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A closet is an enclosed space used for storage that of clothes. "Fitted closet" are built into the walls of the house so that they take up no apparent space in the room. Closets are built under stairs, thereby using awkward space that would otherwise go unused. A piece of furniture such as a cabinet or chest of drawers serves the same function of storage, but is not a closet, an architectural feature rather than a piece of furniture. A closet always has space for hanging, whereas a cupboard may consist only of shelves for folded garments; the word "wardrobe" can refer to a free-standing piece of furniture, but according to the Oxford English Dictionary, a wardrobe can be a "large cupboard or cabinet for storing clothes or other linen", including "built-in wardrobe, fitted wardrobe, walk-in wardrobe, etc." In Elizabethan and Middle English, closet referred to a small private room, an inner sanctum within a much larger house, used for prayer, reading, or study. The use of "closet" for "toilet" dates back to 1662.

In Indian English, this use continues. Related forms include water closet. "Privy" meaning an outhouse derives from "private", making the connection with the Middle English use of "closet", above. Airing cupboard: A closet containing a water heater, with slatted shelves to allow air to circulate around the clothes or linen stored there. Broom closet: A closet with top-to-bottom space used for storing cleaning items, like brooms, vacuum cleaners, cleaning supplies, etc. Coat closet: A closet located near the front door. Used to store coats, hoodies, gloves, hats and boots/shoes; this kind of closet sometimes has shelving. It only has some bottom space used for clothes stored in boxes or drawers; some may have a top shelf for storage above the rod. Custom closet: A closet, made to meet the needs of the user. Linen-press or linen closet: A tall, narrow closet. Located in or near bathrooms and/or bedrooms, such a closet contains shelves used to hold items such as toiletries and linens, including towels, washcloths, or sheets.

Pantry: A closet or cabinet in a kitchen used for storing food, dishes and provisions. The closet may have shelves for putting food on. Spear closet A closet made to use up otherwise unused space in a building. Utility closet: A closet most used to house appliances and cleaning supplies Walk-in closet: A storage room with enough space for someone to stand in it while accessing stored items. Larger ones used for clothes shade into dressing room. Wall closet: A closet in a bedroom, built into the wall, it may be closed by curtains or folding doors. Wardrobe: A small closet used for storing clothes. Though some sources claim that colonial American houses lacked closets because of a "closet tax" imposed by the British crown, others argue that closets were absent in most houses because their residents had few possessions. Closet organizers are integrated shelving systems. Different materials have advantages and disadvantages: Wire shelving: Moderately difficult to install, wire shelves cannot hold much weight without giving in but are cheap.

Wood shelving: Difficult to install, wood shelving is more expensive than wire. Tube shelving: Easy to install, tube shelving involves few pieces and requires no cutting or measuring. Cubby-hole, one name for the cupboard under the stairs

Sakuradani Kofun

Sakuradani Kofun Cluster is a group of kofun burial mounds located in what is now part of the city of Takaoka, Toyama in the Hokuriku region of Japan. Two of the burial mounds at the site were designated as a National Historic Site of Japan in 1934, the objects uncovered during archaeological investigations are designated as Important Cultural Properties of Takaoka City; the group of kofun was constructed on the margin of a hill overlooking Toyama Bay in northwestern Toyama Prefecture. The site consisted of a keyhole-shaped tumuli and a scallop-shaped tumuli and ten or more smaller dome-shaped tumuli and were discovered in 1918 when a tree was being planted at a local Shinto shrine. Tombs No.1 and No.2 have not been surveyed internally in detail, but are presumed to date from the beginning of the fifth century in the late Kofun period. These two tombs were protected as a National Historic Site since 1934. Tomb No.1 has a total length of 62 meters, with a 35 meter diameter x 7 meter high round portion and 30 meter wide rectangular portion with height of 5.45 meters.

