Dennis Lee Eckersley, nicknamed "Eck", is an American former professional baseball pitcher. Between 1975 and 1998, he pitched in Major League Baseball for the Cleveland Indians, Boston Red Sox, Chicago Cubs, Oakland Athletics, St. Louis Cardinals. Eckersley had success as a starter, but gained his greatest fame as a closer, becoming the first of two pitchers in MLB history to have both a 20-win season and a 50-save season in a career, he is the pitcher who gave up a dramatic walk-off home run to the injured Kirk Gibson in Game 1 of the 1988 World Series. Eckersley was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in his first year of eligibility, he works with New England Sports Network as a part-time color commentator for Red Sox broadcasts, is a game analyst for Turner Sports for their Sunday MLB Games and MLB Post Season coverage on TBS. Eckersley grew up in Fremont, rooting for both the San Francisco Giants and the Oakland Athletics. Two of his boyhood heroes were the Giants' Willie Mays and Juan Marichal, he adopted Marichal's high leg kick pitching delivery.
He was a quarterback at Washington High School in Fremont, California until his senior year, when he gave up football to protect his throwing arm from injury. He won 29 games as a pitcher at Washington, throwing a 90 miles per a screwball; the Cleveland Indians selected Eckersley in the third round of the 1972 MLB draft. He made his MLB debut on April 12, 1975, he was the American League Rookie Pitcher of the Year in 1975, compiling a 13–7 win-loss record and 2.60 Earned run average. His unstyled, long hair and live fastball made him an instant and identifiable fan favorite. Eckersley pitched reliably over three seasons with the Indians. On May 30, 1977, Eckersley no-hit the California Angels 1-0 at Cleveland Stadium, he struck out 12 batters and only allowed two to reach base, Tony Solaita on a walk in the first inning and Bobby Bonds on a third strike, a wild pitch. He earned his first All-Star Game selection that year and finished the season with a 14-13 win-loss record; the Indians traded Eckersley and Fred Kendall to the Boston Red Sox for Rick Wise, Mike Paxton, Bo Díaz, Ted Cox on March 30, 1978.
Over the next two seasons, Eckersley won a career-high 20 games in 1978 and 17 games in 1979, with a 2.99 ERA in each year. However, during the remainder of his tenure with Boston, from 1980 to 1984, Eckersley pitched poorly, his fastball had lost some steam. He developed a great slider. On May 25, 1984, the Red Sox traded Eckersley with Mike Brumley to the Chicago Cubs for Bill Buckner, one of several mid-season deals that helped the Cubs to their first postseason appearance since 1945. Eckersley performed poorly in his sole start for the Cubs in their NL Championship Series with the San Diego Padres. Eckersley remained with the Cubs in 1985. Eckersley's performance deteriorated in 1986, when he posted a 6–11 record with a 4.57 ERA. After the season, he checked himself into a rehabilitation clinic to treat alcoholism. Eckersley noted in Pluto's book that he realized the problem he had after family members videotaped him while drunk and played the tape back for him the next day. During his Hall of Fame speech he recalled that time in his life, saying "I was spiraling out of control personally.
I knew. With the grace of God, I got sober and I saved my life." Eckersley was traded again on April 3, 1987 to the Oakland Athletics, where manager Tony La Russa intended to use him as a set-up pitcher or long reliever. Indeed, Eckersley started two games with the A's before an injury to then-closer Jay Howell opened the door for Eckersley to move into the closer's role, he saved 16 games in 1987 and established himself as a dominant closer in 1988 by recording a league-leading 45 saves. Eckersley recorded 4 saves against the Red Sox in the regular season, He dominated once more by recording saves in all four games as the A's swept the Red Sox in the 1988 ALCS. but he found himself on the wrong end of Kirk Gibson's 1988 World Series home run as the A's lost to the Dodgers in 5 games. In the 1989 World Series he secured the victory in Game Two, earned the save in the final game of the Series, as the A's swept the San Francisco Giants in four games. Eckersley was the most dominant closer in the game from 1988 to 1992, finishing first in the A.
