Cloistered rule was a form of government in Japan during the Heian period. In this bifurcated system, an emperor retained power and influence; those retired emperors who withdrew to live in monasteries continued to act in ways intended to counterbalance the influence of Fujiwara regents and the warrior class. The titular emperor, the former emperor's chosen successor, fulfilled all the ceremonial roles and formal duties of the monarchy. Retired emperors were called Daijō Tennō or Jōkō. A retired emperor who entered a Buddhist monastic community became a Cloistered Emperor. There were retired emperors, including cloistered emperors, both before and after the Heian period, but the notion of cloistered rule as a system refers to the practice put in place by Emperor Shirakawa in 1086 and followed by his successors until the rise of the Kamakura shogunate in 1192; the ritsuryō code allowed retired emperors to exert some limited powers, there are early examples such as Empress Jitō, Emperor Shōmu and Emperor Uda in the 7th, 8th and 9th centuries respectively.
By the end of the 10th century, the Hokke family of the Fujiwara clan held political power in Japan through the office of the Imperial Regent, the emperor became little more than a figurehead. In 1068, Emperor Go-Sanjō became the first emperor in 200 years, not related either by marriage or blood, or both, to the Hokke family, he exerted personal power while the Hokke family was dealing with internal conflicts between Fujiwara no Yorimichi and his brother Fujiwara no Norimichi, was in a position to issue several laws and regulations, most notably the Enkyū Shōen Regulation Decree, thus weakening the regency. In 1072, however, he fell abdicated in favor of Emperor Shirakawa, he died the following year. Although he did not have time to exert power after his abdication, Sanjō had weakened the regency and paved the way for the practice of cloistered rule. In 1086, Emperor Shirakawa in his turn abdicated in favor of his son, Emperor Horikawa, four years old at the time. Shirakawa's objective appeared to be the protection of his son from his younger brother, who presented a serious threat of becoming a pretender to the throne, but after his retirement Shirakawa exerted his personal power to set the cloistered rule system in motion.
Separate imperial courts (In no Chō evolved around the retired emperors, their will was put into effect through offices known as Inzen and In no Chō Kudashi Bumi. Cloistered emperors had their own troops, the Hokumen no Bushi; the creation of these military units led to the rise to power of the Taira clan, who used their membership of these units to gather political and economic power to themselves. The end of the Heian period was marked by a rapid succession of cloistered emperors, to the point that there were several retired emperors living at the same time; the Hōgen Rebellion, following the death of the Emperor Toba, was an example of direct opposition between an emperor and an emperor emeritus. The end of the reign of Go-Shirakawa was marked by civil war and the rise of Minamoto no Yoritomo as the first Kamakura shōgun; the succession of power in the Insei system was complex. The establishment of the Kamakura shogunate is taken to mark the beginning of the Kamakura period, but the Insei system was not abandoned.
Though the shogunate took over the police force and ruled eastern Japan, the authority of the emperors and retired emperors remained considerable. However, when Go-Toba, a grandson of Go-Shirakawa, sought to overthrow the Kamakura shogunate, his forces were defeated in the Jōkyū War, the shogunate took steps to reduce the power of the retired emperors. After the Jōkyū War, the cloistered rule system continued to exist, at least formally, for another 200 years. There were movements to take authority back into the hands of the imperial court, such as the Kenmu Restoration attempted by Emperor Go-Daigo, but in general a retired emperor presided as the head of the Kyoto court, with the approval of the shogunate. There were a few examples of retired emperors supervising their successors much during the Edo period; the last person to use the title Daijō Hōō was Emperor Reigen, in 1686. Retired Emperor Cloistered Emperor Daijō Tennō Hurst, G. Cameron.. " Insei: Abdicated sovereigns in the Politics of late-Heian Japan 1086-1185.'
