During the Hellenistic period the importance of Greece proper within the Greek-speaking world declined sharply. The great centers of Hellenistic culture were Alexandria and Antioch, capitals of Ptolemaic Egypt, cities such as Pergamon, Ephesus and Seleucia were important, and increasing urbanization of the Eastern Mediterranean was characteristic of the time. The quests of Alexander had a number of consequences for the Greek city-states and it greatly widened the horizons of the Greeks, making the endless conflicts between the cities which had marked the 5th and 4th centuries BC seem petty and unimportant. It led to a steady emigration, particularly of the young and ambitious, the Greeks valued their local independence too much to consider actual unification, but they made several attempts to form federations through which they could hope to reassert their independence. Following Alexanders death a struggle for power broke out among his generals, which resulted in the break-up of his empire, Macedon fell to Cassander, son of Alexanders leading general Antipater, who after several years of warfare made himself master of most of the rest of Greece.
He founded a new Macedonian capital at Thessaloniki and was generally a constructive ruler, Cassanders power was challenged by Antigonus, ruler of Anatolia, who promised the Greek cities that he would restore their freedom if they supported him. This led to successful revolts against Cassanders local rulers, in 307 BC, Antigonuss son Demetrius captured Athens and restored its democratic system, which had been suppressed by Alexander. But in 301 BC a coalition of Cassander and the other Hellenistic kings defeated Antigonus at the Battle of Ipsus, after Cassanders death in 298 BC, Demetrius seized the Macedonian throne and gained control of most of Greece. He was defeated by a coalition of Greek rulers in 285 BC. Lysimachus was in turn defeated and killed in 280 BC, the Macedonian throne passed to Demetriuss son Antigonus II, who defeated an invasion of the Greek lands by the Gauls, who at this time were living in the Balkans. The battle against the Gauls united the Antigonids of Macedon and the Seleucids of Antioch, an alliance which was directed against the wealthiest Hellenistic power.
Antigonus II ruled until his death in 239 BC, and his family retained the Macedonian throne until it was abolished by the Romans in 146 BC. Their control over the Greek city states was intermittent, since other rulers, particularly the Ptolemies, Sparta remained independent, but generally refused to join any league. In 267 BC, Ptolemy II persuaded the Greek cities to revolt against Antigonus, in became the Chremonidian War. The cities were defeated and Athens lost her independence and her democratic institutions, the Aetolian League was restricted to the Peloponnese, but on being allowed to gain control of Thebes in 245 BC became a Macedonian ally. This marked the end of Athens as a actor, although it remained the largest and most cultivated city in Greece. In 255 BC, Antigonus defeated the Egyptian fleet at Cos and brought the Aegean islands, except Rhodes, in spite of their decreased political power and autonomy, the Greek city state or polis continued to be the basic form of political and social organization in Greece.
Classical city states such as Athens and Ephesus grew and even thrived in this period, the Aetolians and the Achaeans developed strong federal states or leagues, which were governed by councils of city representatives and assemblies of league citizens
According to Anthony Snodgrass, the Archaic period in ancient Greece was bounded by two revolutions in the Greek world. The Archaic period saw developments in Greek politics, international relations, warfare and it laid the groundwork for the Classical period, both politically and culturally. The word archaic derives from the Greek word archaios, which means old and it refers to the period in ancient Greek history before the classical. The Archaic period was considered to have been less important and historically interesting than the classical period. More recently, Archaic Greece has come to be studied for its own achievements, with this reassessment of the significance of the Archaic period, some scholars have objected to the term archaic, due to its connotations in English of being primitive and outdated. No term which has suggested to replace it has gained widespread currency, however. Much of our evidence about the period of ancient Greece comes from written histories. By contrast, we have no evidence from the Archaic period.