L. in saves twice, second two other times, third once. He saved 220 games during the five years and never posted an ERA higher than 2.96. He gave up five earned runs in the entire 1990 season, resulting in a microscopic 0.61 ERA. Eckersley's control, which had always been above average when he was not otherwise pitching well, became his trademark. In his 1990 season, Eckersley became the first relief pitcher in baseball history to have more saves than baserunners allowed. In a statistical anomaly, he had the same WHIP and ERA: both were 0.614. He was the American League's Cy Young Award winner and the American League's Most Valuable Player in 1992, a season in which he posted 51 saves. Only two relievers had accomplished the double feat: Rollie Fingers in 1981 and Willie Hernández in 1984. Since Eckersley, one other reliever, Éric Gagné, has won Cy Young honors (Gagné won the National Leag
Tony La Russa
Anthony La Russa, Jr. is the former manager of the St. Louis Cardinals, Oakland Athletics and Chicago White Sox and a former American professional baseball player. He's vice president and special assistant to Dave Dombrowski, president of baseball operations for the Boston Red Sox, his MLB career has spanned from 1963 to the present. In 33 years as a manager, La Russa guided his teams to three World Series titles, six league championships and twelve division titles, his 2,728 wins is third most for a major league manager, trailing only the totals of Connie Mack and John McGraw. As a player, La Russa made his major league debut in 1963 and spent parts of five major league seasons with the Kansas City/Oakland Athletics, Atlanta Braves and Chicago Cubs. After a shoulder injury during the 1964–65 off-season, he played much of the remainder of his career in the minor leagues until retiring in 1977. Following his playing career, he earned a Juris Doctor degree from Florida State University. La Russa was named manager of the White Sox in the middle of the 1979 season and guided the White Sox to an American League West division title four seasons later.
Despite being fired in the middle of the 1986 season, the Athletics hired him less than three weeks and La Russa led the A's to three consecutive American League championships from 1988 to 1990 and the 1989 World Series title. He left Oakland following the 1995 season to manage the Cardinals, led the team to three National League championships and the 2006 and 2011 World Series titles. La Russa retired after winning 33 seasons as a major league manager. Three months he accepted a position assisting fellow former manager Joe Torre, the executive vice president for MLB operations. In 2014, he became the Chief Baseball Officer for the Arizona Diamondbacks. On December 9, 2013, he was unanimously elected to the Hall of Fame by the 16-member Veterans Committee; the induction ceremony was held at Cooperstown, New York, on July 27, 2014. On August 16, 2014, he was inducted into the St. Louis Cardinals Hall of Fame Museum. Born in Tampa, Florida, on October 4, 1944, to Anthony and Olivia La Russa, Anthony Jr's paternal grandparents had emigrated from Sicily and his mother’s family from Spain.
He was raised in Ybor City, where his parents had met while both were working in the local cigar factory. Growing up, The La Russa family moved to West Tampa, where Tony played American Legion baseball and PONY League baseball alongside teammate Lou Piniella. After graduating from Jefferson High School in Tampa, La Russa was signed by the Kansas City Athletics in June, 1962 as a middle infielder, with a clause to pay for his college education. La Russa made his major league debut on May 10, 1963, after having played 76 games with A's affiliates Binghamton Triplets and Daytona Beach Islanders in 1962, he spent the entire 1963 season in the majors, as was required by his signing as a "bonus baby." He had suffered an off-season shoulder injury while playing softball with friends, this limited him to only 34 games in 1963, in which he hit.250. The injured shoulder bothered him through the remainder of his playing career. Over the next six seasons, La Russa spent most of his time in the minor leagues.