New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231039321. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; the Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887 ____________.. Kyoto: The Old Capital of Japan, 794-1869. Kyoto: The Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 182637732
Dick Marty is a Swiss politician and former state prosecutor of the canton of Ticino. He is a member of the Swiss Council of States, is a former member of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. Marty holds a doctorate in law from the University of Neuchâtel, his thesis was entitled, The Role and the Power of the Swiss Judge in the Application of Penal Sanctions. From 1972 to 1975, Marty worked at the Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Criminal Law in Freiburg, responsible for the section on Swiss law. In 1975, Marty was nominated state prosecutor of Ticino, in which post he was specially noted for his energetic activities fighting organized crime and drug abuse. For his achievements in the area of drug legislation, he received in 1987 an Award of Honor of the United States Department of Justice and a special award of honor by the International Narcotic Enforcement Officers Association. In 1989 he was elected a member of the cantonal executive in Ticino, where he was director of the finance department, in 1992 additionally held the office of president, which rotates among the members.
In 1995, upon being elected to the Swiss Council of States for Ticino, he resigned from his executive post and has since worked part-time as a legal and economic consultant. In the Council of States he has been member of key commissions, including the Finance Commission and Economy and Taxes Commission, took an active part in getting the new Swiss constitution through parliament. In 1998 Marty was appointed as a member of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, where he became a member of its Monitoring Committee, he was second vice-chairman of the Political Affairs Committee, with further positions in sub-committees. In 2005, Marty was appointed to lead an investigation by the Council of Europe into alleged unlawful CIA prisons in Europe. Marty was planning to use satellite images and aviation logs, among many other sources of information, to find out whether the "rendition" of terror suspects for possible torture, or for secret detention, had taken place in any of the Council of Europe's 47 member states.
These activities could be a violation of European human rights standards. In June 2006 Marty released his report on behalf of the Parliamentary Assembly, concluding that evidence showed that fourteen European states had assisted in the perpetration of such abuses. Marty published the second part of this work on 8 June 2007, named Secret Detentions and Illegal Transfers of Detainees Involving Council of Europe Member States: Second Report. On 14 December 2010, Marty published a report for adoption by the Council of Europe alleging inhuman treatment of people and killing of prisoners with the purpose of removal and illicit trafficking in human organs in Kosovo, involving Hashim Thaçi, the Kosovo prime minister and former Kosovo Liberation Army political leader. Kosovo's leading politicians reacted to Marty's report. Kosovo's acting president, Jakup Krasniqi, called the report "racist towards Albanians". Prime Minister Thaçi accused Marty of being "an opponent of Kosovo's independence" and called the report "politically motivated", "not based on facts", with the "goal to damage the newly-created state of Kosovo, Kosovo’s image, to question the election process, creation of institutions and Kosovo’s European future".
As reported by several international, Serbian and Albanian news agencies, in an interview for Albanian TV Klan on 24 December 2010, Thaçi threatened to publish a list of Albanians who collaborated in providing information to Dick Marty for this report. On 25 January 2011, the Council of Europe endorsed the report and called for a full and serious investigation into its contents. Marty acted as Special Rapporteur for the Assembly's Social and Family Affairs Committee on the topic of euthanasia, his report and draft resolution, published in September 2003, called on Council of Europe members to collect empirical data on assisted dying, to promote debate and analysis of the evidence, to consider whether legislation should be brought forward to exempt doctors from prosecution for assisting suicide under certain strict conditions. His stance proved controversial and the report was criticised by a number of organisations, such as the World Federation of Catholic Medical Associations and the Scottish Council on Human Bioethics.
John Keown, a professor of Christian ethics at Georgetown University in Washington, DC, described it as "Mr Marty's muddle" and criticized him for "superficiality" and "selectivity."The Committee subsequently adopted a formal Opinion prepared by the British member Kevin McNamara, which criticised several of Marty's findings and conclusions and sought to replace the call for governments to consider legislation to legalise assisted dying with a resolution to "report back to the Parliamentary Assembly for further consideration". McNamara's amendments were criticised in turn by organisations such as the World Federation of Right to Die Societies. Keown's criticism of Marty's report was criticised by Guy Widdershoven of Maastricht University. Marty's report, as amended, was rejected by 138 votes to 26. Since 2015, Marty serves as co-president for the ballot measure to amend the Swiss constitution so that global companies headquartered in Switzerland are adhering to human rights and environmental standards.
