San Giorgio in Velabro
San Giorgio in Velabro is a church in Rome, devoted to St. George; the church is located next to the Arch of Janus in the rione of Ripa in the ancient Roman Velabrum. According to the founding legend of Rome, the church was built where Roman history began: it is here that the she-wolf found Romulus and Remus; the ancient Arcus Argentariorum is attached to the side of the church's façade. San Giorgio in Velabro is the station church for the first Thursday in Lent; the first religious building attested in the place of the current basilica is a diaconia, funded by Pope Gregory the Great. The current church was built during the 7th century by Pope Leo II, who dedicated it to Saint Sebastian. A 482 inscription in the catacombs of St. Callixtus refers of a church in the same zone, its plan is irregular, indeed trapezoidal, as a result of the frequent additions to the building. As can be seen from the lower photograph, the interior columns are randomly arranged having been taken from sundry Roman temples.
The church was inside the Greek quarter of Rome, where Greek-speaking merchants and military officers and monks of the Byzantine Empire lived — the nearby Santa Maria in Cosmedin, for example, was known as in Schola Graeca at the time. Pope Zachary, of Greek origin, moved the relic of St. George to here from Cappadocia, so that this saint had a church dedicated in the West well before the spreading of his worship with the return of the Crusaders from the East. After a restoration of Pope Gregory IV, the church received the addition of the portico and of the tower bell in the first half of the 13th century; the apsis was decorated with frescoes by Pietro Cavallini in the 13th century. In 1347, the Roman patriot Cola Di Rienzo posted a manifesto announcing the liberation of Rome on the doors of this church. Between 1923 and 1926, the Superintendent of Monuments of Rome, Antonio Muñoz, completed a more radical restoration programme, with the aim of restoring the building's "medieval character" and freeing it from additions.
This was done by returning the floor to its original level reopening the ancient windows that gave light to the central nave, restoring the apsis, removing numerous accretions from the other most recent restorations. During this process, fragments were found indicating a schola cantorum on the site, attributed to the period of Gregory IV; the building as we see it today is a product of the 1920s restoration. However, five years' further restoration followed the explosion of a car bomb, parked close to the facade, at midnight on 27 July 1993; that explosion caused no fatalities but left the 12th century portico totally collapsed and blew a large opening into the wall of the main church, as well as doing serious damage to the residence of the Generalate of the Crosiers next door. The Ministry of Cultural Heritage researched and catalogued what was damaged or destroyed, placing the fragments in 1050 crates with dates and locational references before restoring the building with them, although some details in the portico, were deliberately left unrestored as a memorial to the bombing.
The church was established as a Deaconry by 590 A. D. the reign of Pope Gregory I. Among the previous titulars are. Federico di San Pietro, Memorie istoriche del sacro tempio, o sia Diaconia di San Giorgio in Velabro. Antonio Muñoz, Il restauro della basilica di S. Giorgio al Velabro in Roma. A. Giannettini and C. Venanzi, S. Giorgio al Velabro. Maria Grazia Gurco, "The Church of St. George in Velabrum in Rome: techniques of construction and historical transformations," Proceedings of the First International Congress on Construction History Vol. 3, pp. 2009-2013. Sketch of S. Giorgio High-resolution 360° Panoramas and Images of San Giorgio in Velabro | Art Atlas The History of the Church of San Giorgio in Velabro St George's Church, for a list of other churches worldwide of the same name
Nerva was Roman emperor from 96 to 98. Nerva became emperor when aged 66, after a lifetime of imperial service under Nero and the rulers of the Flavian dynasty. Under Nero, he was a member of the imperial entourage and played a vital part in exposing the Pisonian conspiracy of 65; as a loyalist to the Flavians, he attained consulships in 71 and 90 during the reigns of Vespasian and Domitian, respectively. On 18 September 96, Domitian was assassinated in a palace conspiracy involving members of the Praetorian Guard and several of his freedmen. On the same day, Nerva was declared emperor by the Roman Senate; this was the first time. As the new ruler of the Roman Empire, he vowed to restore liberties, curtailed during the autocratic government of Domitian. Nerva's brief reign was marred by financial difficulties and his inability to assert his authority over the Roman army. A revolt by the Praetorian Guard in October 97 forced him to adopt an heir. After some deliberation Nerva adopted a young and popular general, as his successor.