He made it back up to the A's, which had since moved to Oakland, in 1968 and 1969. He spent the entire 1970 season with the big club, late in 1971 the A's traded him to the Atlanta Braves, his final big league playing stop was with the Chicago Cubs, where he appeared as a pinch runner in one game, on April 6, 1973, scoring the walk-off winning run. He spent time in the organizations of the Pittsburgh Pirates, Chicago White Sox, St. Louis Cardinals. In total, he played 40 in the starting lineup, he went 35-for-176, for a batting average of.199. His 23 walks pushed his on-base percentage to.292. He scored 15 runs, he made 63 appearances at second base, 18 at shortstop, two at third base, fielding.960 in 249 total chances and participating in 34 double plays. Having started coursework following his A's signing in 1962, La Russa graduated from the University of South Florida in 1969 with a degree in Industrial Management, he earned a Juris Doctor degree from Florida State University College of Law in 1978. and was admitted to the Florida Bar on July 30, 1980.
He is associated with a Sarasota law firm. La Russa has been quoted as saying, "I decided I'd rather ride the buses in the minor leagues than practice law for a living." Shortly before graduating from FSU College of Law, La Russa spoke with one of his professors about his post-graduation plans, indicating to his professor that he had an opportunity to coach in the minor leagues and asking his professor what he should do. La Russa's professor responded, "Grow up, you're an adult now, you're going to be a lawyer." He is one of a select number of major league managers in baseball history who have earned a law degree or passed a state bar exam. La Russa is commonly credited for the advent of the modern specialized bullpen. La Russa credits Loren Babe and Paul Richards of the White Sox organization for helping him to become a manager; the White Sox gave La Russa his first managerial opportunity in 1978 by naming him skipper of
In baseball, a starting pitcher or starter is the first pitcher in the game for each team. A pitcher is credited with a game started if they throw the first pitch to the opponent's first batter of a game. A pitcher who enters the game after the first pitch of the game is a relief pitcher. Starting pitchers are expected to pitch for a significant portion of the game, although their ability to do this depends on many factors, including effectiveness, stamina and strategy. A starting pitcher in professional baseball rests three, four, or five days after pitching a game before pitching another. Therefore, most professional baseball teams have four, five or six starting pitchers on their rosters; these pitchers, the sequence in which they pitch, is known as the rotation. In modern baseball, a five-man rotation is most common. Under ideal circumstances, a manager of a baseball team would prefer a starting pitcher to pitch as many innings as possible in a game. Most regular starting pitchers pitch for at least five innings on a regular basis, if a pitcher is unable to do so, there is a high probability that he will, in the future, be relegated to duty in the bullpen.
In modern baseball, a starting pitcher is expected to pitch for more than seven or eight innings, at which point, responsibility for the game is passed to relief pitchers, including specialist pitchers such as setup pitchers and closers. A starting pitcher is subject to a pitch count, meaning the manager will remove him from the game once he has thrown a specific number of pitches; the most common pitch count for a modern pitcher is in the neighborhood of 100, it is now rare for a starting pitcher to throw more than 125 pitches in a game. Pitch count limits are common for starting pitchers who are recovering from injury. In the 2018 MLB season, the Tampa Bay Rays debuted a variant of the starting pitcher dubbed the "opener," whose role is a hybrid between the traditional starting pitcher and the closer. In the opener strategy, a relief pitcher starts the game and pitches the first one or two innings before giving way to a long reliever to work the middle innings of the game. Due to their lighter workload and conditioning, openers are able to pitch more than a traditional starter.
In the early decades of baseball, it was not uncommon for a starting pitcher to pitch three hundred innings or more, over the course of a season. In addition, there are accounts of starting pitchers pitching on consecutive days, or in both games of a doubleheader, it is believed that these feats were only possible because pitchers in the early years of the game, unlike modern starters threw the ball with maximum effort. A starting pitcher who can be counted on to throw many innings is known as a workhorse. An example of a modern-day workhorse pitcher was Roy Halladay, the active leader in both complete games thrown and shutouts before his retirement in 2013. A starting pitcher must complete five innings of work in order to qualify for a "win" in a game he starts. Under NCAA baseball rules, which govern intercollegiate baseball, a starting pitcher who pitches fewer than five innings can still earn a win if he pitches for a certain amount of time, determined before the start of the game, it is possible to be credited with a loss despite pitching fewer than five innings.
