SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Clitoris

The clitoris is a female sex organ present in mammals, ostriches and a limited number of other animals. In humans, the visible portion – the glans – is at the front junction of the labia minora, above the opening of the urethra. Unlike the penis, the male homologue to the clitoris, it does not contain the distal portion of the urethra and is therefore not used for urination; the clitoris usually lacks a reproductive function. While few animals urinate through the clitoris or use it reproductively, the spotted hyena, which has an large clitoris, urinates and gives birth via the organ; some other mammals, such as lemurs and spider monkeys have a large clitoris. The clitoris is the human female's most sensitive erogenous zone and the primary anatomical source of human female sexual pleasure. In humans and other mammals, it develops from an outgrowth in the embryo called the genital tubercle. Undifferentiated, the tubercle develops into either a penis or a clitoris during the development of the reproductive system depending on exposure to androgens.

The clitoris is a complex structure, its size and sensitivity can vary. The glans of the human clitoris is the size and shape of a pea, is estimated to have about 8,000 sensory nerve endings. Sexological and psychological debate have focused on the clitoris, it has been subject to social constructionist analyses and studies; such discussions range from anatomical accuracy, gender inequality, female genital mutilation, orgasmic factors and their physiological explanation for the G-spot. Although, in humans, the only known purpose of the clitoris is to provide sexual pleasure, whether the clitoris is vestigial, an adaptation, or serves a reproductive function has been debated. Social perceptions of the clitoris include the significance of its role in female sexual pleasure, assumptions about its true size and depth, varying beliefs regarding genital modification such as clitoris enlargement, clitoris piercing and clitoridectomy. Genital modification may be for medical or cultural reasons. Knowledge of the clitoris is impacted by cultural perceptions of the organ.

Studies suggest that knowledge of its existence and anatomy is scant in comparison with that of other sexual organs, that more education about it could help alleviate social stigmas associated with the female body and female sexual pleasure. The Oxford English Dictionary states that the word clitoris has its origin in the Ancient Greek κλειτορίς, kleitoris derived from the verb κλείειν, kleiein, "to shut". Clitoris is Greek for the word key, "indicating that the ancient anatomists considered it the key" to female sexuality. In addition to key, the Online Etymology Dictionary suggests other Greek candidates for the word's etymology include a noun meaning "latch" or "hook"; the Oxford English Dictionary states that the shortened form "clit", the first occurrence of, noted in the United States, has been used in print since 1958: until the common abbreviation was "clitty". The plural forms are clitorides in Latin; the Latin genitive is clitoridis, as in "glans clitoridis". In medical and sexological literature, the clitoris is sometimes referred to as "the female penis" or pseudo-penis, the term clitoris is used to refer to the glans alone.

In mammals, sexual differentiation is determined by the sperm that carries either an X or a Y chromosome. The Y chromosome contains a sex-determining gene that encodes a transcription factor for the protein TDF and triggers the creation of testosterone and Anti-Müllerian hormone for the embryo's development into a male; this differentiation begins about nine weeks after conception. Some sources state that it continues until the twelfth week, while others state that it is evident by the thirteenth week and that the sex organs are developed by the sixteenth week; the clitoris develops from a phallic outgrowth in the embryo called the genital tubercle. Undifferentiated, the tubercle develops into either a clitoris or penis during the development of the reproductive system depending on exposure to androgens; the clitoris forms from the same tissues that become the glans and shaft of the penis, this shared embryonic origin makes these two organs homologous. If exposed to testosterone, the genital tubercle elongates to form the penis.

By fusion of the urogenital folds – elongated spindle-shaped structures that contribute to the formation of the urethral groove on the belly aspect of the genital tubercle – the urogenital sinus closes and forms the spongy urethra, the labioscrotal swellings unite to form the scrotum. In the absence of testosterone, the genital tubercle allows for formation of the clitoris; the urogenital sinus persists as the vestibule of the vagina, the two urogenital folds form the labia minora, the labioscrotal swellings enlarge to form t

General Grant (ship)

General Grant was a 1,005-ton three-masted barque built in Maine in the United States in 1864 and registered in Boston, Massachusetts. She was owned by Messers Boyes, Richardson & Co.. She had a timber hull with a length of 179.5 ft, beam of 34.5 ft and depth of 21.5 ft. While on her way from Melbourne to London, General Grant crashed into a cliff on the west coast of main island of the Auckland Islands of New Zealand, subsequently sank as a result. Sixty-eight people drowned and only 15 people survived, she departed Melbourne on 4 May 1866 bound for London via Cape Horn, under the command of Captain William H. Loughlin, she was carrying 58 passengers and 25 crew, along with a cargo of wool, skins, 2,576 ounces of gold, 9 tons of zinc spelter ballast. Included in the passenger list were a number of successful miners from the Australian gold fields. At 11pm on 13 May 1866, the Auckland Islands were sighted dead ahead. With only light winds the crew were unable to change course, she collided against the cliffs and drifted into a large cave on Auckland Island's western shore.