After fifteen months in office, Nerva died of natural causes on 27 January 98. Upon his death he was deified by Trajan. Although much of his life remains obscure, Nerva was considered a wise and moderate emperor by ancient historians. Nerva's greatest success was his ability to ensure a peaceful transition of power after his death by selecting Trajan as his heir, thus founding the Nerva–Antonine dynasty. Marcus Cocceius Nerva was born in the village of Narni, 50 kilometers north of Rome, as the son of Marcus Cocceius Nerva, Suffect Consul during the reign of Caligula, Sergia Plautilla. Ancient sources report the date as either 30 or 35, he had at least one attested sister, named Cocceia, who married Lucius Salvius Titianus Otho, the brother of the earlier Emperor Otho. Like Vespasian, the founder of the Flavian dynasty, Nerva was a member of the Italian nobility rather than one of the elite of Rome; the Cocceii were among the most esteemed and prominent political families of the late Republic and early Empire, attaining consulships in each successive generation.
The direct ancestors of Nerva on his father's side, all named Marcus Cocceius Nerva, were associated with imperial circles from the time of Emperor Augustus. His great-grandfather was Consul in 36 BC, Governor of Asia in the same year, his grandfather became Consul Suffect in July of either 21 or 22, was known as a personal friend of Emperor Tiberius, accompanying the emperor during his voluntary seclusion on Capri from 23 onwards, dying in 33. Nerva's father attained the consulship under the emperor Caligula; the Cocceii were connected with the Julio-Claudian dynasty through the marriage of Sergia Plautilla's brother Gaius Octavius Laenas, Rubellia Bassa, the great-granddaughter of Tiberius. Not much of Nerva's early life or career is recorded, but it appears he did not pursue the usual administrative or military career, he was praetor-elect in the year 65 and, like his ancestors, moved in imperial circles as a skilled diplomat and strategist. As an advisor to Emperor Nero, he helped detect and expose the Pisonian conspiracy of 65.
His exact contribution to the investigation is not known, but his services must have been considerable, since they earned him rewards equal to those of Nero's guard prefect Tigellinus. He received triumphal honors—which was reserved for military victories—and the right to have his statues placed throughout the palace. According to the contemporary poet Martial, Nero held Nerva's literary abilities in high esteem, hailing him as the "Tibullus of our time". Another prominent member of Nero's entourage was Vespasian, an old and respected general who had celebrated military triumphs during the 40s, it appears Vespasian befriended Nerva during his time as an imperial advisor, may have asked him to watch over Vespasian's youngest son Domitian when Vespasian departed for the Jewish war in 67. The suicide of Nero on 9 June 68 brought the Julio-Claudian dynasty to an end, leading to the chaotic Year of the Four Emperors, which saw the successive rise and fall of the emperors Galba and Vitellius, until the accession of Vespasian on 21 December 69.
Nothing is known of Nerva's whereabouts during 69, but despite the fact that Otho was his brother-in-law, he appears to have been one of the earliest and strongest supporters of the Flavians. For services unknown, he was rewarded with a consulship early in Vespasian's reign in 71; this was a remarkable honour, not only because he held this office early under the new regime, but because it was an ordinary consulship, making him one of the few non-Flavians to be honoured in this way under Vespasian. After 71 Nerva again disappears from historical record continuing his career as an inconspicuous advisor under Vespasian and his sons Titus and Domitian, he re-emerges during the revolt of Saturninus in 89. On 1 January, 89, the governor of Germania Superior, Lucius Antonius Saturninus, his two legions at Mainz, Legio XIV Gemina and Legio XXI Rapax, revolted against the Roman Empire with the aid of a tribe of the Chatti; the governor of Germania Inferior, Lappius Maximus, moved to the region at once, assisted by the procurator of Rhaetia, Titus Flavius Norbanus.