A starter who works six or more innings while giving up three or fewer earned runs is said to have achieved a "quality start". A starter who finishes the game without having to be relieved by the bullpen is said to have thrown a "complete game"; the pitcher who throws a complete game is always in a position for a win. Starting pitchers have a variety of pitches to choose from, broken into a number of categories. Fastballs: A pitch thrown hard and which follows a straight trajectory. There are a number of different types of fastballs; the 4-seam fastball is the hardest thrown pitch, but has little movement or break to it. The 2-seam fastball is slower than the 4-seam, but breaks inward to the pitcher's throwing arm as well as drop slightly; the cut fastball is similar to the 2-seam in velocity, but breaks to the opposite side of a pitcher's throwing arm. Hard breaking balls: The most prominent of the hard breaking balls is the slider. A slider is a pitch that breaks in the direction of the pitcher's arm travel.
It travels faster than the slower breaking balls. The other two hard breaking balls are variants of the fastball, the sinker and the split-finger fastball. Both of these pitches break downwards from the point of release, with the sinker tailing to the pitcher's arm travel and the splitter tailing a little bit less. Both pitches are thrown in the low to upper 80s, although some travel upwards of 90 mph; the major difference is in the timing of their break. Like the cut fastball to the 2-seamer, the splitter tends to break much in its flight path than the sinker does. Soft breaking balls: The most common soft breaking ball is the eponymous curveball; the curve breaks in the direction of the pitcher's arm travel from the point of release on through the entire arc of its flight. If one were to look at a clock a straight drop curveball would be 12–6. A right hander with more lateral break will have a curveball
In baseball and softball, a relief pitcher or reliever is a pitcher who enters the game after the starting pitcher is removed due to injury, fatigue, ejection, or for other strategic reasons, such as inclement weather delays or pinch hitter substitutions. Relief pitchers are further divided informally into various roles, such as closers, setup men, middle relief pitchers, left/right-handed specialists, long relievers. Whereas starting pitchers rest several days before pitching in a game again due to the number of pitches thrown, relief pitchers are expected to be more flexible and pitch more games but with fewer innings pitched. A team's staff of relievers is referred to metonymically as a team's bullpen, which refers to the area where the relievers sit during games, where they warm-up prior to entering the game. In the early days of Major League Baseball, substituting a player was not allowed except for sickness or injury. An ineffective pitcher would switch positions with another player on the field.
The first relief appearance in the major leagues was in 1876 with Boston Red Caps outfielder Jack Manning switching positions with pitcher Joe Borden. In this early era, relief pitchers changing from a position role to the pitcher's box in this way were called "change" pitchers; this strategy of switching players between the mound and the outfield is still employed in modern baseball, sometimes in long extra inning games where a team is running out of players. In 1889, the first bullpen appearance occurred after rules were changed to allow a player substitution at any time. Early relief pitchers were starting pitchers pitching one or two innings in between starts. In 1903, during the second game of the inaugural World Series, Pittsburgh's Bucky Veil became the first relief pitcher in World Series history. Firpo Marberry is credited with being the first prominent reliever. From 1923 to 1935, he pitched in 551 games. Baseball historian Bill James wrote that Marberry was "a modern reliever—a hard throwing young kid who worked in relief and was used to nail down victories."
Another reliever, Johnny Murphy, became known as "Fireman" for his effectiveness when inserted into difficult situations in relief. Nonetheless, the full-time reliever, entrusted with important situations was more the exception than the rule at this point. A team's ace starting pitcher was used in between his starts to "close" games. Research would reveal that Lefty Grove would have been in his league's top three in saves in four different seasons, had that stat been invented at the time. After World War II, full-time relievers became more acceptable and standard; the relievers were pitchers that were not good enough to be starters. Relievers in the 1950s started to develop oddball pitches to distinguish them from starters. For example, Hoyt Wilhelm threw a knuckleball, Elroy Face threw a forkball. In 1969, the pitcher's mound was lowered and umpires were encouraged to call fewer strikes to give batters an advantage. Relief specialists were used to counter the increase in offense. Relievers became more respected in the 1970s, their pay increased due to free agency.
