Governor of New York
The Governor of New York is the chief executive of the U. S. state of New York. The governor is the head of the executive branch of New York's state government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military and naval forces; the current governor is Andrew Cuomo, a Democrat, who took office on January 1, 2011. The governor has a duty to enforce state laws, the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the New York State Legislature, to convene the legislature, to grant pardons, except in cases of treason and impeachment. Unlike the other government departments that compose the executive branch of government, the governor is the head of the state Executive Department; the officeholder is afforded the courtesy style of His/Her Excellency while in office. The governor of New York is considered a potential candidate for President. Ten governors have been major-party candidates for president, four, Martin Van Buren, Grover Cleveland, Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin D. Roosevelt have won. Six New York governors have gone on to serve as vice president.
Additionally two Governors of New York, John Jay and Charles Evans Hughes, have served as Chief Justice of the United States. Under the New York State Constitution, a person must be at least 30 years of age, a United States citizen, a resident of the state of New York for at least five years prior to being elected to serve as governor; the office of Governor was established by the first New York State Constitution in 1777 to coincide with the calendar year. An 1874 amendment extended the term of office to three years, but the 1894 constitution reduced it to two years; the most recent constitution of 1938 extended the term to the current four years. The Constitution of New York has provided since 1777 for the election of a Lieutenant Governor of New York, who acts as President of the State Senate, to the same term. In the event of the death, resignation or impeachment of the governor, or absence from the state, the lieutenant governor would take on the governor's duties and powers. Since the 1938 constitution, the lieutenant governor explicitly becomes governor upon such vacancy in the office.
Should the office of lieutenant governor become vacant, the president pro tempore of the state senate performs the duties of a lieutenant governor until the governor can take back the duties of the office, or the next election. Although no provision exists in the constitution for it, precedent set in 2009 allows the governor to appoint a lieutenant governor should a vacancy occur. Should the president pro tempore be unable to fulfill the duties, the speaker of the assembly is next in the line of succession; the lieutenant governor nominated separately. Line of succession in full Lieutenant Governor Temporary President of the Senate Speaker of the Assembly Attorney General Comptroller Commissioner of Transportation Commissioner of Health Commissioner of Commerce Industrial Commissioner Chairman of the Public Service Commission Secretary of State Politics of New York Official website Governor's Office in the New York Codes and Regulations
Forest Township, Clinton County, Indiana
Forest Township is one of fourteen townships in Clinton County, Indiana. As of the 2010 census, its population was 760 and it contained 328 housing units; the township was named for the large amount of timber it contained at the time. After the completion of the "Clover Leaf" railroad through the area in 1874 and the establishment of the town of Forest along it, residents petitioned the county commissioners to create a new township for their area out of the existing Johnson and Warren townships. On January 2, 1882, the petition was granted and the township organized with Samuel M. Davis as the first trustee; the first permanent white settlers in the township were Page and Sarah Sims who arrived in 1839 and resided in the township until their death. The arrival of pioneers here was somewhat than in other parts of the county since Forest was within the Big Miami Reserve and off limits to white settlement until 1838; the population grew and remained sparse and scattered for some years. The first church in the township was the Methodist Swamp Creek chapel built in 1850 near the southern border, replaced by St. Paul's church.
A post office was established in 1860 in the hamlet of Martinsville, with Martin Davis as the first postmaster. According to the 2010 census, the township has a total area of 26.45 square miles, of which 26.43 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. Forest Monroe Township, Howard County Honey Creek Township, Howard County Prairie Township, Tipton County Johnson Township Michigan Township Warren Township Indiana State Road 26 The township contains two cemeteries: Saint Paul and Union. "Forest Township, Clinton County, Indiana". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-09-24. United States Census Bureau cartographic boundary files Indiana Township Association United Township Association of Indiana
Colfax is a town in Perry Township, Clinton County, United States. The population was 691 at the 2010 census; the town was known as Midway since it was a half-way point on the IC&L Railroad between Lafayette and Indianapolis. Colfax was laid out in 1849 by Montgomery Stroud and named Midway for its position between Indianapolis and Lafayette along the Lafayette railroad. In 1853 the town gained a post office named Colfax, in December 1857 the name of the town itself became Colfax, by petition of the residents. By 1861 the town had two churches, two general stores, a hotel, a saw mill and 200 residents. An incorporation election held December 25, 1869, resulted in 1 no; the town had 187 residents in 1870, but with the construction of the Vandalia road through town in 1870-71 it grew and by 1880 had a population of 638. The Colfax Carnegie Library and Rosenberger Building are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Colfax is located at 40°11′38″N 86°40′5″W. According to the 2010 census, Colfax has a total area of all land.
