Black pepper is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. When dried, the fruit is known as a peppercorn, when fresh and fully mature, it is approximately 5 millimetres in diameter, dark red, like all drupes, contains a single seed. Peppercorns, and the ground pepper derived from them, may be described simply as pepper, or more precisely as black pepper, green pepper, black pepper is native to south India and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. Currently, Vietnam is the worlds largest producer and exporter of pepper, dried ground pepper has been used since antiquity for both its flavour and as a traditional medicine. Black pepper is the worlds most traded spice and it is one of the most common spices added to cuisines around the world. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine, black pepper is ubiquitous in the modern world as a seasoning and is often paired with salt.
The word pepper has its roots in the Tamil word for long pepper, todays pepper derives from the Old English pipor. and from Latin which was the source of Romanian piper, Italian pepe, Dutch peper, German Pfeffer, French poivre, and other similar forms. In the 16th century, pepper started referring to the unrelated New World chili pepper as well, Pepper was used in a figurative sense to mean spirit or energy at least as far back as the 1840s, in the early 20th century, this was shortened to pep. Black pepper is produced from the still-green, unripe drupes of the pepper plant. The drupes are cooked briefly in hot water, both to them and to prepare them for drying, the heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper. The drupes are dried in the sun or by machine for several days, during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin, once dried, the spice is called black peppercorn. On some estates, the berries are separated from the stem by hand, once the peppercorns are dried, pepper spirit and oil can be extracted from the berries by crushing them.
Pepper spirit is used in medicinal and beauty products. Pepper oil is used as an ayurvedic massage oil and used in certain beauty. White pepper consists solely of the seed of the pepper plant and this is usually accomplished by a process known as retting, where fully ripe red pepper berries are soaked in water for about a week, during which the flesh of the pepper softens and decomposes. Rubbing removes what remains of the fruit, and the seed is dried. Sometimes alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed, ground white pepper is used in Chinese and Thai cuisine, but in salads, cream sauces, light-coloured sauces, and mashed potatoes. White pepper has a different flavour from black pepper, it lacks certain compounds present in the layer of the drupe
Vanilla is a flavoring derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla, primarily from the Mexican species, flat-leaved vanilla. The word vanilla, derived from the diminutive of the Spanish word vaina, is translated simply as little pod, pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people cultivated the vine of the vanilla orchid, called tlilxochitl by the Aztecs. Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés is credited with introducing both vanilla and chocolate to Europe in the 1520s, pollination is required to set the fruit from which the flavoring is derived. In 1837, Belgian botanist Charles François Antoine Morren discovered this fact, the method proved financially unworkable and was not deployed commercially. In 1841, Edmond Albius, a slave who lived on the French island of Réunion in the Indian Ocean, hand-pollination allowed global cultivation of the plant. Three major species of vanilla currently are grown globally, all of which derive from a species found in Mesoamerica. Vanilla is the second-most expensive spice after saffron, because growing the vanilla seed pods is labor-intensive, despite the expense, vanilla is highly valued for its flavor.
As a result, vanilla is used in both commercial and domestic baking, perfume manufacture, and aromatherapy. According to popular belief, the Totonac people, who inhabit the east coast of Mexico in the state of Veracruz, were the first to cultivate vanilla. According to Totonac mythology, the tropical orchid was born when Princess Xanat, forbidden by her father from marrying a mortal, the lovers were captured and beheaded. Where their blood touched the ground, the vine of the tropical orchid grew, in the 15th century, Aztecs invading from the central highlands of Mexico conquered the Totonacs, and soon developed a taste for the vanilla pods. They named the fruit tlilxochitl, or black flower, after the matured fruit, subjugated by the Aztecs, the Totonacs paid tribute by sending vanilla fruit to the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan. Until the mid-19th century, Mexico was the producer of vanilla. In 1819, French entrepreneurs shipped vanilla fruits to the islands of Réunion, after Edmond Albius discovered how to pollinate the flowers quickly by hand, the pods began to thrive.
Soon, the orchids were sent from Réunion to the Comoros Islands, Seychelles. By 1898, Madagascar, Réunion, and the Comoros Islands produced 200 metric tons of vanilla beans, the market price of vanilla rose dramatically in the late 1970s after a tropical cyclone ravaged key croplands. Prices remained high through the early 1980s despite the introduction of Indonesian vanilla, in the mid-1980s, the cartel that had controlled vanilla prices and distribution since its creation in 1930 disbanded. Prices dropped 70% over the few years, to nearly US$20 per kilogram
Crimson is a strong, red color, inclining to purple. Crimson is produced using the bodies of the kermes insect, which were gathered commercially in Mediterranean countries, where they live on the kermes oak. Kermes dyes have been found in burial wrappings in Anglo-Scandinavian York, carmine is the name given to the dye made from the dried bodies of the female cochineal, although the name crimson is sometimes applied to these dyes too. Cochineal appears to have brought to Europe during the conquest of Mexico by the Spaniard Hernán Cortés. It was first described by Mathioli in 1549, the pigment is called cochineal after the insect from which it is made. Alizarin is a pigment that was first synthesized in 1868 by the German chemists Carl Gräbe and Carl Liebermann, alizarin crimson is a dye bonded onto alum which is used as a pigment and mixed with ochre and umber. The word crimson has been recorded in English since 1400, and its earlier forms include cremesin, German Karmesin, Italian Cremisi, French cramoisi, Portuguese carmesim, etc.