In February 2019, the ballot measure passed the Swiss National Council and was modified by the Council of States, rejecting the counter-initiative by the National Council. The initiative enjoys popular support and is projected to be on the ballots not before February 2020. Besides his political work, since 1996 Marty has be
A snowshoe is footwear for walking over snow. Snowshoes work by distributing the weight of the person over a larger area so that the person's foot does not sink into the snow, a quality called "flotation". Snowshoeing is a form of hiking. Traditional snowshoes have a hardwood frame with rawhide lacings; some modern snowshoes are similar, but most are made of materials such as lightweight metal and synthetic fabric. In addition to distributing the weight, snowshoes are raised at the toe for maneuverability, they must not accumulate snow, hence the latticework, require bindings to attach them to the feet. In the past, snowshoes were essential tools for fur traders and anyone whose life or living depended on the ability to get around in areas of deep and frequent snowfall, they remain necessary equipment for forest rangers and others who must be able to get around areas inaccessible to motorized vehicles when the snow is deep. However, snowshoes are used today for recreation by hikers and runners who like to continue their hobby in wintertime.
Snowshoeing is easy to learn and in appropriate conditions is a safe and inexpensive recreational activity. However, snowshoeing in icy, steep terrain can be more dangerous. Before people built snowshoes, nature provided examples. Several animals, most notably the snowshoe hare, had evolved over the years with oversized feet enabling them to move more through deep snow; the origin and age of snowshoes are not known, although historians believe they were invented from 4,000 to 6,000 years ago starting in Central Asia. British archaeologist Jacqui Wood hypothesized that the equipment interpreted to be the frame of a backpack of the Chalcolithic mummy Ötzi was part of a snowshoe. Strabo wrote that the inhabitants of the Caucasus used to attach flat surfaces of leather under their feet and that its inhabitants used round wooden surfaces, something akin to blocks, instead. However, the "traditional" webbed snowshoe as we know it today had direct origins to North American indigenous people, e.g. the Huron, so forth.
Samuel de Champlain wrote, referencing the Huron and Algonquin First Nations, in his travel memoirs, "Winter, when there is much snow, they make a kind of snowshoe that are two to three times larger than those in France, that they tie to their feet, thus go on the snow, without sinking into it, otherwise they would not be able to hunt or go from one location to the other". In 2016, Italian scientists reported "the oldest snowshoe in the world" discovered in the Dolomites and dated to between 3800 and 3700 B. C; the indigenous people of North America developed the most advanced and diverse snowshoes prior to the 20th century. Nearly every Indigenous peoples of the Americas culture developed its own particular shape of shoe, the simplest being those of the far north; the Inuit have two styles, one being triangular in shape and about 18 inches in length, the other circular, both reflecting the need for high flotation in deep and powdery snow. However, contrary to popular perception, the Inuit did not use their snowshoes much since they did most of their foot travel in winter over sea ice or on the tundra, where snow does not pile up deeply.
Southward the shoe becomes narrower and longer, the largest being the hunting snow-shoe of the Cree, nearly 6 ft long and turned up at the toe. Smaller models, developed most notably by the Iroquois, are narrower and shorter, reflecting the need for maneuverability in forested areas; the Plains Indians wore. Despite their great diversity in form, snowshoes were, in fact, one of the few cultural elements common to all tribes that lived where the winters were snowy, in particular, the Northern regions. Snowshoes were adopted by Europeans during early colonialism in what became Canada and the United States; the French voyageurs and coureurs des bois began to travel throughout the land of the Cree and Algonquin groups of indigenous North Americans in the late 17th century to trap animals and trade goods. In order to travel in the terrain and climate, they utilized the tools of the native populations, such as snowshoes and canoes. Snowshoes became popular during the French and Indian Wars, during conflicts such as The Battle on Snowshoes, when both the French/Indian and British factions both wore snowshoes to battle above a reported four feet of snow.