As of the census of 2010, there were 691 people, 268 households, 194 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,919.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 322 housing units at an average density of 894.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.1% White, 0.4% African American, 0.7% Asian, 0.3% from other races, 2.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.2% of the population. There were 268 households of which 37.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.7% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 27.6% were non-families. 23.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.01. The median age in the town was 40.1 years. 25.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 47.2% male and 52.8% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 768 people, 286 households, 205 families residing in the town. The population density was 2,118.9 people per square mile. There were 305 housing units at an average density of 841.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 99.87% White and 0.13% Asian. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.69% of the population. There were 286 households out of which 36.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.8% were married couples living together, 7.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.3% were non-families. 23.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.69 and the average family size was 3.18. In the town, the population was spread out with 29.3% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 29.7% from 25 to 44, 21.1% from 45 to 64, 12.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.4 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $42,688, the median income for a family was $44,514. Males had a median income of $31,792 versus $28,000 for females; the per capita income for the town was $14,482. About 6.7% of families and 7.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.5% of those under age 18 and 10.1% of those age 65 or over. The town has a free lending library, the Colfax-Perry Township Public Library
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Erie Canal is a canal in New York, United States, part of the east–west, cross-state route of the New York State Canal System. It ran 363 miles from where Albany meets the Hudson River to where Buffalo meets Lake Erie, it was built to create a navigable water route from New York City and the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes. When completed in 1825, it was the second longest canal in the world and affected the development and economy of New York, New York City, the United States; the canal was first proposed in the 1780s re-proposed in 1807. A survey was authorized and executed in 1808. Proponents of the project wore down opponents; the canal has 34 numbered locks starting with Black Rock Lock and ending downstream with the Troy Federal Lock. Both are owned by the federal government, it has an elevation difference of about 565 feet. It opened on October 26, 1825. In a time when bulk goods were limited to pack animals, there were no railways, water was the most cost-effective way to ship bulk goods.
The canal was denigrated by its political opponents as "Clinton's Folly" or "Clinton's Big Ditch". It was the first transportation system between the Eastern Seaboard and the western interior of the United States that did not require portage, it was faster than carts pulled by draft animals and cut transport costs by about 95%. The canal gave New York City's port an incomparable advantage over all other U. S. ushered in the state's 19th century political and cultural ascendancy. The canal fostered a population surge in western New York and opened regions farther west to settlement, it was enlarged between 1834 and 1862. The canal's peak year was 1855. In 1918, the western part of the canal was enlarged to become part of the New York State Barge Canal, which extended to the Hudson River running parallel to the eastern half of the Erie Canal. In 2000, the United States Congress designated the Erie Canalway National Heritage Corridor to recognize the national significance of the canal system as the most successful and influential human-built waterway and one of the most important works of civil engineering and construction in North America.
The canal has been used by recreational watercraft since the retirement of the last large commercial ship, Day Peckinpaugh, in 1994. The canal saw a recovery in commercial traffic in 2008. From the first days of the expansion of the British colonies from the coast of North America into the heartland of the continent, a recurring problem was that of transportation between the coastal ports and the interior; this was not unique to the Americas, the problem still exists in those parts of the world where muscle power provides a primary means of transportation within a region. An ancient solution was implemented in many cultures — floating vessels move more than land vehicles since friction becomes less. Close to the seacoast, rivers provided adequate waterways, but the Appalachian Mountains, 400 miles inland, running over 1,500 miles long as a barrier range with just five places where mule trains or wagon roads could be routed, presented a great challenge. Passengers and freight had to travel overland, a journey made more difficult by the rough condition of the roads.
In 1800, it took 2-1/2 weeks to travel overland from New York to Cleveland, Ohio. The principal exportable product of the Ohio Valley was grain, a high-volume, low-priced commodity, bolstered by supplies from the coast, it was not worth the cost of transporting it to far-away population centers. This was a factor leading to farmers in the west turning their grains into whiskey for easier transport and higher sales, the Whiskey Rebellion. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, it became clear to coastal residents that the city or state that succeeded in developing a cheap, reliable route to the West would enjoy economic success, the port at the seaward end of such a route would see business increase greatly. In time, projects were devised in Virginia, Maryland and deep into the coastal states; the successes of the Canal du Midi in France, Bridgewater Canal in Britain, Eider Canal in Denmark spurred on what was called in Britain "canal mania". The idea of a canal to tie the East Coast to the new western settlements was discussed as early as 1724: New York provincial official Cadwallader Colden made a passing reference to improving the natural waterways of western New York.