We have written accounts of life in the period in the form of poetry, and epigraphical evidence, including parts of law codes, inscriptions on votive offerings, none of this evidence is in the quantity for which we have it in the classical period. What is lacking in evidence, however, is made up for in the rich archaeological evidence from the Archaic Greek world. Indeed, where much of our knowledge of classical Greek art comes from Roman copies, other sources for the period are the traditions recorded by Greek writers such as Herodotus. However, these traditions are not part of any form of history as we would recognise it today, Herodotus does not even record any dates before 480 BC. Politically, the Archaic period saw the development of the polis as the predominant unit of political organisation, many cities throughout Greece came under the rule of autocratic leaders, called tyrants. The period saw the development of law and systems of communal decision-making, with the earliest evidence for law codes, by the end of the Archaic period, both the Athenian and Spartan constitutions seem to have developed into their classical forms.
The Archaic period saw significant urbanisation, and the development of the concept of the polis as it was used in classical Greece. The urbanisation process in Archaic Greece known as synoecism – the amalgamation of small settlements into a single urban centre – took place in much of Greece in the eighth century BC. Both Athens and Argos, for instance, began to coalesce into single settlements around the end of that century and these two factors created a need for a new form of political organisation, as the political systems in place at the beginning of the Archaic period quickly became unworkable. Though in the part of the classical period the city of Athens was both culturally and politically dominant, it was not until the late sixth century that it became a leading power in Greece
A himation was a type of clothing, a mantle or wrap worn by Ancient Greek men and women from the Archaic through the Hellenistic periods. It was usually worn over a chiton and/or peplos, but was made of heavier drape, when the himation was used alone, and served both as a chiton and as a cloak, it was called an achiton. The himation was markedly less voluminous than the Roman toga
A petasos or petasus is a sun hat of Thessalian origin worn by the ancient Greeks, often in combination with the chlamys cape. It was usually made of felt, leather or straw, with a broad. It was worn primarily by farmers and travellers, and was considered characteristic of rural people, as a winged hat, it became the symbol of Hermes, the Greek mythological messenger god. A type of helmet worn by Athenian cavalry was made in the shape of a petasos. Some examples have holes around the edge of the brim. These are known from reliefs and vase paintings, with at least one example found in an Athenian tomb. Clothing in ancient Greece Kausia Winged helmet
Greek Dark Ages
Around then, the Hittite civilization suffered serious disruption and cities from Troy to Gaza were destroyed. Following the collapse and smaller settlements suggest famine and depopulation, in Greece, the Linear B writing of the Greek language used by Mycenaean bureaucrats ceased. The decoration on Greek pottery after about 1100 BC lacks the figurative decoration of Mycenaean ware and is restricted to simpler,900 BC onwards, and evidence has emerged of the new presence of Hellenes in sub-Mycenaean Cyprus and on the Syrian coast at Al Mina. The Mycenaean civilization started to collapse from 1200 BC, made a conspiracy in their islands. All at once the lands were on the move, scattered in war, no country could stand before their arms…. Their league was Peleset, Shekelesh and Weshesh, a similar assemblage of peoples may have attempted to invade Egypt twice, once during the reign of Merneptah, about 1208 BC, and again during the reign of Ramesses III, about 1178 BC. Writing in the Linear B script ceased particularly because the economy had crashed.
The population of Greece was reduced, and the world of organized state armies, officials, most of the information about the period comes from burial sites and the grave goods contained within them. The fragmented and autonomous cultures of reduced complexity are noted for such diversity of their cultures in pottery styles, burial practices. The pottery style, Proto- Geometric signaled the loss of previous designs that were more complex and these newer designs were simpler, including only lines and curves, signaling a simplified society. Generalizations about the Dark Age Society are generally considered false, because the various cultures throughout Greece cannot be grouped into a large Dark Age Society category. Tholos tombs are found in early Iron Age Thessaly and in Crete but not in general elsewhere, there was still farming, weaving and pottery but at a lower level of output and for local use in local styles. Better glazes were achieved by higher temperature firing of clay, the overall trend was toward simpler, less intricate pieces and fewer resources being devoted to the creation of beautiful art.
