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Cliffs of Moher

The Cliffs of Moher are sea cliffs located at the southwestern edge of the Burren region in County Clare, Ireland. They run for about 14 kilometres. At their southern end, they rise 120 metres above the Atlantic Ocean at Hag's Head, and, 8 kilometres to the north, they reach their maximum height of 214 metres just north of O'Brien's Tower, a round stone tower near the midpoint of the cliffs, built in 1835 by Sir Cornelius O'Brien continue at lower heights; the closest settlements are the villages of Liscannor 6 km to the south, Doolin 7 km to the north. From the cliffs, from atop the tower, visitors can see the Aran Islands in Galway Bay, the Maumturks and Twelve Pins mountain ranges to the north in County Galway, Loop Head to the south; the cliffs rank among the most visited tourist sites in Ireland, with around 1.5 million visits per annum. The cliffs take their name from an old promontory fort called Mothar or Moher, which once stood on Hag's Head, the southernmost point of the cliffed coast, now the site of Moher Tower.

The writer Thomas Johnson Westropp referred to it in 1905 as Moher Uí Ruidhin. The fort still is mentioned in an account from John Lloyd's A Short Tour Of Clare, it was demolished in 1808 to provide material for a lookout/telegraph tower, intended to provide warning in case of a French invasion during the Napoleonic wars. The cliffs are one of the most popular tourist destinations in Ireland and topped a list of attractions in 2006 by drawing one million visitors. Since 2011, they have formed a part of the Burren and Cliffs of Moher Geopark, one of a family of geotourism destinations throughout Europe that are members of the European Geoparks Network and recognized by UNESCO; the cliffs are a "signature point" on the official Wild Atlantic Way tourist trail. While the cliffs can be accessed at multiple points, there is an 18 kilometres Cliff Walk, the majority of visitors come to the official visitor centre. In the 1990s the local authority, Clare County Council, initiated development plans to enable visitors to experience the cliffs without significant intrusive man-made amenities.

In keeping with this approach, a modern visitor centre, the Cliffs of Moher Visitor Experience, was built into a hillside approaching the cliffs. The centre was planned to be environmentally sensitive in its use of renewable energy systems including geothermal heating and cooling, solar panels, grey water recycling; the €32 million facility was planned and built over a 17-year period and opened in February 2007. Exhibits include interactive media displays covering the geology, history and fauna of the cliffs. A large multimedia screen displays a bird's-eye view from the cliffs, as well as video from the underwater caves below the cliffs. There are two cafés and several shops. Accessibility is a priority, wheelchairs are available to borrow; as of 2018, the centre charges € 8 with children under 16 admitted free. This covers parking, access to the visitor centre and Atlantic Edge exhibition, a contribution towards conservation and safety at the cliffs; the visitor experience recorded 1,427,000 visits in 2016, up 14% on 2015, up 52% in off-peak December, for example.

In 2017 the Cliffs of Moher was the second most popular'fee charging' tourist attraction in the country with 1,527,000 visitors. This increased again by 3.8% in 2018 to 1,580,010 visitors. The nature and speed of increase in visitor numbers has led to some capacity problems at peak times and in peak season. To counter this, visitors are encouraged to come at other times, with discounts given to coach operators who book for off-peak slots, late opening of the centre introduced for July and much of August. Later-arriving visitors have been facilitated by the fitting of automatically opening exit gates from the official car parking facilities; the Cliffs of Moher Visitor Experience won an award in the Interpret Britain & Ireland Awards 2007 awarded by the Association of Heritage Interpretation. Although the award was for the Atlantic Edge exhibition, the AHI assessed the entire visitor centre and site; the citation stated that the entire visitor centre was "one of the best facilities that the judges had seen."

The official Cliffs of Moher Coastal Walk runs for 18 km, from Hag's Head to Doolin, passing the Visitor Centre and O'Brien's Tower, with good viewing throughout, subject to rain or sea fog. There are two paths near the visitor centre, the official one being set back a little for safety, while an unofficial path runs closer to the edge. In July 2016 the so-called Cliff Walk, outside the official Cliffs of Moher amenities, was temporarily closed because of the risk of rock falls. People were warned to stay on the official path further of the cliff edge instead of the unofficial seaside trail. Separate ferry trips allow tourists to view the cliffs from sea level, at certain times fixed-wing aircraft from Connemara Airport provide a viewing opportunity; the cliffs consist of beds of Namurian shale and sandstone, with the oldest rocks being found at the bottom of the cliffs. During the time of their formation between 313 and 326 million years ago, a river dumped sand and clay into an ancient marine basin.

Over millions of years, the sediments collecting at the mouth of this ancient delta were compacted and lithified into the sedimentary strata preserved in the now-exposed cliffs. The area is considered a geologic laboratory that preserves a record of deltaic deposition in deep wate

Streetcar suburb

A streetcar suburb is a residential community whose growth and development was shaped by the use of streetcar lines as a primary means of transportation. Such suburbs developed in the United States in the years before the automobile, when the introduction of the electric trolley or streetcar allowed the nation’s burgeoning middle class to move beyond the central city’s borders. Early suburbs were served by horsecars, but by the late 19th century cable cars and electric streetcars, or trams, were used, allowing residences to be built further away from the urban core of a city. Streetcar suburbs called additions or extensions at the time, were the forerunner of today's suburbs in the United States and Canada. Western Addition in San Francisco is one of the best examples of streetcar suburbs before westward and southward expansion occurred. Although most associated with the electric streetcar, the term can be used for any suburb built with streetcar-based transit in mind, thus some streetcar suburbs date from the early 19th century.