Gouverneur Morris and Elkanah Watson were early proponents of a canal along the Mohawk River. Their efforts led to the creation of the "Western and Northern Inland Lock Navigation Companies" in 1792, which took the first steps to improve navigation on the Mohawk and construct a canal between the Mohawk and Lake Ontario, but it was soon discovered that private financing was insufficient. Christopher Colles surveyed the Mohawk Valley, made a presentation to the New York state legislature in 1784, proposing a shorter canal from Lake Ontario; the proposal was never implemented. Jesse Hawley had envisioned encouraging the growing of large quantities of grain on the western New York plains for sale on the Eastern seaboard. However, he went bankrupt trying to ship grain to the coast. While in Canandaigua debtors' prison, Hawley began pressing for the construction of a canal along the 90-mile (140 km
Boone County, Indiana
Boone County is a county located in the U. S. state of Indiana. As of 2010, the population was 56,640; the county seat is Lebanon. Indiana's center of population is located in eastern Boone County, just northwest of the town of Sheridan in neighboring Hamilton County. Boone County was formed April 1, 1830, named for frontiersman Daniel Boone; the county commissioners met near the center of the county on May 1, 1831 to identify a county seat, which by law had to be within 2 miles of the county's center. According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 423.25 square miles, of which 422.91 square miles is land and 0.34 square miles is water. Clinton County Hamilton County Marion County Hendricks County Montgomery County Ratsburg Ward Interstate 65 Interstate 74 Interstate 465 Interstate 865 U. S. Route 52 U. S. Route 136 U. S. Route 421 Indiana State Road 32 Indiana State Road 38 Indiana State Road 39 Indiana State Road 47 Indiana State Road 75 Indiana State Road 234 Indiana State Road 267 KTYQ - Indianapolis Executive Airport CSX Transportation Public schools in Boone County are administered by the Lebanon Community School Corporation, the Western Boone County Community School District and Zionsville Community Schools.
In recent years, average temperatures in Lebanon have ranged from a low of 18 °F in January to a high of 86 °F in July, although a record low of −27 °F was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 112 °F was recorded in July 1936. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.35 inches in February to 4.54 inches in July. The county government is a constitutional body, is granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana, by the Indiana Code. County Council: The county council is the legislative branch of the county's government and controls all the spending and revenue collection in the county. Representatives are elected from county districts; the council members serve four-year terms. They are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget, special spending; the council has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax, subject to state level approval, excise taxes, service taxes. Board of Commissioners: The executive body of the county is made up of a board of commissioners.
The commissioners are elected county-wide, in staggered terms, each serves a four-year term. One of the commissioners the most senior, serves as president; the commissioners are charged with executing the acts legislated by the council, collecting revenue, managing the day-to-day functions of the county government. Court: The county maintains a small claims court that can handle some civil cases; the judge on the court is elected to a term of four years and must be a member of the Indiana Bar Association. The judge is assisted by a constable, elected to a four-year term. In some cases, court decisions can be appealed to the state level circuit court. County Officials: The county has several other elected offices, including sheriff, auditor, recorder and circuit court clerk; each of these elected officers serves a term of four years and oversees a different part of county government. Members elected to county government positions are required to declare a party affiliation and to be residents of the county.
Boone County is part of Indiana's 4th and 5th congressional districts, Indiana Senate districts 21 and 23, Indiana House of Representatives districts 28, 38 and 87. Prior to 1940, Boone County was a Democratic-leaning swing county in presidential elections, backing the national winner in every election from 1912 to 1936. From 1940 on, it has become a Republican stronghold, with no Democratic presidential candidate since Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964 managing to win forty percent of the county's votes; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 56,640 people, 21,149 households, 15,509 families residing in the county. The population density was 133.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 22,754 housing units at an average density of 53.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 95.3% white, 1.7% Asian, 0.9% black or African American, 0.2% American Indian, 0.7% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 28.9% were German, 19.3% were English, 14.1% were Irish, 9.0% were American.
Of the 21,149 households, 38.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.1% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.7% were non-families, 22.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.12. The median age was 38.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $47,697 and the median income for a family was $81,401. Males had a median income of $57,251 versus $41,309 for females; the per capita income for the county was $38,696. About 6.1% of families and 7.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.6% of those under age 18 and 5.6% of those age 65 or over. List of public art in Boone County, Indiana National Register of Historic Places listings in Boone County, Indiana Harden, Samuel. Early Life and Times in Boone County, Indiana. Indianapolis: Carlon and Hollenbeck. Retrieved 2011-05-31. Leander Mead, Crist. History of Boone County, Indiana.
Indianapolis: A. W. Bowen and Company. Retrieved 2011-05-31. Boone County Community Network L