The ultimate source may be Sanskrit कृमिज kṛmi-jā meaning worm-made, a shortened form of carmesinus gave the Latin carminus, from which comes carmine. Other cognates include the Old Church Slavic čruminu, archaic Russian чермный, carmine dyes, which give crimson and related red and purple colors, are based on an aluminium and calcium salt of carminic acid. Carmine lake is an aluminium or aluminium-tin lake of cochineal extract, purple lake is prepared like carmine lake with the addition of lime to produce the deep purple tone. Carmine dyes tend to fade quickly, carmine dyes were once widely prized in both the Americas and in Europe. They were used in paints by Michelangelo and for the fabrics of the Hussars, the Turks, the British Redcoats. Nowadays carmine dyes are used for coloring foodstuffs and cosmetics, as a food additive in the European Union, carmine dyes are designated E120, and are called cochineal and Natural Red 4. Carmine dyes are used in some oil paints and watercolors used by artists.
The color pink is displayed on the right, the color pink has a hue code of 350, placing it directly within the range of crimson colors. Thus, the pink is actually a pale tint of crimson. The color Baker-Miller Pink is displayed on the right, Baker-Miller Pink was formulated in 1979. With a hue code of 344, Baker-Miller Pink is within the range of crimson colors, the color fandango pink is displayed on the right
Illicium verum is a medium-sized evergreen tree native to northeast Vietnam and southwest China. Star anise oil is a fragrant oil used in cooking, soaps, mouthwashes. About 90% of the star anise crop is used for extraction of shikimic acid. Illicium comes from the Latin illicio meaning entice, in Persian, star anise is called بادیان bādiyān, hence its French name badiane. Star anise contains anethole, the ingredient that gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as an expensive substitute for anise in baking, as well as in liquor production. It is used in the production of sambuca, Star anise enhances the flavour of meat. It is used as a spice in preparation of biryani and masala chai all over the Indian subcontinent and it is widely used in Chinese cuisine, and in Indian cuisine where it is a major component of garam masala, and in Malay and Indonesian cuisines. It is widely grown for use in China, India. Star anise is an ingredient of the traditional five-spice powder of Chinese cooking and it is a major ingredient in the making of phở, a Vietnamese noodle soup.
It is used in the French recipe of mulled wine, called vin chaud. If allowed to steep in coffee, it deepens and enriches the flavor and this pods can be reused in this manner, by the pot-full or cup, many times as the ease of extraction of the gustatory components increases with the permeation of hot water. Star anise is the source of the chemical compound shikimic acid. Shikimic acid is produced by most autotrophic organisms, and whilst it can be obtained in commercial quantities elsewhere, in 2005, a temporary shortage of star anise was caused by its use in the production of Tamiflu. Later that year, a method for the production of shikimic acid using bacteria was discovered, roche now derives some of the raw material it needs from fermentation by E. coli bacteria. The 2009 swine flu outbreak led to series of shortages, as stocks of Tamiflu were built up around the world. Star anise is grown in four provinces in China and harvested between March and May and it is found in the south of New South Wales.
The shikimic acid is extracted from the seeds in a 10-stage manufacturing process takes a year. In traditional Chinese medicine, star anise is considered a warm and moving herb, japanese star anise, a similar tree, is highly toxic and inedible, in Japan, it has instead been burned as incense
Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum. Cinnamon is used in sweet and savoury foods. The term cinnamon refers to its mid-brown colour, Cinnamon is the name for perhaps a dozen species of trees and the commercial spice products that some of them produce. All are members of the genus Cinnamomum in the family Lauraceae, only a few Cinnamomum species are grown commercially for spice. The English word cinnamon, attested in English since the 15th century, derives from the Greek κιννάμωμον kinnámōmon, via Latin, the Greek was borrowed from a Phoenician word, which was similar to the related Hebrew qinnamon. The name cassia, first recorded in English around AD1000, was borrowed via Latin and ultimately derives from Hebrew qtsīʿāh, Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity. It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BCE, the first Greek reference to kasia is found in a poem by Sappho in the seventh century BCE. According to Herodotus, both cinnamon and cassia grew in Arabia, together with incense and ladanum, the phoenix was reputed to build its nest from cinnamon and cassia.