The Oxford English Dictionary reports the term being used by the English as early as 1674. In 1690, after a French-Indian raiding party attacked a British settlement near what is today Schenectady, New York, the British took to snowshoes and pursued the attackers for 50 miles recovering both people and goods taken by their attackers; the "teardrop" snowshoes worn by lumberjacks are about 40 inches long and broad in proportion, while the tracker's shoe is over 5 feet long and narrow. This form, the stereotypical snowshoe, resembles a tennis racquet, indeed the French term is raquette à neige; this form was copied by the Canadian snowshoe clubs of the late 18th century. Founded for military training purposes, they became the earliest recreational users of snowshoes; the snowshoe clubs such as the Montreal Snow Shoe Club shortened the teardrop to about 40 inches long and 15 to 18 inches broad turned up at the toe and terminating in a kind of tail behind. This is made light for racing purposes, but much stouter for touring or hunting.
The tail keeps the shoe straight while walking. Another variant, the "bearpaw", ends in a curved heel instead of a tail. W
An Ottoman raid of the Balearic islands was accomplished by the Ottoman Empire in 1558, against the Spanish Habsburg territory of the Balearic islands. The Ottomans had attacked the Balearic Islands many times as in the 1501 Ottoman raid on the Balearic islands. Followed the sacks of Pollença, the Sack of Mahon in 1535, Alcúdia, Andratx, Sóller. Ottoman attacks only decreased after the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, although they continued until the 17th century. On 30 December 1557, Henry II of France, in conflict with the Habsburgs in the Italian War of 1551–1559, wrote a letter to Suleiman, asking him for money, 150 galleys to be stationed in the West. Through the services of his ambassador Jean Cavenac de la Vigne, Henry II obtained the dispatch of an Ottoman fleet in 1558. Suleyman the Magnificent sent his fleet as a diversion to help his French allies against the Habsburgs; the Ottoman armada left Constantinople in April 1558. On 13 June 1558 the Ottoman fleet ravaged Italy, with little effect however apart from the sack of Sorrento part of the possessions of Spain in southern Italy, where they took 3,000 captives.
In July, the fleet started to ravage the Balearic islands. The Ottoman force consisted of 15,000 soldiers on 150 warships; the Ottomans, after repulsing an attack on Mahón, attacked the citadel of Ciutadella in Menorca, only garrisoned with 40 soldiers. On 9 July 1558, the Ottomans under Piyale Pasha and Turgut Reis put the town under siege for eight days entered and decimated the town. After the fall of the citadel, the city was ravaged and the population enslaved. All of Ciutadella's 3,099 inhabitants who survived the siege were sold into slavery in the Ottoman Empire, along with people from surrounding villages. In total, 3,452 locals were sold at the slave markets of Constantinople; the Balearic islands were ravaged, 4,000 people were taken as prisoners. An obelisk was set up in the 19th century by Josep Quadrado in the Plaza d'es Born in memory of the offensive, with the following inscription: Here we fought until death for our religion and our country in the year 1558; every year on 9 July a commemoration takes place in Ciutadella, remembering "l’Any de sa Desgràcia", or "the Year of the Disaster".
