Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Arizona Eastern Railway
The Arizona Eastern Railway is a Class III railroad that operates 265 miles of railroad between Clifton and Miami, Arizona, in the United States. This includes trackage rights over the Union Pacific Railroad between Lordsburg, New Mexico, Bowie, Arizona; the railroad serves the copper mining region of southeastern Arizona, the agricultural Gila River Valley. Primary commodities are sulfuric acid, copper concentrate, copper anode and cathode, copper rod and other copper processing materials. AZER handles minerals, building supplies and lumber; the railroad offers a transload location for lumber, building materials and other consumer commodities at Globe, Arizona. What is now the Arizona Eastern Railway was chartered as the Gila Valley and Northern Railway in 1885. Before completion to Globe in 1899, the GVGN came under the control of the Arizona Eastern Railroad; the Arizona Eastern was leased by the Southern Pacific Railroad in 1905 and merged into the SP system in 1924. SP sold the Bowie – Miami line to Kyle Railroad in 1988.
Kyle was purchased by shortline holding company StatesRail in 1995, purchased by RailAmerica in 2001. RailAmerica sold the railroad to Permian Basin Railways on December 9, 2004. Of historical note, the Gila Valley Globe & Northern Railroad's first locomotive GVGN #1, was purchased from the Central Pacific Railroad #1195 ); the locomotive was the Central Pacific locomotive that met with Union Pacific No. 119 at Promontory Summit on May 10, 1869 for the driving of the golden spike, commemorating the completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad. Despite its historical significance, in 1909 the GVGN, by controlled by Central Pacific successor Southern Pacific, sold No. 1 for $1000 as scrap. In 2006, Arizona Eastern announced the construction of a new 10-mile spur from Safford to the new Safford Mine of Freeport-McMoRan Corporation, north of Safford; the mine opened in 2008. In 2008, AZER purchased the Clifton Subdivision from Union Pacific; the Clifton subdivision serves the Morenci Mine near Clifton and interchanges with UP at Lordsburg, New Mexico.
In December 2008, weekend excursion service under the name Copper Spike began operating from Globe to the Apache Gold Hotel Casino near San Carlos. Trains operate four daily round-trips on Thursdays through Sundays. On 2 August 2011, Genesee & Wyoming Inc. announced that it planned to purchase the Arizona Eastern from Iowa Pacific for US$90.1 million, with the deal expected to be completed by the end of the year. The deal was closed on 1 September 2011; the Copper Spike excursion train did not resume operation for a 2011-2012 season due to the transfer in ownership. Clifton, AZ Guthrie, AZ Duncan, AZ Lordsburg, NM Bowie, AZ Solomon, AZ Safford, AZfreight dockPima, AZ San Carlos, AZ Globe, AZ Claypool, AZfreight dock EMD SD90MAC43 EMD GP7 EMD GP9 EMD GP20 EMD GP35 EMD SD40-2 EMD SD90MAC EMD SW9 EMD SW1200 GE B40-8 GE B39-8E EMD E8AArizona Eastern operated AZER #6070, an EMD E8 locomotive. Built for the Chicago and North Western Railroad as CNW #5029B on June 1953, it pulled passenger trains for its railroad including Chicago commuter train service.
It was repainted in a scheme reminiscent of Southern Pacific's "Black Widow" livery, since Arizona Eastern was owned by Southern Pacific. As of August 2011, the locomotive was transferred to the North Creek Railroad. Official website
U.S. Route 191
U. S. Route 191 is a spur of U. S. Route 91 that has two branches; the southern branch runs for 1,465 miles from Douglas, Arizona on the Mexican border to the southern part of Yellowstone National Park. The northern branch runs for 440 miles from the northern part of Yellowstone National Park to Loring, Montana, at the Canada–US border. Unnumbered roads within Yellowstone National Park connect the two branches; the highway passes through the states of Arizona, Utah and Montana. The highway was designated in 1926 and its routing has changed drastically through the years; the modern US 191 bears no resemblance to the original route, in the state of Idaho. Most of the current route of US 191 was formed in 1981. Since the extensions in the 1980s and 1990s, U. S. Route 191 is much longer than its parent route which it no longer connects to, one of the longest U. S. three-digit routes. US 191 begins at the Mexico border in Douglas. US 191 has a ten-mile overlay with US 70 east of Safford; the route links to State Route SR 266 to the south of Safford.