All teams began having a closer. The 1980s were the first time in MLB. In 1995, there were nearly four saves for every complete game, it is unclear whether the specialization and reliance on relief pitchers led to pitch counts and fewer complete games, or whether pitch counts led to greater use of relievers. As closers were reduced to one-inning specialists, setup men and middle relievers became more prominent. In past decades, the relief pitcher was an ex-starter who came into a game upon the injury, ineffectiveness, or fatigue of the starting pitcher; the bullpen was for old starters. Many of these pitchers would be able to flourish in this diminished role; those such as Dennis Eckersley, as with many others prolonged their tapering careers and sparked them to new life. The added rest to their arms as well as the lessened exposure of their abilities became an advantage many would learn to capitalize on; because these pitchers only faced some batters once a season, the opposing side would have greater difficulty preparing to face relief pitchers.
Being a relief pitcher has become more of a career, rather than a reduced position. Many of today's top prospects are considered for their relief pitching skills. In the quest for a managerial edge, managers as time goes on have carried more pitchers in the bullpen, used them in more specialized situations. Acknowledgment of the platoon edge has prompted managers to ensure that opposing lefty hitters face as many lefty pitchers as possible, that the same occur with respect to righty hitters and pitchers. Tony La Russa was well known for making frequent pitching changes on this basis; when Mike Marshall set the all-time record with 106 games pitched in 1974, he threw 208.1 innings. Although some relievers still do appear in a large number of games per season, the workload for each individual pitcher has been much reduced. Since 2008, Pedro Feliciano has three of the top four seasons in games pitched, with 92, 88 and 86. However, Feliciano only averaged 58 innings pitched during those seasons; the last pitcher to throw 100 or more innings in a season without starting a game was Scott Proctor in 2006.
Pitching staffs on MLB teams have grown from 9 or 10 to as many as 12 or 13 pitchers, due to the increased importance of relief pitching. The staff consists of five starting pitchers, with the remaining pitchers assigned as relievers. A team's re
Herman Louis Franks was a catcher, manager, general manager and scout in American Major League Baseball. He was born in Price, Utah, to Italian-American immigrant parents and attended the University of Utah. A left-handed hitter who threw right-handed, Franks was listed at 5 feet 10 inches tall and 187 pounds, he broke into professional baseball with the Hollywood Stars of the Pacific Coast League in 1932, but he was soon acquired by the St. Louis Cardinals and joined their vast farm system, he made the Cardinals for just 17 games and 17 at-bats in 1939, before being drafted by the Brooklyn Dodgers, where he served as a second-string catcher in 1940–41 and began his long association with Leo Durocher Brooklyn's manager. As a Dodger, Franks caught Tex Carleton's no-hitter on April 30, 1940. Franks missed 3½ seasons during World War II, when he served in the United States Navy in the Pacific Theater of Operations and attained the rank of lieutenant, he resumed his playing career in 1946 with the Triple-A Montreal Royals became the playing manager of the Dodgers' St. Paul Saints affiliate in the Triple-A American Association in 1947.
In August of that season, however, he resigned his post to return to the Major Leagues as a backup catcher with the Philadelphia Athletics, where he appeared in 48 games in 1947–48 and batted.221. In 1949, Franks received his first coaching assignment, as an aide to Durocher with the New York Giants, was activated for one final MLB game on August 28, 1949—going 2-for-3 against the Cincinnati Reds in a 4–2 New York triumph; as a New York Giant from 1949–55, he was a member of two National League championship clubs and was the third-base coach of the World Series title team. According to author Joshua Prager in his 2006 book The Echoing Green, Franks played a critical role in the Giants' Bobby Thomson's famous pennant-winning home run in the 1951 NL tiebreaker playoffs—Baseball's Shot Heard Round The World. According to Prager, Franks was stationed in the Giants' center-field clubhouse at the Polo Grounds, their home field, stealing the opposing catcher's signs through a telescope and relaying them through second-string catcher Sal Yvars to the Giants' coaches and hitters.