Tomb No. 2 has diameter of 33 meters with a height of 6 meters. It was found to contain stone tolls and cylindrical beads. Despite the protected status, a portion of Tomb No.2 was destroyed during the construction of a prefectural highway from 1976-1977, during which time a stone sarcophagus and numerous grave goods were discovered. List of Historic Sites of Japan Takaoka city home page Toyama Prefectural home page

Amherstburg Echo

The Amherstburg Echo was a newspaper which served Amherstburg, Ontario from 1874 to 2012. The Amherstburg Echo was founded in November 1874 by John A. Auld; the first home of the Amherstburg Echo was in a building on the west side of Ramsay Street. Balfour was elected Speaker of the Legislature in Provincial Secretary two years later, he died on August 1896 just two weeks after assuming his duties there. Shortly thereafter, Arthur Marsh of the Essex Free Press joined the Amherstburg Echo as John Auld's partner.. Thus began the involvement of the Marsh family, which lasted for 85 years; as the paper grew in size and stature, a more modern facility was required. Shortly after arriving here Arthur married Bessie Hicks and they raised a son and a daughter and Helen. Arthur served as co-editor of the paper and served as president of the Canadian Weekly Newspaper Association. Prominent architect J. C. Pennington was hired to draw up plans and in 1915 the Echo moved into its new building on the west side of Dalhousie Street.

Arthur Marsh's 23-year-old son John, a recent graduate of McGill University, joined his father at the paper after Auld's death in 1924. The Marshes were the recipient of many awards for excellence throughout the years proved its stature, as did letters of admiration from other weeklies; when Arthur Marsh was fatally injured in an automobile accident in 1940, his daughter Helen left her teaching career at Amherstburg Public School behind and joined her brother John Marsh at the paper, John taking over as editor. John's column, "With the Tide", commented on his passions for historical conservation, including Fort Malden's restoration. Helen advocated for women's rights in the weekly, including her read “Conversation Pieces” column, significant as a social history of Amherstburg from 1940 to 1980. In 1981 John 80 years old, sold The Amherstburg Echo to John and Linda James. Both John and Helen continued to write a column for a few years after the sale before settling into retirement. John and Helen Marsh helped found the Marsh Collection Society, a local history centre where many have come and continue to come to research the history of the area.

James owned the Echo until the early 1990s when he sold the Echo and its historic location at 238 Dalhousie St. to Bowes Publishers Limited, which became part of Sun Media.. In October 2012, the Echo was closed by Sun Media, who announced it would increase Amherstburg coverage in its launched Windsor This Week paper. In December 2012, Sun Media closed Windsor This Week. List of newspapers in Canada The Amherstburg Echo Official Website The Amherstburg Echo - INK/ODW Newspaper archive

Philosophy of language

In analytic philosophy, philosophy of language investigates the nature of language, the relations between language, language users, the world. Investigations may include inquiry into the nature of meaning, reference, the constitution of sentences, concepts and thought. Gottlob Frege and Bertrand Russell were pivotal figures in analytic philosophy's "linguistic turn"; these writers were followed by Ludwig Wittgenstein, the Vienna Circle as well as the logical positivists, Willard Van Orman Quine. In continental philosophy, language is not studied as a separate discipline. Rather, it is an inextricable part of many other areas of thought, such as phenomenology, structural semiotics, existentialism and critical theory. In the West, inquiry into language stretches back to the 5th century BC with Socrates, Plato and the Stoics. Both in India and in Greece, linguistic speculation predates the emergence of grammatical traditions of systematic description of language, which emerged around the 5th century BC in India, around the 3rd century BC in Greece.

In the dialogue Cratylus, Plato considered the question of whether the names of things were determined by convention or by nature. He criticized conventionalism because it led to the bizarre consequence that anything can be conventionally denominated by any name. Hence, it can not account for the incorrect application of a name, he claimed. To do this, he pointed out that compound phrases have a range of correctness, he argued that primitive names had a natural correctness, because each phoneme represented basic ideas or sentiments. For example, for Plato the letter l and its sound represented the idea of softness. However, by the end of the Cronic, he had admitted that some social conventions were involved, that there were faults in the idea that phonemes had individual meanings. Aristotle interested himself with the issues of logic and meaning creation, he separated all things into categories of genus. He thought that the meaning of a predicate was established through an abstraction of the similarities between various individual things.