US 191 intersects Interstate 10 in Cochise County. The route between Springerville and Morenci was designated a National Scenic Byway and given the name of Coronado Trail Scenic Byway, as this approximates the path taken by Francisco Vásquez de Coronado between 1540 and 1542; this is a dangerous mountain road with many sharp curves and little or no shoulders on steep cliffs. North of the byway, the highway is the primary route to access Canyon de Chelly National Monument. US 191 traverses the Navajo Nation before entering Utah. In 2010 the route was extended from the original end at its intersection with SR 80 near Douglas and, with a overlay on SR 80, extended to Pan American Ave in the city along Pan American Ave to the US Customs/Immigration Port of Entry at the border with Mexico; the portion of this route between its intersection with SR 80 near Douglas and the intersection with Interstate 40 at Sanders was the major Arizona portion of US 666. Part of US 191 through the Navajo Nation is designated by the Arizona Department of Transportation as the Tse'nikani Flat Mesa Rock Scenic Road.
US 191 serves the eastern half of the state. The road enters Utah in a remote portion of the Navajo Nation; the highway passes through desolate areas of eastern Utah. Several portions are Utah Scenic Byways, it passes through Bluff, Blanding and Moab, the largest city in southeastern Utah and the seat of Grand County. In addition to linking many rural towns in Utah to I-70 and US 40, the highway served to interconnect several national and state parks for tourism, namely Canyonlands National Park, Arches National Park, Bears Ears National Monument, Dead Horse Point State Park; the highway exits Utah just after crossing the Flaming Gorge Reservoir. US 191 enters Wyoming near a geographical feature known as Minnie's Gap, just east of Flaming Gorge National Recreation Area; the route proceeds north through rugged desert country following an alignment constructed during the 1970s, to a junction with Interstate 80 at Exit 99, just west of Rock Springs. This segment of the route is known locally as "East Flaming Gorge Road."
The route is concurrent with Interstate 80 eastward for five miles, passing just north of Rock Springs. US 191 diverges northward at Exit 104, following the former route of US 187. Traveling through high desert country, the route passes through Eden and Pinedale before meeting US 189 at Daniel Junction. Continuing north, the road traverses mountainous terrain, entering the Bridger-Teton National Forest and passing through the small community of Bondurant before descending through the narrow Hoback River Canyon to an intersection with US 26 and US 89 at Hoback Junction; the route follows the Snake River valley northward to Jackson. US 191 is concurrent with US 189 between Daniel Junction and Jackson, with US 26 and US 89 between Hoback Junction and Jackson. North of Jackson, US 191 soon enters Grand Teton National Park, running concurrently with US 26 and US 89; the highway meets US 287 at Moran Junction, inside the park. Continuing through forested, mountainous country, the route passes through the John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway, from Yellowstone National Park's South Entrance to the state line, the route is unsigned.
No official routing of US 191 through Yellowstone has been designated as of 2016. US 191 in Montana begins at the West Entrance to Yellowstone National Park, at the edge of the town of West Yellowstone; the highway heads north, running concurrently with US 287 for eight miles before veering east and entering Yellowstone. US 191 continues northward through Yellowstone, traversing forested, mountainous terrain and looping into the state of Wyoming, before leaving the park in the upper reaches of the Gallatin River canyon; the route travels northward through the narrow canyon, past the resort community of Big Sky entering the Gallatin Valley near the town of Gallatin Gateway, Montana. US 191 travels north and east through the valley to the city of Bozeman, the largest city along the entire US 191 route. From Bozeman, US 191 is concurrent with I-90 eastward 58 miles to Big Timber, where it proceeds north; the road travels through hilly ranch country near the eastern edge of the Crazy Mountains to Harlowton, where US 191 is concurrent with US 12.
North of Harlowton, US 191 is concurrent with Montana Highway 3 for 37 miles, to Eddie's Corner. US 191 proceeds eastward from Eddie's Corner to Lewistown, on a roadway shared wi
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Greenlee County, Arizona
Greenlee County is a county located in the southeastern part of the U. S. state of Arizona. As of the 2010 census its population was 8,437; the county seat is Clifton. The economy of Greenlee County is dominated by the Morenci Mine, the largest copper mining operation in North America, one of the largest copper mines in the world; as of 2008, the mine complex, owned by Freeport-McMoRan, had about 4,000 employees. Greenlee County was created in 1909 and named for Mason Greenlee, an early settler in the Clifton area, it was Arizona's 14th county and formed from part of Graham County, which opposed the formation because Graham County would lose considerable revenue. Clifton has always been the county seat. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,848 square miles, of which 1,843 square miles is land and 5.3 square miles is water. It is the second-smallest county by area in Arizona. Cochise County – south Graham County – west Apache County – north Catron County, New Mexico – east Grant County, New Mexico – east Hidalgo County, New Mexico – southeast Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest Gila Box Riparian National Conservation Area U.