When asked where he was when Thomson hit his home run, Franks said, in 1996, that he was "doing something for Durocher" at the time. Whatever his role may have been on that day, Franks was known as a devotee of Durocher-style, win-at-any-cost baseball, including intimidation through flying spikes and brushback pitching. Dodger outfielder Carl Furillo told author Roger Kahn that Franks was known to poke his head into the Brooklyn clubhouse before games, to taunt Furillo that Giant pitchers were planning to throw at his head in the upcoming contest. Furillo, whose hatred for Durocher was so intense that he would engage Durocher in a fistfight in a Giant dugout filled with enemy players, said of the Giants, in Peter Golenbock's book Bums: An Oral History of the Brooklyn Dodgers, "They were dirty ballplayers... They all wanted to copy Durocher; that Herman Franks, he was another one." Durocher quit the Giants after the 1955 season, the team relocated to San Francisco after 1957. From 1956 to 1964, Franks was a Giants' scout the general manager of the PCL Salt Lake City Bees.
He spent two additional one-year terms as a San Francisco Giants' coach before succeeding Alvin Dark as the club's manager after the 1964 season. Though the team featured future Hall of Famers Willie Mays, Willie McCovey, Juan Marichal and Gaylord Perry, Franks' four seasons managing the Giants each produced frustrating second-place finishes in the National League; the club lost close pennant races to the Los Angeles Dodgers by two games in 1965 and 1½ games in 1966. It finished farther behind the Cardinals the next two years, 10½ lengths out in 1967 and nine back in 1968. After he stepped down as skipper following the conclusion of the 1968 season, he was quoted as saying, " Is finishing second so evil?" He was replaced by Clyde King. A successful businessman off the field, Franks spent the next eight years out of the Major League spotlight, apart from a partial season as a pitching coach under Durocher with the Chicago Cubs. After the 1976 campaign, Franks returned to the Major Leagues when he replaced Jim Marshall as manager of the Cubs.
In 1977, he led the Cubs back to the.500 level, but the team lost ground in 1978 and was just one game above the break-even mark in September 1979 when Franks resigned. He was the interim general manager of the Cubs from May through November 1981. However, most of his tenure was taken up by the 1981 players' strike, he lost his chance to be named full-time general manager when the Tribune Company bought the Cubs and replaced him with Dallas Green. Although Franks compiled a poor record as a player, he notched a winning record as a manager: 605–521.537. Baseball-Reference.com – career managing record and playing statistics McGrath, Dan. "Former Chicago Cubs manager Herman Franks dies at 95," Chicago Tribune, April 1, 2009. Herman Franks at Find Jay. "SLC baseball legend Herman Franks dies at 95," The Salt Lake Tribune, April 1, 2009. Herman Louis Franks Sr. – The Salt Lake Tribune Obituary Notices. Baseball-library.com Official Baseball Register. St. Louis: The Sporting News. Golenbock, Peter. Bums: An Oral History of the Brooklyn Dodgers.
New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1984
ESPN is a U. S.-based sports television channel owned by ESPN Inc. a joint venture owned by The Walt Disney Company and Hearst Communications. The company was founded in 1979 by Bill Rasmussen along with his son Scott Ed Egan. ESPN broadcasts from studio facilities located in Bristol, Connecticut; the network operates offices in Miami, New York City, Seattle and Los Angeles. James Pitaro serves as chairman of ESPN, a position he has held since March 5, 2018 due to the resignation of John Skipper on December 18, 2017. While ESPN is one of the most successful sports networks, there has been much criticism of ESPN, which includes accusations of biased coverage, conflict of interest, controversies with individual broadcasters and analysts; as of January 2016, ESPN is available to 91,405,000 paid television households in the United States. Nielsen has reported a much lower number in 2017, below 90,000,000 subscribers, losing more than 10,000 a day. In addition to the flagship channel and its seven related channels in the United States, ESPN broadcasts in more than 200 countries, operating regional channels in Australia, Latin America and the United Kingdom, owning a 20% interest in The Sports Network as well as its five sister networks in Canada.