From 1050, many local iron industries appeared, and by 900. Cyprus was inhabited by a mix of Pelasgians and Phoenicians, joined during this period by the first Greek settlements. Together with distinctively Greek Euboean ceramic wares, it was exported and is found in Levantine sites, including Tyre. Cypriot metalwork was exchanged in Crete and it is likely that Greece during this period was divided into independent regions organized by kinship groups and the oikoi or households, the origins of the poleis. Excavations of Dark Age communities such as Nichoria in the Peloponnese have shown how a Bronze Age town was abandoned in 1150 BC, at this time there were only around forty families living there with plenty of good farming land and grazing for cattle
The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean islands which flourished from about 2600 to 1100 BC. It preceded the Mycenaean civilization of Ancient Greece, the civilization was rediscovered at the beginning of the 20th century through the work of British archaeologist Arthur Evans. It has been described as the earliest of its kind in Europe, the term Minoan, which refers to the mythical King Minos, originally described the pottery of the period. Minos was associated in Greek mythology with the labyrinth and the Minotaur, according to Homer, Crete once had 90 cities. The Minoan period saw trade between Crete and Aegean and Mediterranean settlements, particularly the Near East and artists, the Minoan cultural influence reached beyond Crete to the Cyclades, Egypts Old Kingdom, copper-bearing Cyprus and the Levantine coast, and Anatolia. Some of its best art is preserved in the city of Akrotiri on the island of Santorini, although the Minoan language and writing systems remain undecipherable and are subjects of academic dispute, they apparently conveyed a language entirely different from the Greek.
The reason for the end of the Minoan period is unclear, theories include Mycenaean invasions from mainland Greece, the term Minoan refers to the mythical King Minos of Knossos. Its origin is debated, but it is attributed to archeologist Arthur Evans. Minos was associated in Greek mythology with the labyrinth, which Evans identified with the site at Knossos. However, Karl Hoeck had already used the title Das Minoische Kreta in 1825 for volume two of his Kreta, this appears to be the first known use of the word Minoan to mean ancient Cretan, Evans said that applied it, not invented it. Hoeck, with no idea that the archaeological Crete had existed, had in mind the Crete of mythology, although Evans 1931 claim that the term was unminted before he used it was called a brazen suggestion by Karadimas and Momigliano, he coined its archaeological meaning. Instead of dating the Minoan period, archaeologists use two systems of relative chronology, the first, created by Evans and modified by archaeologists, is based on pottery styles and imported Egyptian artifacts.
Evans system divides the Minoan period into three eras, early and late. These eras are subdivided—for example, Early Minoan I, II and III, another dating system, proposed by Greek archaeologist Nicolas Platon, is based on the development of architectural complexes known as palaces at Knossos, Phaistos and Kato Zakros. Platon divides the Minoan period into pre-, proto-, neo-, the relationship between the systems in the table includes approximate calendar dates from Warren and Hankey. The Thera eruption occurred during a phase of the LM IA period. Efforts to establish the volcanic eruptions date have been controversial, the eruption is identified as a natural event catastrophic for the culture, leading to its rapid collapse. Although stone-tool evidence exists that hominins may have reached Crete as early as 130,000 years ago, evidence for the first anatomically-modern human presence dates to 10, the oldest evidence of modern human habitation on Crete are pre-ceramic Neolithic farming-community remains which date to about 7000 BC
Villa Romana del Casale
The Villa Romana del Casale is a Roman villa urbana built in the first quarter of the 4th century and located about 3 km outside the town of Piazza Armerina, southern Italy. It contains the richest and most complex collection of Roman mosaics in the world, the villa was constructed in the first quarter of the 4th century AD, probably as the center of a huge latifundium covering the surrounding area. How long the villa had this role is not known, maybe for fewer than 150 years, the complex remained inhabited and a village grew around it, named Platia (derived from the word palatium. The villa was damaged and perhaps destroyed during the domination of the Vandals, the outbuildings remained in use, at least in part, during the Byzantine and Arab periods. The site was abandoned in the 12th century AD after a landslide covered the villa, survivors moved to the current location of Piazza Armerina. The villa was almost entirely forgotten, although some of the tallest parts of the remains were always above ground, the area was cultivated for crops.