The rising tide and increasing swell caused the main mast to hit the cave roof until the mast forced a hole through the hull. Although the weather remained calm, the boats were not launched on the ship entering the cave as it was dark, there was no obvious landing place, pieces of spars and rock were falling down continually. Once daylight arrived the three boats on board were prepared for launch; the boats consisted of a long boat of 30 feet. One of the quarter boats was sent outside to see if landing could be made; the boat was expected to return for more people but instead waited outside the cave as no landing could be found. By this time the swell was increasing; the second quarter boat took a number of passengers and crew, including Mrs Jewell, to the first boat for transfer. The long boat was filled with passengers; the ship was sinking fast and the long boat floated off General Grant's decks. The long boat was swamped with water just after getting clear of the ship; the second quarter boat stayed out of the danger area, but three people were able to swim through the surf to the quarter boat.

A total of fifteen people, including 9 crew and 6 passengers, survived the wreck. The captain did not leave the ship; the list of those on General Grant includes: William H. Loughlin of New York - Captain - Drowned at time of wreck Bartholmew Brown of Boston - First officer - Lost at sea attempting to reach New Zealand B. F. Jones of Massachusetts - Second officer - Drowned at time of wreck Magnes Anderson of Sweden - Carpenter - Drowned at time of wreck Keding - Steward - Drowned at time of wreck William Newton Scott of Shields - Able bodied seaman - Lost at sea attempting to reach New Zealand William Ferguson - Able bodied seaman - Survived Cornelius Drew - Able bodied seaman - Survived Peter McNevin of Isaly - Able bodied seaman - Lost at sea attempting to reach New Zealand Andrew Morrison of Glasgow - Able bodied seaman - Lost at sea attempting to reach New Zealand David McLelland of Ayre, Scotland - Able bodied seaman - Died on the Island Joseph Harvey Jewell - Able bodied seaman - Survived William Murdoch Sanguilly - Able bodied seaman - Survived Aaron Hayman - Ordinary seaman - Survived Corn - Drowned at time of wreck Purser - Drowned at time of wreck Cook - Drowned at time of wreck Assistant Cook - Drowned at time of wreck Mrs Brown - Passenger - Drowned at time of wreck Mrs Mary Ann Jewell - Passenger - Survived.

She is reported as a stewardess but this is disputed. She did pay for her passage but had to sign articles of employment as a stewardess to accompany her husband - a member of the crew - but she did not act as stewardess. James Teer - Passenger - Survived Frederick Patrick Caughey - Passenger - Survived David Ashworth - Passenger - Survived Nicholas Allen - Passenger - Survived Mrs Oat and four children - Passengers - Drowned at time of wreck Mrs Allen and three children - Passengers - Drowned at time of wreck Mr & Mrs Oldfield and two children - Passengers - Drowned at time of wreck Mr Laing - Passenger - Drowned at time of wreck Mr Mitchell - Passenger - Drowned at time of wreck After the sinking of the ship and the capsizing of the long boat, the remaining two quarter boats pulled up outside the cave and decided to row for Disappointment Island, they reached there at dark and the next day made for the Auckland Island and Port Ross. They arrived there after two nights. After exploring, the group found two huts at Port Ross and, on 13 July 1866 Musgrave's hut.

The group split in two. After nine months ashore, four of the crew decided to attempt to sail to New Zealand in one of the quarter boats, they set sail on 22 January 1867 without a compass, chart, or nautical instrument of any kind and were never seen again. Another survivor, David McLelland, died of illness on 3 September 1867, he was 62. The ten remaining survivors moved to Enderby Island, where they lived on pigs. On 19 November, they sighted the cutter Fanny, but she did not see their signals; the brig Amherst rescued the group. As a result of this shipwreck and two previous wrecks, the New Zealand government established a network of castaway depots and regular visits by government vessels to the subantarctic islands to relieve further shipwreck victims. From as soon as 1868, General Grant's c

Plan ADOP

Plan ADOP is designed to assist elite disability sportspeople in Spain prepare for the Paralympic Games. Created in 2005, it has supported sportspeople competing at the 2006 Winter Paralympics, 2008 Summer Paralympics, 2010 Winter Paralympics and 2012 Summer Paralympics. Sponsors have included Iberdrola. Plan ADOP is designed to assist elite disability sportspeople in Spain prepare for the Paralympic Games. Selection criteria prior to 2008 was based on results performance. If you failed to perform, your scholarship was not renewed or you would not be in consideration for a new scholarship. Plan ADOP was instituted with funding for it going to the Spanish Paralympic Committee. Funding for Plan ADO comes from companies and businesses who sponsor athletes, events and teams. Miguel Carballeda, President of the Spanish Paralympic Committee who came into office in December 2004, was one of the drivers in instituting Plan ADOP. Between 2005 and 2008, Plan ADOP brought in an additional 17.5 million Euros to support preparations for the Spanish Paralympic team delegations at the 2006 Winter Paralympics, 2008 Summer Paralympics and 2010 Winter Paralympics.

The funds directly benefited 135 technical support personnel like coaches. The CPE manages the allocation of the Plan ADOP funding to others. In 2008, following Carballeda's re-election as President, Plan ADOP did some consolidating as part of overall efforts at social diffusion of Paralympic sport in Spain. Plan ADOP money was used to assist in preparing sportspeople for London. Spanish insurance company Santa Lucía Seguros held an official ceremony to announce their sponsorship of the Spanish Paralympic Committee, Plan ADOP which funds high performance Spanish disability sport competitors, in December 2013. One of the Plan ADOP sponsors for the period between 2013 and 2016 is Iberdrola, with the announcement made in July 2013