In 2011, ESPN's history and rise was chronicled in Those Guys Have All the Fun, a nonfiction book written by James Andrew Miller and Tom Shales and published by Little and Company. Bill Rasmussen conceived the concept of ESPN in late May 1978, after he was fired from his job with the World Hockey Association's New England Whalers. One of the first steps in Bill and his son Scott's process was finding land to build the channel's broadcasting facilities; the Rasmussens first rented office space in Plainville, Connecticut. However, the plan to base ESPN there was put on hold because a local ordinance prohibiting buildings from bearing rooftop satellite dishes. Available land area was found in Bristol, with funding to buy the property provided by Getty Oil, which purchased 85% of the company from Bill Rasmussen on February 22, 1979, in an attempt to diversify the company's holdings; this helped the credibility of the fledgling company, however there were still many doubters to the viability of their sports channel concept.
Another event that helped build ESPN's credibility was securing an advertising agreement with Anheuser-Busch in the spring of 1979. Taped in front of a small live audience inside the Bristol studios, it was broadcast to 1.4 million cable subscribers throughout the United States. ESPN's next big break came when the channel acquired the rights to broadcast coverage of the early rounds of the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament, it first aired the NCAA tournament in March 1980, creating the modern day television event known as "March Madness." The channel's tournament coverage launched the broadcasting career of Dick Vitale, who at the time he joined ESPN, had just been fired as head coach of the Detroit Pistons. In April of that year, ESPN created another made-for-TV spectacle, when it began televising the NFL Draft, it provided complete coverage of the event that allowed rookie players from the college ranks to begin their professional careers in front of a national television audience in ways they were not able to previously.
The next major stepping stone for ESPN came over the course of a couple of months in 1984. During this time period, the American Broadcasting Company purchased 100% of ESPN from the Rasmussens and Getty Oil. Under Getty ownership, the channel was unable to compete for the television rights to major sports events contracts as its majority corporate parent would not provide the funding, leading ESPN to lose out for broadcast deals with the National Hockey League and NCAA Division I college football. For years, the NFL, NBA and Major League Baseball refused to consider cable as a means of broadcasting some of their games. However, with the backing of ABC, ESPN's ability to compete for major sports contracts increased, gave it credibility within the sports broadcasting industry. In 1984, the U. S. Supreme Court ruled that the NCAA could no longer monopolize the rights to negotiate the contracts for college football games, allowing each individual school to negotiate broadcast deals of their choice.
ESPN took full advantage and began to broadcast a large number of NCAA football games, creating an opportunity for fans to be able to view multiple games each weekend, the same deal that the NCAA had negotiated with TBS. ESPN's breakthrough moment occurred in 1987, when it secured a contract with the NFL to broadcast eight games during that year's regular season – all of which aired on Sunday nights, marking the first broadcasts of Sunday NFL primetime games. ESPN's Sunday Night Football games would become the highest-rated NFL telecasts for the next 17 years; the channel's decision to broadcast NFL games on Sunday evenings resulted in a decline in viewership for the daytime games shown on the major broadcast networks, marking the first time that ESPN had been a legitimate competitor to NBC and CBS, which had long dominated the sports television market. In 19
New York Yankees
The New York Yankees are an American professional baseball team based in the New York City borough of the Bronx. The Yankees compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the American League East division, they are one of two major league clubs based in New York City, the other being the New York Mets of the National League. In the 1901 season, the club began play in the AL as the Baltimore Orioles. Frank Farrell and Bill Devery purchased the franchise and moved it to New York City, renaming the club the New York Highlanders; the Highlanders were renamed the Yankees in 1913. The team is owned by Yankee Global Enterprises, an LLC controlled by the family of the late George Steinbrenner, who purchased the team in 1973. Brian Cashman is the team's general manager, Aaron Boone is the team's field manager; the team's home games were played at the original Yankee Stadium from 1923 to 1973 and from 1976 to 2008. In 1974 and 1975, the Yankees shared Shea Stadium with the Mets, in addition to the New York Jets, New York Giants.
