Rochdale in 1841–1852. He was High Sheriff of Down for 1811, he was the father of James Sharman Crawford, one of the Members of the British parliament for Down, 1874-1878, Arthur Sharman Crawford, unsuccessful candidate for Down in 1884 and John Sharman Crawford, unsuccessful candidate for Down in 1880 His daughter was Mabel Sharman Crawford, adventurer and writer. He died at Crawfordsburn. "William Sharman Crawford", The University of Nottingham Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by William Sharman Crawford

Jack Arnst

John "Jack" Arnst, was a New Zealand racing cyclist. Jack Arnst was one of thirteen children born to Catharina Arnst; the family lived at Tai Tapu near Christchurch. He, his brothers Richard and Bill, became champion cyclists both on the road and on the track. Jack and Richard were placed third and fourth in the 1903 Timaru to Christchurch road race, over a distance of 112 miles. Jack subsequently was first and fastest, in record time, in the 1903 road race between Warrnambool and Melbourne over a distance of 165 miles which carried with it the title of Long Distance Road Champion of Australasia; some of the credit of this win was due to his brother Richard's unselfish pacing, who finished in 5th place in the second fastest time, inside the previous best time. The brothers returned to Australia in 1904 with Richard finishing in 10th and Jack well back in 25th. In 1905 Jack could only manage 76th with Richard in 77th. On the brothers second trip to Australia in 1904 they raced in the Goulburn to Sydney Classic with Jack finishing 2nd and setting the fastest time, Richard finishing 12th.

Jack again set the fastest time in 1905. On 14 April 1909 Jack Arnst created a new cycling time record over the Christchurch to Dunedin road, a distance, at that time two hundred and forty-seven miles. Rough shingle roads and unbridged streams and rivers made for hard going but he covered the distance in 12 hours and 31 minutes, his brother, Richard Arnst, another person paced the rider on motorcycles, a car followed carrying food and spares. The record was never recognized as the Arnst team had failed to include an observer from the League of Wheelmen who controlled such matters; however nobody made a faster run until such time as the road conditions were improved and the distance somewhat shortened with road realignment. Arnst enlisted with the New Zealand Expeditionary Force and served as a private with the Canterbury Regiment, he was killed in action at Bapaume on 25 August 1918 during the Second Battle of Bapaume and is buried at Grévillers British Cemetery. His name appears on three NZ War Memorials.

The third is an WW1 Honours Board inside the Ladbrooks Community Hall. This is near. Richard Arnst - The Single Sculls World Champion From New Zealand. Published Christchurch 2005. Jack Arnst Profile on Cycling Ranking