A music video is a short film that integrates a song with imagery, is produced for promotional or artistic purposes. Modern music videos are made and used as a marketing device intended to promote the sale of music recordings. There are cases where songs are used in tie-in marketing campaigns that allow them to become more than just a song. Tie-ins and merchandising can be used for food or other products. Although the origins of the music video date back to musical short films that first appeared in the 1920s, they again came into prominence in the 1980s when the channel MTV based their format around the medium. Prior to the 1980s, these kinds of videos were described by various terms including "illustrated song", "filmed insert", "promotional film", "promotional clip", "promotional video", "song video", "song clip" or "film clip". Music videos use a wide range of styles and contemporary video-making techniques, including animation, live action and non-narrative approaches such as abstract film.
Some music videos combine different styles with the music, such as animation and live action. Combining these styles and techniques has become more popular because of the variety for the audience. Many music videos interpret images and scenes from the song's lyrics, while others take a more thematic approach. Other music videos may not have any concept, being a filmed version of the song's live concert performance. In 1894, sheet music publishers Edward B. Marks Joe Stern hired electrician George Thomas and various performers to promote sales of their song "The Little Lost Child". Using a magic lantern, Thomas projected a series of still images on a screen simultaneous to live performances; this would become a popular form of entertainment known as the illustrated song, the first step toward music video. In 1926, with the arrival of "talkies" many musical short films were produced. Vitaphone shorts featured many bands and dancers. Animation artist Max Fleischer introduced a series of sing-along short cartoons called Screen Songs, which invited audiences to sing along to popular songs by "following the bouncing ball", similar to a modern karaoke machine.
Early 1930s cartoons featured popular musicians performing their hit songs on-camera in live-action segments during the cartoons. The early animated films by Walt Disney, such as the Silly Symphonies shorts and Fantasia, which featured several interpretations of classical pieces, were built around music; the Warner Bros. cartoons today billed as Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies, were fashioned around specific songs from upcoming Warner Bros. musical films. Live action musical shorts, featuring such popular performers as Cab Calloway, were distributed to theaters. Blues singer Bessie Smith appeared in a two-reel short film called St. Louis Blues featuring a dramatized performance of the hit song. Numerous other musicians appeared in short musical subjects during this period. Soundies and released from 1940 to 1947, were musical films that included short dance sequences, similar to music videos. In the mid-1940s, musician Louis Jordan made short films for his songs, some of which were spliced together into a feature film, Lookout Sister.
These films were, according to music historian Donald Clarke, the "ancestors" of music video. Musical films were another important precursor to music video, several well-known music videos have imitated the style of classic Hollywood musicals from the 1930s to the 1950s. One of the best-known examples is Madonna's 1985 video for "Material Girl", modelled on Jack Cole's staging of "Diamonds Are A Girl's Best Friend" from the film Gentlemen Prefer Blondes. Several of Michael Jackson's videos show the unmistakable influence of the dance sequences in classic Hollywood musicals, including the landmark "Thriller" and the Martin Scorsese-directed "Bad", influenced by the stylised dance "fights" in the film version of West Side Story. According to the Internet Accuracy Project, disc jockey–singer J. P. "The Big Bopper" Richardson was the first to coin the phrase "music video", in 1959. In his autobiography, Tony Bennett claims to have created "...the first music video" when he was filmed walking along the Serpentine in Hyde Park, London in 1956, with the resulting clip being set to his recording of the song "Stranger in Paradise".
The clip was sent to UK and US television stations and aired on shows including Dick Clark's American Bandstand. The oldest example of a promotional music video with similarities to more abstract, modern videos seems to be the Czech "Dáme si do bytu" created in 1958 and directed by Ladislav Rychman. In the late 1950s the Scopitone, a visual jukebox, was invented in France and short films were produced by many French artists, such as Serge Gainsbourg, Françoise Hardy, Jacques Dutronc, the Belgian Jacques Brel to accompany their songs, its use spread to other countries, similar machines such as the Cinebox in Italy and Color-Sonic in the USA were patented. In 1961, for the Canadian show Singalong Jubilee, Manny Pittson began pre-recording the music audio, went on-location and taped various visuals with the musicians lip-synching edited the audio and video together. Most music numbers were taped in-studio on stage, the location shoot "videos" were to add variety. In 1964, Kenneth Anger's experimental short film, Scorpio Rising used popular songs instead of dialog.
In 1964, The Moody Blues producer, Alex Murray, wanted to promote his version of "Go Now". The short film clip he produced and directed to promote the single has a striking visual style that predates Queen's similar "Bohemian Rhapsody" vid
Longdale Furnace, Virginia
Longdale Furnace is an unincorporated community located east of Clifton Forge in Alleghany County, United States. Much of the community was designated a national historic district and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1998; the district encompasses 27 contributing buildings, 8 contributing sites, 3 contributing structures associated with the Longdale Iron Company foundries' operations and personnel. It includes the original stone furnace stack, two-story Longdale Iron Company Office, Longdale Iron Company Laboratory, two tall cylindrical brick chimneys, brick machine shop, Firmstone-Johnson House, the Queen Anne-style Assistant Manager's House, the Company Doctor's Office. GNIS reference
U.S. Route 220 in Virginia
In the U. S. state of Virginia, U. S. Route 220 is a major north-south state highway that extends from the North Carolina state line through Roanoke to the West Virginia state line. South of Roanoke, US 220 is a four-lane highway within the proposed Interstate 73 corridor. US 220 narrows to two lanes north of Roanoke, connecting to I-64 near Clifton Forge and paralleling the Appalachian Mountains north-northeasterly in the direction of Cumberland, Maryland. US 220 enters Virginia just north of the community of North Carolina. From the state line to Roanoke, US 220 is a four-lane mix of freeway bypasses and 55 miles per hour at-grade rural highway; some high traffic areas and non-divided stretches have speed limits of 45 miles per lower. In particular, the stretch through Boones Mill is not divided; this segment follows the same general alignment as the Norfolk Southern Railway's Winston-Salem District, opened in 1892 by the Roanoke and Southern Railway. US 220 meets the northern terminus of State Route 87 in Ridgeway, soon after turns west to bypass the city of Martinsville on a freeway shared with US 58.
Another bypass takes the highway around the town of Rocky Mount, after which US 220 crosses the Blue Ridge at Murray Gap. Soon after entering the city of Roanoke, US 220 intersects SR 419 and again becomes a freeway, this one passing just east of downtown Roanoke and becoming Interstate 581 northwest to Interstate 81. US 220 overlaps I-81 northeast to near Daleville, where it exits to the north onto a four-lane road through Daleville and Fincastle. Near Eagle Rock, the road begins to parallel the James River. US 220 follows the James River and its major tributary, the Jackson River, north to near Clifton Forge, where it begins to overlap Interstate 64 and US 60 west, still following the Jackson River, to Covington. Paralleling these rivers are CSX Transportation's Alleghany Subdivision and James River Subdivision, opened in 1867 and 1881 by the Virginia Central Railroad and Richmond and Alleghany Railroad. US 220 is a two-lane road for the rest of its route from Covington to West Virginia, as it travels through a series of valleys in the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians.
It begins by following more of the Jackson River to near Clearwater Park, but crosses a ridge into a different valley. This is repeated several times until Forks of Waters, where the South Branch Potomac River enters US 220's valley and parallels its final 1 mile to the state line. Part of the Great Wagon Road branched off near what is present day Roanoke, U. S. Route 220 in Virginia now follows part of this section of the Carolina Road. "The route was improved as a stage road in the early years of the republic. In 1838 it was rebuilt to serve the Pittsylvania and Botetourt Turnpike, which served to connect south central Virginia with the Valley."As a U. S. Highway, US 220 was part of U. S. Route 311, which ran south to Aberdeen, North Carolina; this was part of State Route 33, one of Virginia's original state highways from 1918. Other than the US 60 overlap, two other segments date to 1918: part of SR 17 from Covington to Warm Springs, part of SR 39 from Vanderpool to Monterey. Otherwise the gaps were filled starting in 1922, with the legislative designation of a spur of SR 14 from Clifton Forge south to Eagle Rock, numbered State Route 142 in 1923.
1924 saw the beginning of the extension of SR 142 southwest to US 11 at Troutville, it was extended along SR 14 east to Longdale Furnace and north to Millboro Springs. In 1926 it became part of a realignment of SR 17, with that route's former routing to Covington becoming part of new State Route 338; the first piece of State Route 395, which ended up extending from Warm Springs to West Virginia, was created in 1924 as a spur from SR 39 at Monterey. The entire Covington-West Virginia corridor became State Route 800 in 1928, was renumbered State Route 18 in 1933. In 1933, the part of SR 17 south of Clifton Forge became State Route 12. US 220 was extended into Virginia in 1935, replacing SR 18 north of Covington, all of SR 12, all of US 311 in Virginia. US 311 has since been re-extended into the state west of Danville; the modern US 220 corridor was added to the state highway system as follows: Special routes of U. S. Route 220
Jefferson School (Clifton Forge, Virginia)
Jefferson School known as East Elementary and Clifton Forge Elementary East, is a historic school building located at Clifton Forge, Alleghany County, Virginia. It was built in 1926, as a rectangular two-story building is clad in running-bond brick in the Colonial Revival style, it sits on a raised concrete foundation and has ribbons of small-paned double-hung windows and a recessed front entrance. A library and cafeteria were not added until 1937, when improvements included water fountains, a public address system and projector; the town high school built for White Americans in 1928 had a cafeteria and libraries were required for schools by 1902. A two-story rectangular addition was built in 1952. 1952 improvements included more classrooms, an auditorium/gymnasium, an Industrial arts shop and an office for the principle. Teachers had no offices; the school provided primary and secondary school education for African-Americans attending school in the Clifton Forge community from 1926 until 1965.
It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2010. The previous building from 1902 is just around the corner from the 1926 school
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Clifton Forge Residential Historic District
Clifton Forge Residential Historic District is a national historic district located at Clifton Forge, Alleghany County, Virginia. The district encompasses 728 contributing buildings and 2 contributing sites in a predominantly residential section of Clifton Forge, it includes single-family frame vernacular dwellings dating to the turn-of-the 20th century. They are vernacular interpretations of a variety of popular architectural styles including Queen Anne, Colonial Revival, Bungalow. Notable non-residential buildings include the Clifton Forge High School, First Baptist Church, Main Street Baptist Church, First Christian Church, Presbyterian Church, Methodist Church, Clifton Forge Baptist Church, Clifton Forge Woman's Club, Clifton Forge Armory. Memorial Park and Crown Hill Cemetery are contributing sites. Located in the district and separately listed is the Jefferson School, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2012
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University