Cloture, closure, or, informally, a guillotine is a motion or process in parliamentary procedure aimed at bringing debate to a quick end. The cloture procedure originated in the French National Assembly. Clôture is French for "the act of terminating something", it was introduced into the Parliament of the United Kingdom by William Ewart Gladstone to overcome the obstructionism of the Irish Parliamentary Party and was made permanent in 1887. It was subsequently adopted by other legislatures; the name cloture remains in the United States. In Australia, the procedure by which finite debating times for particular bills are set, or protracted debates are brought to a close, is referred to as a "guillotine". A minister will declare that a bill must be considered as urgent, move a motion to limit debating time; the declaration and motion may refer to multiple bills or packages of bills. A guillotine motion may not be debated or amended, must be put to a vote immediately. Closure in Canada was adopted by the House of Commons in 1913 by Conservative Prime Minister Robert Borden.
The new closure rule was tested by the government only a few days after its adoption during debate at the Committee of the Whole stage of the Naval Aid Bill. "Closure" is the term used in Canada. Procedure on closure in Canada is governed under Standing Order no. 57 of the House of Commons and consists of three parts: Notice of closure, a motion of closure, a final period of debate before final voting on the bill being closured. Notice of closure is an oral statement announcing intention to call for closure given by any Minister at a prior sitting of the Committee of the Whole; the notice need not be the day prior to the sitting at which the bill will be closured, but cannot be in the same sitting as the final motion of closure. The motion of closure, referred to as a motion "that the debate shall not be further adjourned", is passed by a simple majority of the House of Commons, although in the event of a tie, the Speaker of the House will apply Speaker Denison's rule to issue the casting vote.
Should the motion of closure pass, all members are given a single period in which to speak lasting no more than 20 minutes. If the final period of speaking to the bill has not been finished by 8:00 p.m. that same day, no MP may speak after that point, the bill moves to a final vote. The first cloture in Hong Kong was introduced in the Legislative Council of Hong Kong on 17 May 2012, by Tsang Yok-sing, to abruptly halt filibuster during debate at the Committee of the Whole stage of the Legislative Council Bill 2012; the motion to end debate was submitted by Council member Philip Wong Yu-hong some time after 4 am Hong Kong time, after a marathon session that lasted over 33 hours. Wong stood up and suggested that legislatures in other countries have a procedure called "cloture motion", suggested Council President should end debate immediately. President Tsang agreed and said that he considered ending debate without Wong's suggestion because he would not allow debate to go on endlessly. Cloture is not defined by any precedent of the Legislative Council.
Tsang made reference to Standing Order 92, which stated "In any matter not provided for in these Rules of Procedure, the practice and procedure to be followed in the Council shall be such as may be decided by the President who may, if he thinks fit, be guided by the practice and procedure of other legislatures". Standing Order 92 therefore may implicitly give Council President discretion on whether he should or should not follow the cloture rules of other legislatures, but this is up to debate. Legislative Council President Tsang chose to end debate without calling for a cloture vote, questionable. Council member Leung Kwok-hung stood up and said that he had never heard of cloture without a vote anywhere else and suggested there should have been a cloture vote. Cloture was again invoked by Tsang Yok-sing on 13 May 2013 to halt debate of the 2013 Appropriation Bill. In the New Zealand House of Representatives, any MP called to speak may move a closure motion. If the length of the debate is not fixed by standing orders or the Business Committee, the Speaker may decide to put the closure motion to a vote, carried by a simple majority.
A closure motion may be adopted to end debate on a matter in both the House of Commons and in the House of Lords by a simple majority of those voting. In the House of Commons, at least 100 MPs must vote in favour of the motion for closure to be adopted. In the House of Lords, the Lord Speaker does not possess an equivalent power. Only one closure motion is permitted per debate. Specific to legislation, a guillotine motion, formally an allocation of time motion, limits the amount of time for a particular stage of a bill. Debate ceases; the use of guillotines has been replaced by the programme motion, where the amount of time for each stage is agreed after a bill's second reading. Both guillotine motions and programme motions are specific to the Commons.
Stitt's Bits is an album by saxophonist Sonny Stitt compiling tracks recorded in 1950 and released on the Prestige label in 1958. The Allmusic review awarded the album 3 stars. "Avalon" - 2:26 "Mean to Me" - 3:04 "Stairway to the Stars" - 3:12 "Count Every Star" - 2:57 "Nice Work If You Can Get It" - 2:37 "There Will Never Be Another You" - 2:32 "Blazin'" - 3:22 "After You've Gone" - 2:25 "Our Very Own" - 3:05 "'S Wonderful" - 2:24 "Jeepers Creepers" - 2:54 "Nevertheless" - 2:49Recorded in New York City on February 17, 1950, June 28, 1950, October 8, 1950 and December 15, 1950 Sonny Stitt - tenor saxophone Bill Massey - trumpet Matthew Gee - trombone Gene Ammons - baritone saxophone Kenny Drew, Duke Jordan, Junior Mance - piano Tommy Potter, Gene Wright - bass Art Blakey, Wes Landers - drums Larry Townsend - vocals
This is a list of private schools in Long Beach, California. Bethany School - PK-8 - Christian Bethany Lutheran School - PK-8 - Lutheran Church Holy Innocents Elementary School - K-8 - Roman Catholic Lakewood Christian Schools - PK-8 - Christian Los Altos Brethren School - PreK, K-6 - Bible Teaching Christian Maple Village Waldorf School - Parent/Toddler, PreK, K-8 - Private Oakwood Academy - PK-6 - Christian non-denominational Our Lady Of Refuge Elementary School - TK-8 - Roman Catholic St. Anthony Elementary School PK-8 - Roman Catholic St. Athanasius Elementary School - K-8 - Roman Catholic St. Barnabas Elementary School - TK-8 - Roman Catholic St. Cornelius Elementary School - K-8 - Roman Catholic St. Cyprian Elementary School - TK-8 - Roman Catholic St. Joseph Elementary School - K-8 - Roman Catholic St. Lucy's School - K-8 - Roman Catholic St. Maria Goretti Elementary School - K-8 - Roman Catholic Success Work College Preparatory Academy K-12- Private Westerly School of Long Beach - K-8th Grade - Private Accelerated Christian Academy - K-12 and Adult Learners - Private - Distance Learning Lakewood Christian Schools - PK-12 - Baptist Gethsemane Baptist Church School - K-12 - Baptist Pacific Baptist School - K-12 - Baptist Parkridge Private School - K-12 and Adults - Private - online Success Work College Preparatory Academy-K-12- Private http://www.successworkacademy.org Zinsmeyer Academy - 6-12 - Private St. Anthony High School - 9-12 - Roman Catholic Success Work College Preparatory Academy- Private http://www.successworkacademy.org