Within twenty-four days the rebellion was crushed, its leaders at Mainz savagely punished. The mutinous legions were sent to the front of Illyricum, while those who had assisted in their defeat were duly rewarded. Domitian opened the year following the revolt by sharing t
Backwashing (water treatment)
In terms of water treatment, including water purification and sewage treatment, backwashing refers to pumping water backwards through the filters media, sometimes including intermittent use of compressed air during the process. Backwashing is a form of preventive maintenance. In water treatment plants, backwashing can be an automated process, run by local programmable logic controllers; the backwash cycle is triggered after a set time interval, when the filter effluent turbidity is greater than a treatment guideline or when the differential pressure across the filter exceeds a set value. Water treatment filters that can be backwashed include rapid sand filters, pressure filters and granular activated carbon filters. Diatomaceous earth filters are backwashed according to the proprietary arrangement of pumps and filters associated with the filtration system. Slow sand filters and self-cleaning screen filters employ mechanisms other than backwashing to remove trapped particles. To keep water treatment filters functional, they have to be cleaned periodically to remove particulates.
Ineffective backwashing is one of the main reasons. Backwashing of granular media filters involves several steps. First, the filter is taken off line and the water is drained to a level, above the surface of the filter bed. Next, compressed air is pushed up through the filter material causing the filter bed to expand breaking up the compacted filter bed and forcing the accumulated particles into suspension. After the air scour cycle, clean backwash water is forced upwards through the filter bed continuing the filter bed expansion and carrying the particles in suspension into backwash troughs suspended above the filter surface. In some applications and water streams are pushed upwards through the granular media followed by a rinse water wash. Backwashing continues for a fixed time, or until the turbidity of the backwash water is below an established value. At the end of the backwash cycle, the upward flow of water is terminated and the filter bed settles by gravity into its initial configuration.
Water to be filtered is applied to the filter surface until the filter clogs and the backwash cycle needs to be repeated. Some water treatment filters use surface wash systems that break up the clogged, granular media surface layer. Surface wash systems are buried in the top of the filter media or are suspended above the filter media surface. John R. Baylis developed a fixed grid system which consisted of pipes with nozzles that injected jets of water into the filter material during expansion. Rotating arms use jets of water to break up the clogged filter surface and to rotate a movable arm through the filter material. A surface wash step in a backwash cycle takes place at the beginning of the filter bed cleaning process. Spent backwash water is either discharged without treatment to a sanitary sewer system or is treated and recycled within the plant. Backwash water was discharged directly to surface water supplies. Used backwash water contains high concentrations of particulate material. Typical treatment processes include coagulation and sedimentation.
High molecular weight synthetic organic polymers are sometimes added to facilitate the formation of settleable floc. Failure of a backwash treatment process and reintroduction of the resulting poor quality water into the main water purification plant flow stream can cause overall process upsets and result in the production of poor quality treated drinking water; as a water conservation measure, many water purification plants recycle filter backwash water and other product streams from sludge treatment processes back to the beginning of the plant. On June 8, 2001, the USEPA released a final regulation governing acceptable practices for recycling backwash water; the purpose of the regulation was to improve the control of microbial contaminants such as Cryptosporidium by reducing the potential for recycled product streams to upset the removal efficiency of the main treatment processes. The regulation requires that spent filter backwash water be recycled to the front of the treatment plant so that all available particle removal treatment processes can be employed to remove the microbial and particulate material from the backwash water.
National Environmental Services Center - Filter Backwashing Accessed 2012-06-20. Filter Backwash - Seymour Capilano Water Plant video. Accessed 2012-06-20. High-Rate Spent Filter Backwash Water Treatment Information Tool Accessed 2012-06-20. Filtration: Water Treatment Basics Session III - Technical Learning College video. Accessed 2012-06-20
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts and cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered a branch of the humanities. In North America archaeology is a sub-field of anthropology, while in Europe it is viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology is distinct from palaeontology, the study of fossil remains, it is important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world. Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time.
The discipline involves surveying and analysis of data collected to learn more about the past. In broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research, it draws upon anthropology, art history, ethnology, geology, literary history, semiology, textual criticism, information sciences, statistics, paleography, paleontology and paleobotany. Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, has since become a discipline practiced across the world. Archaeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past. Since its early development, various specific sub-disciplines of archaeology have developed, including maritime archaeology, feminist archaeology and archaeoastronomy, numerous different scientific techniques have been developed to aid archaeological investigation. Nonetheless, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology, the looting of artifacts, a lack of public interest, opposition to the excavation of human remains.