This theory came to be called nominalism. However, since Aristotle took these similarities to be constituted by a real commonality of form, he is more considered a proponent of "moderate realism"; the Stoic philosophers made important contributions to the analysis of grammar, distinguishing five parts of speech: nouns, appellatives and articles. They developed a sophisticated doctrine of the lektón associated with each sign of a language, but distinct from both the sign itself and the thing to which it refers; this lektón was the meaning of every term. The completelektón of a sentence is. Only propositions were considered "truth-bearers" or "truth-vehicles" while sentences were their vehicles of expression. Different lektá could express things besides propositions, such as commands and exclamations. Medieval philosophers were interested in the subtleties of language and its usage. For many scholastics, this interest was provoked by the necessity of translating Greek texts into Latin. There were several noteworthy philosophers of language in the medieval period.

According to Peter J. King, Peter Abelard anticipated the modern ideas of reference. William of Ockham's Summa Logicae brought forward one of the first serious proposals for codifying a mental language; the scholastics of the high medieval period, such as Ockham and John Duns Scotus, considered logic to be a scientia sermocinalis. The result of their studies was the elaboration of linguistic-philosophical notions whose complexity and subtlety has only come to be appreciated. Many of the most interesting problems of modern philosophy of language were anticipated by medieval thinkers; the phenomena of vagueness and ambiguity were analyzed intensely, this led to an increasing interest in problems related to the use of syncategorematic words such as and, or, not, if, every. The study of categorematic words and their properties was developed greatly. One of the major developments of the scholastics in this area was the doctrine of the suppositio; the suppositio of a term is the interpretation, given of it in a specific context.

It can be improper. A proper suppositio, in turn, can be either formal or material accordingly when it refers to its usual non-linguistic referent, or to itself as a linguistic entity; such a classification scheme is the precursor of modern distinctions between use and mention, between language and metalanguage. There is a tradition called speculative grammar. Leading scholars included, among others, Martin of Thomas of Erfurt. Linguists of the Renaissance and Baroque periods such as Johannes Goropius Becanus, Athanasius Kircher and John Wilkins were infatuated with the idea of a philosophical language reversing the confusion of tongues, influenced by the gradual discovery of Chinese characters and Egyptian hieroglyphs; this thought parallels the idea. European scholarship began to absorb the Indian linguistic tradition only from the mid-18th century, pioneered by Jean François Pons and Henry Thomas Colebrooke (the editio princep

Rene Farrell

Rene Farrell is an Australian cricketer. A fast-medium pace bowler, she is a current member of the Australian team. Although Farrell was successful in age-group interstate cricket, she did not make her senior debut for New South Wales until late in the 2006–07 season a month before turning 20, her state made the finals series, in the first match she took 3/27 and was unbeaten on one as they took a one-wicket victory—the closest possible result in a winning run-chase. New South Wales went on to claim the title, Farrell was selected for the national team to play New Zealand in the Rose Bowl series after only five matches—half a season of senior domestic cricket. Making her debut in the fourth of five matches, Farrell took 3/36 to help Australia seal the series. However, her rapid rise came to a halt during the 2007–08 season, she took only eight wickets in the WNCL season and was dropped from the national team, missing three bilateral series for Australia before the start of the following summer.

Farrell transferred to Western Australia and while taking nine wickets, she made 172 runs at a batting average of 34.40, a figure comparable to those of specialist batsmen, earning herself a recall to the Australian team. She took 3/26 against New Zealand in her first match back and played in six of Australia's seven matches at the 2009 World Cup, totalling seven wickets. After taking five wickets in three Twenty20 matches against New Zealand before departing for the 2009 Twenty20 in England, Farrell played in all of Australia's four matches despite taking only one wicket at an economy rate of 8.92, was sometimes used as a pinch-hitter to score quick runs. During the bilateral series that followed against the hosts, Farrell made her Test debut, taking a total of 3/36, but she managed only one wicket in five ODIs. Afterwards, she stayed in England for a stint with Nottinghamshire and hit two centuries to end with 413 runs at 59.00. Returning to Australia for the 2009–10, she had her most prolific WNCL campaign, scoring 171 runs and taking 18 wickets, including her first five-wicket haul.

