In military tactics, close air support is defined as air action such as air strikes by fixed or rotary-winged aircraft against hostile targets that are in proximity to friendly forces and which requires detailed integration of each air mission with fire and movement of these forces and attacks with aerial bombs, glide bombs, rockets, aircraft cannons, machine guns, directed-energy weapons such as lasers. The requirement for detailed integration because of proximity, fires or movement is the determining factor. CAS may need to be conducted during shaping operations with Special Operations Forces if the mission requires detailed integration with the fire and movement of these forces. A related subset of air interdiction, battlefield air interdiction, denotes interdiction against units with near-term effects on friendly units, but which does not require integration with friendly troop movements; the term "battlefield air interdiction" is not used in U. S. joint doctrine. Close air support requires excellent coordination with ground forces.
In advanced modern militaries, this coordination is handled by specialists such as Joint Fires Observers, Joint Terminal Attack Controllers, forward air controllers. The use of aircraft in the close air support of ground forces dates back to World War I, the first significant use of aerial units in warfare. Air warfare, indeed aviation itself, was still in its infancy—and the direct effect of rifle caliber machine guns and light bombs of World War I aircraft was limited compared with the power of a World War II fighter bomber, but close support aircraft still had a powerful psychological impact; the aircraft was a visible and personal enemy—unlike artillery—presenting a personal threat to enemy troops, while providing friendly forces assurance that their superiors were concerned about their situation. Most successful attacks of 1917–1918 included planning for co-ordination between aerial and ground units, although it was hard at this early date to co-ordinate these attacks due to the primitive nature of air-to-ground radio communication.
Though most air-power proponents sought independence from ground commanders and hence pushed the importance of interdiction and strategic bombing, they nonetheless recognized the need for close air support. From the commencement of hostilities in 1914, aviators engaged in sporadic and spontaneous attacks on ground forces, but it was not until 1916 that an air support doctrine was elaborated and dedicated fighters for the job were put into service. By that point, the startling and demoralizing effect that attack from the air could have on the troops in the trenches had been made clear. At the Battle of the Somme, 18 British armed reconnaissance planes strafed the enemy trenches after conducting surveillance operations; the success of this improvised assault spurred innovation on both sides. In 1917, following the Second Battle of the Aisne the British debuted the first ground-attack aircraft, a modified F. E 2b mounted machine-guns. After exhausting their ammunition the planes returned to base for refueling and rearming and returned to the battle-zone.
Other modified planes used in this role were the Airco DH.5 and Sopwith Camel—the latter was successful in this role. Aircraft support was first integrated into a battle plan on a large scale at the 1917 Battle of Cambrai, where a larger number of tanks were deployed than previously. By that time, effective anti-aircraft tactics were being used by the enemy infantry and pilot casualties were high, although air support was judged as having been of a critical importance in places where the infantry had got pinned down. British doctrine at the time came to recognize two forms of air support; as well as strafing with machine-guns, the planes were modified with bomb racks. The Germans were quick to adopt this new form of warfare and were able to deploy aircraft in a similar capacity at Cambrai. While the British used single-seater planes, the Germans preferred the use of heavier two-seaters with an additional machine gunner in the aft cockpit; the Germans adopted the powerful Hannover CL. II and built the first purpose built ground attack aircraft, the Junkers J.
I. During the 1918 Spring Offensive the Germans employed 30 squadrons, or Schlasta, of ground attack fighters and were able to achieve some initial tactical success; the British deployed the Sopwith Salamander as a specialized ground attack aircraft, although it was too late to see much action. It was during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of 1918 that close air support was first proven to be an important factor in ultimate victory. After the British achieved air superiority over the German aircraft sent to aid the Ottoman Turks, squadrons of S. E 5a's and D. H. 4s were sent on wide-ranging attacks against Turkish positions near the Jordan river. Combined with a ground assault led by General Edmund Allenby, three Turkish armies soon collapsed into a full rout. In the words of the attacking squadron's official report: No 1 Squadron made six heavy raids during the day, dropped three tons of bombs and fired nearly 24,000 machine gun rounds; the close air support doctrine was further developed in the interwar period.
Most theorists advocated the adaptation of fighters or light bombers into the role. During this period, airpower advocates crystallized their views on the role of air-power in warfare. Aviators and ground officers developed opposing views on the
Tetralin is a hydrocarbon having the chemical formula C10H12. It is a hydrogenated derivative of naphthalene, it is a colorless liquid, used as a hydrogen-donor solvent. Tetralin is produced by the catalytic hydrogenation of naphthalene. Although nickel catalysts are traditionally employed, many variations have been evaluated. Over hydrogenation converts tetralin into octahydronaphthalene. Encountered is dihydronaphthalene. In a classic named reaction called the Darzens tetralin synthesis, named for Auguste Georges Darzens, derivatives can be prepared by intramolecular electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction of a 1-aryl-4-pentene using concentrated sulfuric acid, Tetralin is used as a hydrogen-donor solvent, for example in coal liquifaction, it functions as a source of H2, transferred to the coal. The hydrogenated coal is more soluble, it has been used in sodium-cooled fast reactors as a secondary coolant to keep sodium seals around pump impellers solidified. It is used for the laboratory synthesis of HBr: C10H12 + 4 Br2 → C10H8Br4 + 4 HBrThe facility of this reaction is in part a consequence of the moderated strength of the benzylic C-H bonds.
Gábor Simon is a Hungarian teacher and politician, a member of the National Assembly from 2002 to 2014. He represented Pestszentlőrinc between 2006 and 2010, he served as Secretary of State for Social Affairs and Labour from 2008 to 2010. He was the deputy leader of the Hungarian Socialist Party until February 2014, when his membership was suspended due to a corruption scandal, he secured a seat in the National Assembly from the party's Budapest Regional List during the 2002 parliamentary election. He was elected MP for Pestszentlőrinc in the 2006 parliamentary election. From 30 May 2006 to 18 February 2008, he served as Chairman of the Committee on Employment and Labour, he became a member of the National Assembly from the party's National List in the 2010 parliamentary election. He was appointed Chairman of the Committee on Consumer Protection on 2 June 2010