The science of archaeology grew out of the older multi-disciplinary study known as antiquarianism. Antiquarians studied history with particular attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts, as well as historical sites. Antiquarianism focused on the empirical evidence that existed for the understanding of the past, encapsulated in the motto of the 18th-century antiquary, Sir Richard Colt Hoare, "We speak from facts not theory". Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. In Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age. Flavio Biondo, an Italian Renaissance humanist historian, created a systematic guide to the ruins and topography of ancient Rome in the early 15th century, for which he has been called an early founder of archaeology. Antiquarians of the 16th century, including John Leland and William Camden, conducted surveys of the English countryside, drawing and interpreting the monuments that they encountered.
One of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England. John Aubrey was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other field monuments in southern England, he was ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings. He attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture and shield-shapes. Excavations were carried out by the Spanish military engineer Roque Joaquín de Alcubierre in the ancient towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum, both of, covered by ash during the Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79; these excavations began in 1748 in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in 1738. The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and human shapes, as well the unearthing of frescos, had a big impact throughout Europe. However, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard; the father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington. He undertook excavations in Wiltshire from around 1798.
Cunnington made meticulous recordings of Neolithic and Bronze Age barrows, the terms he used to categorize and describe them are still used by archaeologists today. One of the major achievements of 19th-century archaeology was the development of stratigraphy; the idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William Smith, James Hutton and Charles Lyell. The application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites. In the third and fourth decades of the 19th-century, archaeologists like Jacques Boucher de Perthes and Christian Jürgensen Thomsen began to put the artifacts they had found in chronological order. A major figure in the development of archaeology into a rigorous science was the army officer and ethnologist, Augustus Pitt Rivers, who began excavations on his land in England in the 1880s, his approach was methodical by the standards of the time, he is regarded as the first scientific archaeologist.
He arranged his artifacts by type or "typologically, within types by date or "chronologically"
Lucius Tarquinius Priscus
Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, or Tarquin the Elder, was the legendary fifth king of Rome from 616 to 579 BC. His wife was Tanaquil. According to Livy, Tarquin came from Etruria. Livy claims that his original Etruscan name was Lucumo, but since lucumo is the Etruscan word for "king", there is reason to believe that Priscus' name and title have been confused in the official tradition. After inheriting his father's entire fortune, Lucius attempted to gain a political office. Disgruntled with his opportunities in Etruria, he migrated to Rome with his wife Tanaquil, at her suggestion. Legend has it that on his arrival in Rome in a chariot, an eagle took his cap, flew away and returned it back upon his head. Tanaquil, skilled in prophecy, interpreted this as an omen of his future greatness. In Rome, he attained respect through his courtesy; the king himself noticed, by his will, appointed Tarquinius guardian of his own sons. Although Ancus Marcius, the Roman king, was the grandson of Numa Pompilius, the second King of Rome, the principle of hereditary monarchy was not yet established at Rome.
Upon the death of Marcius, Tarquin addressed the Comitia Curiata and convinced them that he should be elected king over Marcius' natural sons, who were still only youths. In one tradition, the sons were away on a hunting expedition at the time of their father's death, were thus unable to affect the assembly's choice. According to Livy, Tarquin increased the number of the Senate by adding one hundred men from the leading minor families. Among these was the family of the Octavii, from whom the first emperor, was descended. Tarquin's first war was waged against the Latins. Tarquinius took great booty from there back to Rome. According to the Fasti Triumphales, this war must have occurred prior to 588 BC, his military ability was tested by an attack from the Sabines, who received auxiliaries from five Etruscan cities. Tarquin doubled the numbers of equites to help the war effort; the Sabines were defeated after difficult street fighting in the city of Rome. In the peace negotiations that followed, Tarquin received the town of Collatia, appointed his nephew, Arruns Tarquinius, better known as Egerius, as commander of the garrison there.