Farrell played in the Rose Bowl series afterwards, after taking one wicket in each of the five ODIs in Australia, was dropped for three fixtures in New Zealand. In March 2002, Farrell was selected for New South Wales to play in the Under-17 interstate championships, she scored 26 runs at a batting average of 26.00 and took six wickets at a bowling average of 16.66. New South Wales won every match up until the final, where they collapsed for 60 to lose to Queensland. In January 2003, Farrell was played in five matches, her best performance was to take 4/14 in a 123-run win over Tasmania. She took only one more wicket to end with five at 19.00 and scored 103 runs at 25.75. Farrell returned the following year and took 4/1 from three overs in the first match as New South Wales defeated Tasmania by ten wickets after dismissing them for 24, she took 4/19 against Western Australia and ended with 11 wickets at 9.54 and scored 62 runs at 31.00 in two matches. Despite the strong performances in her final year in age group state cricket, Farrell was unable to break into senior ranks until late in the 2006–07 season.

She made her debut for New South Wales in a contested match against Western Australia, the sixth of eight qualifying matches in the Women's National Cricket League. After taking 1/19 from her six overs, she came to the crease in the closing stages of the match as New South Wales' tail struggled to reach the target of 134. Farrell was run out for two, she was omitted for the penultimate match of the season before taking 0/13 from four overs in an eight-wicket win over South Australia. New South Wales, the defending champions placed second and qualified for the finals series hosted by Victoria. Farrell retained her position in the team and was a key player in the first match, taking 3/27 from her ten overs as the hosts were dismissed for 136. New South Wales struggled and Farrell came to the crease and scored one not out and was present when the winning runs were scored, sealing a one-wicket win; the rest of the series was not so dramatic. Farrell took one wicket in each of the two remaining matches.

Farrell was not required to bat in this last match and ended the season with 3 runs at 1.50 and six wickets at 21.16. Farrell was rewarded at the end of the season with selection in the Australia Youth team to play against New Zealand A, she took a wicket in each of her two matches and ended with two wickets at 31.00 and 36 runs at 18.00. During July in the Australian winter of 2007, a Rose Bowl series was held against New Zealand in the tropical northern city of Darwin. Farrell was selected for the senior national squad after only five senior domestic matches, as cover for the injured pair of Lisa Sthalekar and Clea Smith. After Australia had taken a 2–1 lead in the five-match series, Farrell was given her debut in the fourth match, she took 3/36 from nine overs. She completed a catch to help restrict the tourists to 9/196. Australia found the target difficult and won by three wickets and seal the series, sparing Farrell the need to bat on her debut. In the final match, Farrell batted for the first time, scoring three not out.

She took 1/23 from five overs. Farrell had her first full WNCL season in 2007–08, playing in all eight of New South Wales' matches. After taking only one wicket in the first four matches, she took six wickets in the last four round-robin matches, with best figures of 2/9 against Queensland. New South Wales won all but their final

John Arundel Barnes

John Arundel Barnes M. A. D. Phil. DSC FBA was an British social anthropologist; until his death in 2010, Barnes held the post of Emeritus Professor of Sociology, Fellow of Churchill College. From 1969 to 1982, he held the post of Professor of Sociology at the University of Cambridge. Previous positions include faculty posts in social anthropology at the University of Sydney and the Australian National University in Canberra, He was associated with Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia, University College London, St John's College, Balliol College and the Rhodes-Livingstone Institute. Barnes was a student of Max Gluckman in the Manchester School. John A. Barnes, among others, is known to be the first to use the concept of social networks in a scientific context; this was in 1954, in the article "Class and Committees in a Norwegian Island Parish", in which he presented the result of nearly two years of fieldwork in Bremnes on Bømlo, Norway. His anthropological studies ranged from New Guinea to Norway.

His interests and writings extended across the political sciences and beyond. Known publication titles include: The frequency of divorce Three Styles in the Study of Kinship Marriage in a Changing Society Models and interpretations Politics in a changing society: A political history of Fort Jameson Ngoni The Ethics of Inquiry in Social Science: Three Lectures Sociology in Cambridge A Pack of Lies: Towards a Sociology of Lying Who Should Know What? Social Science and Ethics Kinship Studies: Some Impressions of the Current State of Play Anthropology after Freud Social Networks Inquest on the Murngin African models in the New Guinea Highlands Humping on my drum Interviewed by Jack Goody 19th December 1983 Obituary Notice, Cambridge University Reporter No 6197, Wednesday 6 October 2010, Vol cxli No 1.] Article about John Arundel Barnes in French translation of the article Class and committee in a Norvegian Island Parish, in Cairn.