As a consequence of the 1553 Franco-Ottoman Invasion of Corsica, the same Ottoman fleet was delayed from joining a French fleet in Corsica near Bastia due to the failure of the commander Dragut to honour Suleiman's orders. Suleiman apologized in a letter to Henry at the end of 1558. Barbary pirates Barbary slave trade Ottoman wars in Europe Franco-Ottoman alliance
Solos en la madrugada is a 1978 Spanish film written and directed by José Luis Garci, starring José Sacristán and Fiorella Faltoyano. The film built on the success of Garci's previous and successful film Asignatura pendiente, but did not have the same results. José Miguel García, a thirty-seven years old radio announcer, has achieved professional success with his late-night radio show Solos en la madrugada, devoted to criticizing the government of caudillo Francisco Franco; the program has achieved the highest audience in the country. The space, full of irony, is directed to those men and women born during the Spanish civil war or in the years after, whom he accuses of cowardice and failing in a life burdened by the past; the journalist pessimistic point of views are a reflection of the dissatisfaction he faces in his own life. José Miguel is separated from his wife, with whom he has two children, whom he sees. During this period of his life comes the opportunity to begin a new life with a girl named Maite, who belongs to a generation of war and the postwar period.
José Sacristán - José Miguel García Carande Fiorella Faltoyano - Elena Emma Cohen - Maite María Casanova - Lola Solos en la madrugada is available in Region 2 DVD in Spanish only. It was released on DVD in 2009. Torres, Diccionario del cine Español, Espasa Calpe, 1996, ISBN 84-239-9241-1 Solos en la madrugada on IMDb
Fred Neher was an American cartoonist best known for his syndicated gag panel, Life's Like That, which offered a humorous look at human nature, with a focus on American society and family life, for more than five decades. Growing up in Nappanee, Neher was 12 years old when he was paid $2.00 for doing a drawing of a woman hanging clothes with a new type of clothespin. While he was a student at Nappanee High School, he took the Landon School of Illustration and Cartooning correspondence course. Neher succeeded in selling a cartoon to the popular humor magazine Judge before he graduated from high school in 1922, he furthered his art study at the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts, after graduation, he worked as an assistant to cartoonist Arch Dale, doing lettering and backgrounds on Dale's comic strip Doo-Dads. Neher recalled: Several years of work on this strip gave me experience enough to attempt my own strip, Otto Wall, a radio strip. A golf strip, Layon McDuff, came next, followed by Goofey Movies, an animal strip, Just Like Us, a kid strip, which appeared in the first issue of Family Circle magazine and thereafter for four years.
From 1930 to 1934, I freelanced to magazines, having some 40 markets, including Punch, the English magazine. I was the first American to sell to Punch in 20 years; the radio-themed cartoons of Otto Watt ran adjacent to newspaper radio program listings. Neher drew Goofey Movies for five years, along with gag cartoons for 42 magazines, including Collier's and The New Yorker, when the Bell Syndicate launched Life's Like That on October 1, 1934, it ran until 1941, disappearing from newspapers during World War II, but returning in 1945. In 1951, Neher and his family moved to Boulder, where he taught cartooning at the University of Colorado for 12 years. Neher stopped doing the Life's Like That Sunday half-page in October 1972, he retired five years devoting his energy to playing golf, raising roses and growing tomatoes; when he died at age 98 in Boulder, Colorado in 2001, Owen S. Good wrote in the Rocky Mountain News: He is survived by pot-bellied businessmen, henpecked husbands, worldly-wise goldfish and babies with thin curlicues of hair, all actors in the everyday comedies he staged on the funny pages.
Neher's cartoons were reprinted in various books and publications, such as Thomas Craven's Cartoon Cavalcade and the November 1945 issue of Cartoon Digest. His 96-page book Will-yum was published by Berkley Books followed by Hi-Teens, he donated his Life's Like That cartoon originals, published books and correspondence to the University of Colorado Library Archives. As he described it, "Univ. of Colo. ask to have all my original drawings for safe keeping... came in a truck and left me only my shorts."At the Syracuse University Special Collections, the Fred Neher Papers collection contains correspondence, published material and 100 original cartoons from the 1960-65 run of Life's Like That. Syracuse University: Fred Neher Papers