As such, the term is general and one development called a streetcar suburb may vary from others. However, some concepts are present in streetcar suburbs, such as straight street plans and narrow lots. By 1830, many New York City area commuters were going to work in Manhattan from what are now the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, which were not part of New York City at that time, they commuted by ferries. In 1852, architect Alexander Jackson Davis designed Llewellyn Park in New Jersey, a planned suburb served by both ferry and steam railroad. In the 1840s and 1850s, new railroad lines fostered the development of such New York City suburbs as Yonkers, White Plains, New Rochelle; the steam locomotive in the mid 19th century provided the wealthy with the means to live in bucolic surroundings, to socialize in country clubs and still commute to work downtown. These suburbs were what historian Kenneth T. Jackson called the "railroad suburbs" and historian Robert Fishman called a "bourgeois utopia". Outside of Philadelphia, suburbs like Radnor, Bryn Mawr, Villanova developed along the Pennsylvania Main Line.

As early as 1850, 83 commuter stations had been built within a 15-mile radius of Boston. Chicago saw huge developments, with 11 separate lines serving over 100 communities by 1873. A famous community served was Riverside, arguably one of the first planned communities in the United States, designed in 1869 by Frederick Law Olmsted. However, the suburbs closest to the city were based on horsecars and cable cars. First introduced to America around 1830, the horse-drawn omnibus was revolutionary because it was the first mass transit system, offering scheduled stops along a fixed route, allowing passengers to travel three miles sitting down in the time it would take them to walk two miles. More efficient horse-drawn streetcars allowed cities to expand to areas more distant. By 1860, they operated in most major American and Canadian cities, including New York, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, Saint Louis and Boston. Horsecar suburbs emanated from the city center towards the more distant railroad suburbs. For the first time, transportation began to separate social and economic classes in cities, as the working and middle class continued to live in areas closer to the city center, while the rich could afford to live further out.

The introduction of the electrical streetcar in Richmond, Virginia in 1887 by Frank J. Sprague marked the start of a new era of transportation-influenced suburbanization through the birth of the "streetcar suburb"; the early trolley allowed people to effortlessly travel in 10 minutes what they could walk in 30, was introduced in cities like Boston and Los Angeles, to all larger American and Canadian cities. There were 5,783 miles of streetcar track serving American cities in 1890. By 1890, electric streetcar lines were replacing horse-drawn ones in cities of all sizes, allowing the lines to be extended and fostering a tremendous amount of suburban development, they were extended out to rural communities, which experienced an initial surge of development, new residential corridors were created along the newly built lines leading to what had sometimes been separate communities. On side streets, the houses closest to the original streetcar line are as much as ten to twenty years older than houses built further down the street, reflecting the initial surge and slow completion of a development.

Because streetcar operators offered low fares and free transfers, commuting was affordable to nearly everyone. Combined with the cheap cost of land further from the city, streetcar suburbs were able to attract a broad mix of people from all socioeconomic classes, although they were most popular by far with the middle class; the houses in a streetcar suburb were narrow in width compared to homes, Arts and Crafts movement styles like the California Bungalow and American Foursquare were most popular. These houses were purchased by catalog and many of the materials arrived by railcar, with some local touches added as the house was assembled; the earliest streetcar suburbs sometimes had more ornate styles, including Stick. The houses of streetcar suburbs, whatever the style, tended to have prominent front porches, while driveways and built-in garages were rare, reflecting the pedestrian-focused nature of the streets when the houses were built. Setbacks between houses were not nearly as small as in older neighborhoods, but houses were still built on lots no wider than 30 to 40 feet.

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Horse and Rider (Frink)

Horse and Rider is a 1974 bronze equestrian sculpture by Elisabeth Frink. The work was commissioned for a site in Mayfair, it was described by Frink as "an ageless symbol of man and horse". One of Frink's earliest sculptures from 1950 was titled Horse and Rider, she returned to this subject over decades. A series of Frink prints from the early 1970s held by the Tate Gallery depict a rider. Frink lived in southern France near the Camargue, she was inspired to create more works portraying horses. The work was commissioned in 1974 by Trafalgar House for its development at the southern end of Dover Street, near the junction with Piccadilly, opposite The Ritz, it was modelled in plaster at Frink's studio in Southwark cast in bronze in 1975 at Meridian Bronze Foundry in Peckham. It measures 244 centimetres high. Frink cast a small version 34.3 centimetres, in an edition of nine in 1974. The sculpture depicts a man riding on a horse and barefoot, without tack – no saddle, bridle, or other riding equipment.

The man's right hand rests on the horse's stylised mane, with his left hand resting on the horse's left flank. The horse is standing still on four legs, ready to walk, on a rough bronze base; the figures of man and horse are stylised, with defined musculature. Both have their heads turned to their left; the work was installed in Mayfair in 1975, mounted on a granite plinth. It is part of an edition of three; the example in London became a Grade II listed building in September 2015. In June 2018 the sculpture was moved to the Town Square on Bond Street to mark the new entrance to the Royal Academy of Arts. Horse and Rider, Elisabeth Frink Estate Horse and Rider, 1969, CASS Sculpture Foundation Dame Elisabeth Frink, Small Horse and Rider, 1970, Tate Gallery