In 2009, they moved into a new ballpark of the same name after the previous facility was closed and demolished. The team is perennially among the leaders in MLB attendance; as arguably the most successful sports club in the United States, the Yankees have won 40 AL pennants, 27 World Series championships, all of which are MLB records. The Yankees have won more titles than any other franchise in the four major North American sports leagues. Forty-four Yankees players and eleven Yankees managers have been inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame, including Babe Ruth, Lou Gehrig, Joe DiMaggio, Mickey Mantle, Yogi Berra, Whitey Ford. In pursuit of winning championships, the franchise has used a large payroll to attract talent during the Steinbrenner era. According to Forbes, the Yankees are the second highest valued sports franchise in the United States and the fifth in the world, with an estimated value of $4 billion; the Yankees have garnered enormous popularity and a dedicated fanbase, as well as widespread enmity from fans of other MLB teams.
The team's rivalry with the Boston Red Sox is one of the most well-known rivalries in U. S. sports. From 1903-2018, the Yankees overall win-loss record is 10275-7781. In 1900, Ban Johnson, the president of a minor league known as the Western League, changed the Western League name to the American League and asked the National League to classify it as a major league. Johnson held that his league would operate in friendly terms with the National league, but the National league ridiculed the plan. Johnson declared official major league status for his league in 1901. Plans to add a team in New York City were blocked by the NL's New York Giants. A team was instead placed in Baltimore, Maryland in 1901. Between 1901 and 1903, many players and coaches on the Orioles roster jumped to the Giants. In January 1903, a "peace conference" was held between the two leagues to settle disputes and try to coexist. At the conference, Johnson requested that an AL team be put in New York, to play alongside the NL's Giants.
It was put to a vote, 15 of the 16 major league owners agreed on it. The Orioles' new owners, Frank J. Farrell and William S. Devery moved the team to New York in 1903; the team's new ballpark, Hilltop Park, was constructed in one of Upper Manhattan's highest points—between 165th and 168th Streets. The team was named the New York Highlanders. Fans believed the name was chosen because of the team's elevated location in Upper Manhattan, or as a nod to team president Joseph Gordon's Scottish-Irish heritage; the team was referred to as the New York Americans. The team was referred to as the "Invaders" in the Evening Journal. New York Press Sports Editor Jim Price coined the unofficial nickname Yankees for the club as early as 1904, because it was easier to fit in headlines; the Highlanders finished second in the AL in 1904, 1906, 1910. In 1904, they lost the deciding game to the Boston Americans, who became the Boston Red Sox; that year, Highlander pitcher Jack Chesbro set the single-season wins record at 41.
At this time there was no formal World Series agreement wherein the AL and NL winners would play each other. The original Polo Grounds burned down in 1911 and the Highlanders shared Hilltop Park with the Giants during a two-month renovation period. From 1913 to 1922, the Highlanders shared the Polo Grounds with the Giants. While playing at the Polo Grounds, the name "Highlanders" fell into disuse among the press. In 1913 the team became known as the New York Yankees. By the middle of the decade, Yankees owners Farrell and Devery had become estranged and in need of money. At the start of 1915, they sold the team to Colonel Jacob Ruppert, a brewer, Captain Tillinghast L'Hommedieu Huston, a contractor-engineer. All the games of the 1921 and 1922 World Series were played in the Polo Grounds, when the Yankees squared off against their intracity rivals, the Giants. In the years around 1920, the Yankees, the Red Sox, the Chicago White Sox had a détente; the trades between the three ballclubs antagonized Ban Johnson and garnered the teams the nickname "The Insurrectos".
This détente paid off well for the Yankees. Most new players who contributed to the team's success came from the Red Sox, whose owner, Harry Frazee, was trading them for large sums of money to finance his theatrical productions. Pitcher-turned-outfielder Babe Ruth was the most talented of all the acquisition