Tarquin returned to Rome and celebrated a triumph on September 13, 585 BC. Subsequently, the Latin cities of Corniculum, old Ficulea, Crustumerium, Ameriola and Nomentum were subdued and became Roman. Since Tarquin had kept the captured Etruscan auxiliaries prisoners for meddling in the war with the Sabines, the five Etruscan cities who had taken part declared war on Rome. Seven other Etruscan cities joined forces with them; the Etruscans soon captured the Roman colony at Fidenae, which thereupon became the focal point of the war. After several bloody battles, Tarquin was once again victorious, he subjugated the Etruscan cities who had taken part in the war. At the successful conclusion of each of his wars, Rome was enriched by Tarquin's plunder. Tarquin is said to have built the Circus Maximus, the first and largest stadium at Rome, for chariot racing. Raised seating was erected by the senators and equites, other areas were marked out for private citizens. There the king established a series of annual games.
After a great flood, Tarquin drained the damp lowlands of Rome by constructing the Cloaca Maxima, Rome's great sewer. He constructed a stone wall around the city, began the construction of a temple in honour of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the Capitoline Hill; the latter is said to have been funded in part by the plunder seized from the Sabines. According to Florus, Tarquin celebrated his triumphs in the Etruscan fashion, riding a golden chariot drawn by four horses, while wearing a gold-embroidered toga and the tunica palmata, a tunic upon which palm-leaves were embroidered, he introduced other Etruscan insignia of civilian authority and military distinction: the sceptre of the king. Strabo reports that Tarquin introduced Etruscan sacrificial and divinitory rites, as well as the tuba, a straight horn used chiefly for military purposes. Tarquin is said to have reigned for thirty-eight years. According to legend, the sons of his predecessor, Ancus Marcius, believed that the throne should have been theirs.
They arranged the king's assassination, disguised as a riot, during which Tarquin received a fatal blow to the head. However, the queen, gave out that the king was wounded, took advantage of the confusion to establish Servius Tullius as regent. Tullius, said to have been the son of Servius Tullius, a prince of Corniculum who had fallen in battle against Tarquin, was brought to the palace as a child with his mother, Ocreisia. According to legend, Tanaquil discovered his potential for greatness by means of various omens, therefore preferred him to her own sons, he mar
The Basilica Julia was a structure that once stood in the Roman Forum. It was a large, public building used for meetings and other official business during the early Roman Empire, its ruins have been excavated. What is left from its classical period are foundations, floors, a small back corner wall with a few arches that are part of both the original building and Imperial reconstructions and a single column from its first building phase; the Basilica Julia was built on the site of the earlier Basilica Sempronia along the south side of the Forum, opposite the Basilica Aemilia. It was dedicated in 46 BC by Julius Caesar, with building costs paid from the spoils of the Gallic War, was completed by Augustus, who named the building after his adoptive father; the building burned shortly after its completion, but was repaired and rededicated in 12 AD. The Basilica was again reconstructed by the Emperor Diocletian after the fire of 283 AD; the Basilica housed the civil law courts and tabernae, provided space for government offices and banking.
In the 1st century, it was used for sessions of the Centumviri, who presided over matters of inheritance. In his Epistles, Pliny the Younger describes the scene as he pleaded for a senatorial lady whose 80-year-old father had disinherited her ten days after taking a new wife, it was the favorite meeting place of the Roman people. This basilica housed public meeting places and shops, but it was used as a law court. On the pavement of the portico, there are diagrams of games scratched into the white marble. One stone, on the upper tier of the side facing the Curia, is marked with an eight by eight square grid on which games similar to chess or checkers could have been played; the Basilica Julia was destroyed in 410 AD when the Visigoths sacked Rome and the site fell into ruin over the centuries. Part of the remains of the basilica was converted into a church in the 8th century; the building consists now only of a rectangular area, levelled off and raised about one metre above ground level, with jumbled blocks of stone lying within its area.
A row of marble steps runs full length along the side of the basilica facing the Via Sacra, there is access from a taller flight of steps at the end of the basilica facing the Temple of Castor and Pollux. The site was excavated by Pietro Rosa in 1850 who reconstructed a single marble column and travertine supports. In 1852 segments of concrete vaulting with stuccowork coffering was unearthed but destroyed in 1872. High-resolution 360° Panoramas and Images of Basilica Julia | Art Atlas