S. Route 70 U. S. Route 191 State Route 75 State Route 78 As of the census of 2000, there were 8,547 people, 3,117 households, 2,266 families residing in the county; the population density was 5 people per square mile. There were 3,744 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 74.17% White, 0.51% Black or African American, 1.66% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 20.02% from other races, 3.45% from two or more races. 43.07% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 25.19% reported speaking Spanish at home. There were 3,117 households out of which 39.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.30% were married couples living together, 9.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.30% were non-families. 24.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.26.
In the county, the population was spread out with 31.70% under the age of 18, 7.50% from 18 to 24, 28.20% from 25 to 44, 22.60% from 45 to 64, 9.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 109.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 108.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $39,384, the median income for a family was $43,523. Males had a median income of $38,952 versus $23,333 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,814. About 8.00% of families and 9.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.10% of those under age 18 and 8.70% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 8,437 people, 3,188 households, 2,152 families residing in the county; the population density was 4.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,372 housing units at an average density of 2.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 77.2% white, 2.3% American Indian, 1.1% black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 15.0% from other races, 3.8% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 47.9% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 12.9% were English, 12.1% were German, 10.6% were Irish, 1.6% were American. Of the 3,188 households, 37.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.5% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.5% were non-families, 27.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.21. The median age was 34.8 years. The median income for a household in the county was $48,696 and the median income for a family was $51,729. Males had a median income of $50,446 versus $34,171 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,281. About 9.4% of families and 13.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.8% of those under age 18 and 13.2% of those age 65 or over. Greenlee County used to be the most reliably Democratic county in Arizona, it voted for the Democratic presidential candidate in every election from 1912 to 1996, being one of only seven Mountain State counties to support George McGovern.
However, it has supported the Republican candidate in each of the five most recent presidential elections. The county is located in Arizona's 1st congressional district, which has a Cook Partisan Voting Index of R+2 and is represented by Democratic Congressman Tom O'Halleran. In the Arizona House of Representatives it is represented by Republican Becky Nutt and Republican Drew John. In the Arizona Senate it is represented by Republican Gail Griffin. Clifton Duncan Boyles Guthrie Metcalf Oroville Franklin Morenci York Blue Blue Vista Hannagan Meadow Loma Linda Sheldon Three Way Verde Lee The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Greenlee County.† county seat National Register of Historic Places listings in Greenlee County, Arizona County website
Morenci is a census-designated place and company town in Greenlee County, United States, was founded by the Detroit Copper Mining Company of Arizona. The population was 1,489 at the 2010 census; the biggest employer in Morenci and the owner of the town is Freeport-McMoRan, the owner of the Morenci Mine, the largest copper mining operation in North America, one of the largest copper mines in the world. The town was a site of the Arizona Copper Mine Strike of 1983; the large open-pit mine is north of the town. Morenci is located in central Greenlee County at 33°2′59″N 109°19′40″W, it lies on the western border of the town of the county seat. U. S. Route 191 passes through the northern part of the community, leading east and downhill into Clifton and north through the Apache National Forest 117 miles to Eagar. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Morenci CDP has a total area of 0.98 square miles, of which 0.96 square miles is land and 0.02 square miles, or 2.23%, is water. This region experiences warm and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F.
According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Morenci has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csb" on climate maps. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,879 people, 672 households, 454 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 2,317.4 people per square mile. There were 754 housing units at an average density of 929.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 67.96% White, 0.48% Black or African American, 2.13% Native American, 0.53% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 24.91% from other races, 3.94% from two or more races. 44.54% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 672 households out of which 45.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.7% were married couples living together, 6.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.3% were non-families. 30.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 0.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.80 and the average family size was 3.55.
In the CDP, the population was spread out with 35.6% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 34.4% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, 0.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 119.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 128.7 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $46,010, the median income for a family was $54,583. Males had a median income of $41,875 versus $26,063 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $18,695. About 2.7% of families and 3.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.9% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over. The economy of Morenci as well as that of the surrounding area is completely dependent on the Morenci Mine. Between 2003 and 2008, the worldwide rise in copper prices led the mine to double its work force to 4,000 employees and increase production by 55 percent to an average of one million tons of ore per day. Several hundred new homes were built.
All the homes in Morenci and old, remain owned by Freeport-McMoRan. Ettore DeGrazia, Southwestern Impressionist painter Conger, W. C. 1987, History of the Clifton-Morenci District, in History of Mining in Arizona, vol. 1. Full text: The Morenci Marines: A Tale of Small Town America and the Vietnam War. Phelps Dodge Corporation, former owner of the mine, acquired by Freeport-McMoRan in 2007 Official website
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif