The Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web and other information on the Internet. It was launched in 2001 by the Internet Archive, a nonprofit organization based in San Francisco, United States. Internet Archive founders Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat launched the Wayback Machine in 2001 to address the problem of website content vanishing whenever it gets changed or shut down; the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a "three dimensional index". Kahle and Gilliat created the machine hoping to archive the entire Internet and provide "universal access to all knowledge."The name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the "WABAC machine", a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. In one of the animated cartoon's component segments, Peabody's Improbable History, the characters used the machine to witness, participate in, more than not, alter famous events in history.
The Wayback Machine began archiving cached web pages in 1996, with the goal of making the service public five years later. From 1996 to 2001, the information was kept on digital tape, with Kahle allowing researchers and scientists to tap into the clunky database; when the archive reached its fifth anniversary in 2001, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. By the time the Wayback Machine launched, it contained over 10 billion archived pages. Today, the data is stored on the Internet Archive's large cluster of Linux nodes, it archives new versions of websites on occasion. Sites can be captured manually by entering a website's URL into the search box, provided that the website allows the Wayback Machine to "crawl" it and save the data. Software has been developed to "crawl" the web and download all publicly accessible World Wide Web pages, the Gopher hierarchy, the Netnews bulletin board system, downloadable software; the information collected by these "crawlers" does not include all the information available on the Internet, since much of the data is restricted by the publisher or stored in databases that are not accessible.
To overcome inconsistencies in cached websites, Archive-It.org was developed in 2005 by the Internet Archive as a means of allowing institutions and content creators to voluntarily harvest and preserve collections of digital content, create digital archives. Crawls are contributed from various sources, some imported from third parties and others generated internally by the Archive. For example, crawls are contributed by the Sloan Foundation and Alexa, crawls run by IA on behalf of NARA and the Internet Memory Foundation, mirrors of Common Crawl; the "Worldwide Web Crawls" have capture the global Web. The frequency of snapshot captures varies per website. Websites in the "Worldwide Web Crawls" are included in a "crawl list", with the site archived once per crawl. A crawl can take months or years to complete depending on size. For example, "Wide Crawl Number 13" started on January 9, 2015, completed on July 11, 2016. However, there may be multiple crawls ongoing at any one time, a site might be included in more than one crawl list, so how a site is crawled varies widely.
As technology has developed over the years, the storage capacity of the Wayback Machine has grown. In 2003, after only two years of public access, the Wayback Machine was growing at a rate of 12 terabytes/month; the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems custom designed by Internet Archive staff. The first 100TB rack became operational in June 2004, although it soon became clear that they would need much more storage than that; the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage in 2009, hosts a new data center in a Sun Modular Datacenter on Sun Microsystems' California campus. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month. A new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and a fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing in 2011. In March that year, it was said on the Wayback Machine forum that "the Beta of the new Wayback Machine has a more complete and up-to-date index of all crawled materials into 2010, will continue to be updated regularly.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a little bit of material past 2008, no further index updates are planned, as it will be phased out this year." In 2011, the Internet Archive installed their sixth pair of PetaBox racks which increased the Wayback Machine's storage capacity by 700 terabytes. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs. In October 2013, the company announced the "Save a Page" feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL; this became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries. As of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained 435 billion web pages—almost nine petabytes of data, was growing at about 20 terabytes a week; as of July 2016, the Wayback Machine contained around 15 petabytes of data. As of September 2018, the Wayback Machine contained more than 25 petabytes of data. Between October 2013 and March 2015, the website's global Alexa rank changed from 163 to 208. In March 2019 the rank was at 244.
Wayback Machine has respected the robots exclusion standard in determining if a website would be crawled or not. Website owners had the option to opt-out of Wayback M
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Madison County, Arkansas
Madison County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 15,717; the county seat is Huntsville. The county was formed on September 30, 1836, named for James Madison, fourth President of the United States. Madison County is part of the Northwest Arkansas region. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 837 square miles, of which 834 square miles is land and 2.8 square miles is water. Carroll County Newton County Johnson County Franklin County Crawford County Washington County Benton County Ozark National Forest As of the 2000 census, there were 14,243 people, 5,463 households, 4,080 families residing in the county; the population density was 7/km². There were 6,537 housing units at an average density of 3/km²; the racial makeup of the county was 95.94% White, 0.11% Black or African American, 1.22% Native American, 0.06% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 1.47% from other races, 1.10% from two or more races. 3.06% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 5,463 households out of which 33.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.00% were married couples living together, 7.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.30% were non-families. 22.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.03. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.80% under the age of 18, 7.50% from 18 to 24, 27.00% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, 14.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,895, the median income for a family was $32,910. Males had a median income of $24,911 versus $18,786 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,736. About 14.70% of families and 18.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.60% of those under age 18 and 18.00% of those age 65 or over.
During the Secession Convention of 1861, Arkansas voted to leave the Union and join the Confederate States of America. When Chairman David Walker called for a second vote seeking a unanimous decision, only Madison County representative Isaac Murphy refused to change his vote. Murphy would be appointed Governor of Arkansas during Reconstruction under Abraham Lincoln's conciliatory policy. Madison County is Republican, voted for the Republican candidate several times when Arkansas was part of the "Solid South". U. S. Highway 412 Highway 12 Highway 16 Highway 21 Highway 23 Highway 45 Highway 74 The Huntsville Municipal Airport is a public-use airport located two nautical miles southwest of the central business district of Huntsville. Huntsville Hindsville St. Paul Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships.
Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research. Each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications; the townships of Madison County are listed below. Orval E. Faubus, governor of Arkansas during the desegregation days, was from the Combs community near Huntsville, he is buried in Combs Cemetery. Ronnie Hawkins, rockabilly singer, his backing band, The Hawks played with Bob Dylan and became The Band. Danny L. Patrick, Republican member of the Arkansas House of Representatives from Madison and Carroll counties from 1967 to 1970. John Selman and lawman, best known for killing John Wesley Hardin in 1895, was born in Madison County. List of lakes in Madison County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Madison County, Arkansas Madison County Map Official Site
St. Paul, Arkansas
St. Paul is a town in southern Madison County, United States; the population was 113 at the 2010 census. It is on the edge of the Northwest Arkansas region. St. Paul was platted in 1887. St. Paul is located at 35°49′27″N 93°45′51″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.7 km², all land. The community is located along Highway 16 concurrency on the upper White River; the north boundary of the Ozark-St. Francis National Forest is adjacent to the south side of the community; the city is located in the Upper Boston Mountain ecoregion. The Upper Boston Mountains ecoregion is higher and moister than the Lower Boston Mountains. Potential natural vegetation is oak–hickory forest. Characteristically, the forests of the Upper Boston Mountains are more closed and contain far less pine than those of the Lower Boston Mountains. North-facing slopes support mesic forests; the region is underlain by Pennsylvanian sandstone and siltstone that contrasts with the limestone and dolomite that dominates the Ozark Highlands.
Water quality in streams reflects geology and land use, is exceptional. During the summer, many streams do not flow; as of the census of 2000, there were 163 people, 70 households, 44 families residing in the town. The population density was 242.1/km². There were 79 housing units at an average density of 117.3/km². The racial makeup of the town was 100.00% White. 4.29% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 70 households out of which 25.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.0% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.1% were non-families. 28.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.95. In the town, the population was spread out with 22.1% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 27.0% from 25 to 44, 26.4% from 45 to 64, 17.2% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $25,625, the median income for a family was $26,250. Males had a median income of $18,958 versus $15,500 for females; the per capita income for the town was $11,865. About 12.5% of families and 16.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.4% of those under the age of eighteen and 12.5% of those sixty five or over. Public education for students in kindergarten through grade 12 is provided by the Huntsville School District, which leads to graduation at St. Paul High School. On July 1, 2004, the St. Paul School District was merged into the Huntsville School District. Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture entry Community Events page for St. Paul, Arkansas