Early in the 19th century, pieces of mosaics and some columns were found, the first official archaeological excavations were carried out in that century. The first professional excavations were made by Paolo Orsi in 1929, the last major excavations took place in the period 1950-60. They were led by Gino Vinicio Gentili, after which a cover was built over the mosaics, in the 1970s Andrea Carandini carried out a few localized excavations at the site. In late antiquity the Romans partitioned most of the Sicilian hinterland into huge agricultural estates called latifundia, the size of the villa and the amount and quality of its artwork indicate that it was the center of such a latifundium. The owner was probably a member of senatorial class if not of the family itself. The villa appeared to have served several purposes and it contained some rooms that were clearly residential, others that certainly had official purposes, and a number of rooms of as yet unknown intended use. They were definitely not built for commercial or production uses, only the manorial portions of the complex have yet been excavated.
The ancillary structures, housing for slaves, stables, the villa was a single-story building, centered on the peristyle, around which almost all the main public and private rooms were organized. Entrance to the peristyle is via the atrium from the west, thermal baths are located to the northwest, service rooms and probably guest rooms to the north, private apartments and a huge basilica to the east, and rooms of unknown purpose to the south. Somewhat detached, and appearing almost as an afterthought, is the area to the south containing the elliptical peristyle, service rooms. The overall plan of the villa was dictated by several factors, older constructions on the site, the slope on which it was built. The whole complex is unusual, as it is organized along three major axes, the primary axis is the line that passes from the atrium, peristyle
The clothing of the people in Biblical times was made from wool, animal skins, and perhaps silk. Most events in the Old and New Testament take place in Ancient Israel and they wore underwear and cloth skirts. Complete descriptions of the styles of dress among the people of the Bible is impossible because the material at hand is insufficient and Egyptian artists portrayed what is believed to be the clothing of the time, but there are few depictions of Israelite garb. One of the few sources on Israelite clothing is the Bible. Ezor, ḥagor The earliest and most basic garment was the ezor or ḥagor, an apron around the hips or loins and it was a simple piece of cloth worn in various modifications, but always worn next to the skin. Priests wore an ezor of linen known as a ephodh, if worn for mourning, it was called a saḳ. When garments were held together by a belt or girdle, the cloth was called an ezor or ḥagor. Kethōneth The ezor became displaced among the Hebrews by the kethōneth an under-tunic, the kethōneth appears in Assyrian art as a tight-fitting undergarment, sometimes reaching only to the knee, sometimes to the ankle.
In its early form the kethōneth was without sleeves and even left the left shoulder uncovered, in time men of leisure wore kethōneth with sleeves. In times, anyone dressed only in the kethōneth was described as naked, deprived of it he would be absolutely naked, sādhı̄n The well-off might wear a ṣādhı̄n under the kethōneth. This rather long under garment had sleeves and was of fine linen, simlāh The simlāh was the heavy outer garment or shawl of various forms. It consisted of a rectangular piece of rough, heavy woolen material, crudely sewed together so that the front was unstitched. It is translated into Greek as himation, and the ISBE concludes that it resembled, if it was not identical with. In the day it was protection from rain and cold, the front of the simlāh could be arranged in wide folds and all kinds of products could be carried in it. Every respectable man generally wore the simlāh over the kethōneth, but since the simlāh hindered work, from this simple item of the common people developed the richly ornamented mantle of the well-off, which reached from the neck to the knees and had short sleeves.
Meīl The meīl stands for a variety of garments worn over the undergarment like a cloak, the meı̄l was a costly wrap and the description of the priests meı̄l was similar to the sleeveless abaya. This, like the meı̄l of the high priest, may have reached only to the knees, but it is commonly supposed to have been a long-sleeved garment made of a light fabric. Addereth, maaṭafah At a period the nobles wore over the simlāh, or in place of it, the leather garment worn by the prophets was called by the same name because of its width
A chiton was a form of clothing in Ancient Greece, worn by both sexes, but especially men. It is a garment, unlike the female peplos, a draped garment held on the shoulders by a fibula. There are two forms of chiton, the Doric chiton and the Ionic chiton, the Doric style was simpler and had no sleeves, being simply pinned, sewn, or buttoned at the shoulder. The Ionic style was made of a wider piece of fabric, and was pinned, sewn, or buttoned all the way from the neck to the wrists. By the late Archaic, Ionic chitons had become more common, the Doric chiton is a single rectangle of woolen or linen fabric. It can be plain or with an overfold called an apoptygma. It can be draped and fastened at the shoulder by pins or sewing, the Ionic chiton could be made from linen or wool and was draped without the fold and held in place from neck to wrist by several small pins. A large belt called a zoster could be worn over the chiton, the chitons length was greater than the height of the wearer, so excessive fabric was pulled above the belt, like a blouse.
