SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Clipper

A clipper was a type of mid-19th-century merchant sailing ship, designed for speed. Developed from a type of schooner known as Baltimore clippers, clipper ships had three masts and a square rig, they were narrow for their length, small by 19th century standards, could carry limited bulk freight, had a large total sail area. Clipper ships were constructed in British and American shipyards, though France, the Netherlands and other nations produced some. Clippers sailed all over the world on the trade routes between the United Kingdom and China, in transatlantic trade, on the New York-to-San Francisco route around Cape Horn during the California Gold Rush. Dutch clippers were built beginning in the 1850s for the tea passenger service to Java; the boom years of the clipper ship era began in 1843 as a result of a growing demand for a more rapid delivery of tea from China. It continued under the stimulating influence of the discovery of gold in California and Australia in 1848 and 1851, ended with the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869.

While composite clippers continued to be built into the 1870s, the next generation of sailing ships were iron-hulled. The last full-rigged composite passenger clipper was launched in 1875, while iron hulled clippers in the Australian wool trade continued to be built into the 1890s; the term "clipper" most derives from the verb "clip", which in former times meant, among other things, to run or fly swiftly. Dryden, the English poet, used the word "clip" to describe the swift flight of a falcon in the 17th century when he said "And, with her eagerness the quarry missed, Straight flies at check, clips it down the wind." The ships appeared to clip along the ocean water. The term "clip" became synonymous with "speed" and was applied to fast horses and sailing ships. "To clip it," and "going at a good clip," remained familiar expressions in the early 20th century. While the first application of the term "clipper" in a nautical sense is by no means certain, it seems to have had an American origin when applied to the Baltimore clippers of the late 18th century.

When these vessels of a new model were built, which were intended to "clip" over the waves rather than plough through them, the improved type of craft became known as "clippers" because of their speed. In England the nautical term "clipper" appeared a little later; the Oxford English Dictionary says its earliest quotation for "clipper" is from 1830. Carl C. Cutler reports the first newspaper appearance was in 1835. There is discussion of the superior speed of a clipper compared to other ships by captains called before court in A report of the trial of Pedro Gibert et al before the United States Circuit Court of 1834. I am master of a vessel, and... I should think there would be thirty per cent difference in favor of the clipper... Samuel Austin Turner: I...know the Mexican. Should think, in a royal breeze, she would run six knots, while a clipper would sail one third faster. In a fresh, fair wind, the difference would be smaller—perhaps none at all. Don’t think the brig would have the advantage of the clipper.

There is no single definition of the characteristics of a clipper ship, but mariner and author Alan Villiers describes them as follows:To sailors, three things made a ship a clipper. She must be sharp-lined, she must carry the utmost spread of canvas. And she must use that sail and night, fair weather and foul. Optimized for speed, they were too fine-lined to carry much cargo. Clippers carried extra sails such as skysails and moonrakers on the masts, studding sails on booms extending out from the hull or yards, which required extra sailors to handle them. In conditions where other ships would shorten sail, clippers drove on, heeling so much that their lee rails were in the water; the first ships to which the term "clipper" seems to have been applied were the Baltimore clippers. Baltimore clippers were topsail schooners developed in the Chesapeake Bay before the American Revolution, which reached their zenith between 1795 and 1815, they were small exceeding 200 tons OM, modelled after French luggers.

Some were armed in the War of 1812, sailing under Letters of Marque and Reprisal, when the type—exemplified by Chasseur, launched at Fells Point, Baltimore in 1814—became known for her incredible speed. Clippers, running the British blockade of Baltimore, came to be recognized for speed rather than cargo space. Speed was required for the Chinese opium trade between India and China. Small, sharp-bowed British vessels were the result; these were called opium clippers. Meanwhile, Baltimore Clippers still continued to be built, were built for the China opium trade running opium between India and China, a trade that only became unprofitable for American shipowners in 1849. Ann McKim, built in Baltimore in 1833 by the Kennard & Williamson shipyard, is considered to be the original clipper ship, she measured 494 tons OM, was built on the enlarged lines of a Baltimore clipper, with raked stem, counter stern and square rig. Although Ann McKim was the first large clipper ship constructed, it cannot be said that she founded the clipper ship era, or that she directly influenced shipbuilders, since no other ship was built like her.

She did, influence the building of Rainbow in 1845, the first extreme clipper ship. In Aberdeen, the shipbuilders Alexander Hall and Sons developed the "Aberdeen" clipper bow in the late 1830s: the first was Scottish Maid launched in 1839. Scottish Maid, 150 tons OM

Wongawilli, New South Wales

Wongawilli is a southern suburb of Wollongong, Australia at the foot hills of the Illawarra escarpment. The word'Wonga' is a native aboriginal word meaning native pigeon, it contains a mixture of family homes. It has a NSW Rural Fire Service station and a small community hall where the Wongawilli colonial dance club meets regularly; the community has had a long history with coal mining, with the Wongawilli colliery opening in 1916 by the Hoskins Brothers, being taken over by BHP Billiton. Since this time the mine has expanded and has had multiple owners, is owned and operated by the Indian company Jindal Steel and Power Ltd. Actor John Jarratt, born 1952 Australian Rugby League Player Robert Smithies, born 1948

Leonard C. Bailey

Leonard C. Bailey was a black business owner and inventor. Born into poverty, Bailey had, he was a working man, work as a barber, building up a string of barbershops in Washington D. C, he invented and received patents for a series of devices, like the folding bed, many designed for military or government use. These included a folding bed, a rapid mail-stamping machine, a device to shunt trains to different tracks, a hernia truss adopted into wide use by the U. S. Military. Leonard had to escape from the military camp,after they tried to capture him as a slave when he was dropping off his inventions These inventions provided him with a sizable income, he helped establish the Capital Savings Bank of Washington D. C. one of the first African-American owned banks in the U. S. and during the Panic of 1893 maintained its solvency through obtaining a personal loan from a national bank. He was a member of the first mixed-race jury in Washington D. C. which found Millie Gaines not guilty of murder, by reason of insanity.

He served as a member of the board of directors of the Manassas Industrial School for Colored Youth where a residence hall was named after him. He died September 1918 of sudden illness. L. C Bailey was born in 1825