The chiton was worn in combination with the heavier himation over it. When used alone, the chiton was called a monochiton, a long chiton which reached the heels was called a chiton poderes, while a longer one which dragged the ground was called a chiton syrtos or an elkekhitōnes. A womans chiton would always be worn at ankle length, men wore the long chiton during the Archaic period, but wore it at knee length, except for certain occupations such as priests and charioteers, and the elderly. A sleeved form was worn by priests and actors, the colour or pattern would often indicate status, but varied over time. The chiton was the outfit of Aphrodite because it was considered very feminine, dionysus is often depicted wearing it. The chiton was worn by the Romans after the 3rd century BC. However, they referred to it as a tunica, an example of the chiton can be seen, worn by the caryatids, in the porch of the Athens Erechtheum. A charioteers chiton can be seen on the Charioteer of Delphi, clothing in the ancient world Zoster Exomis Tunic References Sources Chiton Encyclopædia Britannica Greek Dress Greek clothes
The kolpos is the blousing of a peplos, chiton or tunic in Ancient Greek clothing, whereby excess length of the material hangs folded over a zone. The fabric of the garment was typically cut longer than the measurement of the women or man wearing it. The excess length was dealt with at the waist and optionally the top edge, to create the kolpos, a zone was tied around the body below the breast or at the waist and excess fabric was pulled up over it. The fabric fell over the girdle so as to hide it, a second zone could be tied over the kolpos to redefine the waist, high or low. This might be hidden again by the apoptygma, the loose, folded down top of the peplos
Clothing in the ancient world
The clothing used in the ancient world strongly reflects the technologies that these peoples mastered. Archaeology plays a significant role in documenting this aspect of ancient life, for fabric fibers, in many cultures the clothing worn was indicative of the social status achieved by various members of their society. The attire fashion and clothing is exclusively human characteristic and is a feature of most human societies and textiles in different periods and ages reflect the development of civilization and technologies in different periods of time at different places. The most common textile in ancient Egypt was flax, while being aware of other materials, the ancient Egyptians preferred to use linen, a product made from the flax plant. Aside from this, other animal based products, such as animal pelts, were reserved for priests and eventually saw adoption by only the highest class of ancient Egyptian citizenry. Linen is light and flexible which made it ideal for life in the climate, wherein abrasion.
Thus, aside from small minority, every ancient Egyptian used linen as their predominant textile. They used more complex drapery and patterns that included dyed threads and these materials were expensive and the wearer showed greater status by wearing them. On the other hand, cheaper thicker linen was used within the lower class and it was considered acceptable for men and woman alike to bear their chests, in both upper and lower class. Certain clothing was common to both genders such as the tunic and the robe, around 1425 to 1405 BCE, a light tunic or short-sleeved shirt was popular, as well as a pleated skirt. Clothing for adult women remained unchanged over several millennia, save for small details, draped clothes, with very large rolls, gave the impression of wearing several items. It was in fact a hawk, often of very fine muslin and these suspenders were sometimes wide enough to cover the breasts and were painted and colored for various reasons, for instance to imitate the plumage on the wings of Isis.
Clothing of the family was different, and was well documented, for instance the crowns of the pharaohs, feather headdresses. Shoes were the same for both sexes, sandals braided with leather, or, particularly for the bureaucratic and priestly classes and cosmetics in ancient Egypt Embalming made it possible to develop cosmetic products and perfumery very early. Perfumes in Egypt were scented oils which were very expensive, in antiquity, people made great use of them. The Egyptians used make-up much more than anyone else at the time, used as eyeliner, was eventually obtained as a substitute for galena or lead oxide which had been used for centuries. Eye shadow was made of crushed malachite and lipstick of ochre, substances used in some of the cosmetics were toxic, and had adverse health effects with prolonged use. Beauty products were mixed with animal fats in order to make them more compact, more easily handled