Herodotus mentions other writers who believed the source of cassia was the home of Dionysos, egyptian recipes for kyphi, an aromatic used for burning, included cinnamon and cassia from Hellenistic times onward. The gifts of Hellenistic rulers to temples sometimes included cassia and cinnamon, as well as incense, Cinnamon was brought around the Arabian peninsula on rafts without rudders or sails or oars, taking advantage of the winter trade winds. Pliny mentions cassia as a agent for wine. According to Pliny, a Roman pound of cassia, cinnamon, or serichatum cost up to 300 denarii, diocletians Edict on Maximum Prices from 301 AD gives a price of 125 denarii for a pound of cassia, while an agricultural labourer earned 25 denarii per day. Malabathrum leaves were used in cooking and for distilling an oil used in a sauce for oysters by the Roman gourmet Gaius Gavius Apicius. Malabathrum is among the spices that, according to Apicius, any good kitchen should contain, through the Middle Ages, the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world.
From reading Latin writers who quoted Herodotus, Europeans had learned that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the ports of Egypt. Marco Polo avoided precision on the topic, Pliny the Elder wrote in the first century that traders had made this up to charge more, but the story remained current in Byzantium as late as 1310. The first mention that the spice grew in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwinis Athar al-bilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad about 1270 and this was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino in a letter of about 1292. Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon directly from the Moluccas to East Africa, venetian traders from Italy held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe, distributing cinnamon from Alexandria
The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas are an archipelago within Indonesia. Tectonically they are located on the Halmahera Plate within the Molucca Sea Collision Zone, geographically they are located east of Sulawesi, west of New Guinea, and north and east of Timor. The islands were the core of the Spice Islands known to the Chinese and Europeans. The name was due to the nutmeg and cloves that were originally found there. The Maluku Islands formed a province from Indonesian independence until 1999. A new province, North Maluku, incorporates the area between Morotai and Sula, with the arc of islands from Buru and Seram to Wetar remaining within the existing Maluku Province, North Maluku is predominantly Muslim, and its capital is Sofifi on Halmahera island. Maluku province has a larger Christian population, and its capital is Ambon, though originally Melanesian, many island populations, especially in the Banda Islands, were exterminated in the 17th century during the spice wars. A second influx of Austronesian immigrants began in the twentieth century under the Dutch.
Between 1999 and 2002, conflict between Muslims and Christians killed thousands and displaced half a million people, the name Maluku is thought to have been derived from the term used by Arab traders for the region, Jazirat al-Muluk. The Maluku Islands were a single province from Indonesian independence until 1999 when they were split into North Maluku and Maluku, North Maluku province includes Ternate, Bacan, Halmahera Morotai, the Obi Islands, and the Sula Islands. Evidence of increasingly long-distance trading relationships and of more frequent occupation of many islands, onyx beads and segments of silver plate used as currency on the Indian subcontinent around 200BC have been unearthed on some of the islands. Arab merchants began to arrive in the 14th century, bringing Islam, peaceful conversion to Islam occurred in many islands, especially in the centres of trade, while aboriginal animism persisted in the hinterlands and more isolated islands. Archaeological evidence here relies largely on the occurrence of pigs teeth, the Portuguese had conquered the city state of Malacca in the early 16th century and their influence was most strongly felt in Maluku and other parts of eastern Indonesia.
On the return trip, Francisco Serrão was shipwrecked at Hitu island in 1512, there he established ties with the local ruler who was impressed with his martial skills. The spice trade soon revived but the Portuguese would not be able to fully monopolize nor disrupt this trade, both Serrão and Ferdinand Magellan, perished before they could meet one another. The Portuguese first landed in Ambon in 1513, but it became the new centre for their activities in Maluku following the expulsion from Ternate. European power in the region was weak and Ternate became an expanding, fiercely Islamic and anti-European state under the rule of Sultan Baab Ullah and his son Sultan Said. By the 1560s there were 10,000 Catholics in the area, mostly on Ambon, the Pela Gandong community relationship system is between various Christian and Muslim villages throughout the regions
A sepal is a part of the flower of angiosperms. Usually green, sepals typically function as protection for the flower in bud, the term sepalum was coined by Noël Martin Joseph de Necker in 1790, and derived from the Greek σκεπη, a covering. Collectively the sepals are called the calyx, the outermost whorl of parts that form a flower, the word calyx was adopted from the Latin calyx, not to be confused with calix, a cup or goblet. Calyx derived from the Greek κάλυξ, a bud, a calyx, a husk or wrapping, while derived from the Greek κυλιξ, a cup or goblet. After flowering, most plants have no use for the calyx which withers or becomes vestigial. Some plants retain a thorny calyx, either dried or live, examples include species of Acaena, some of the Solanaceae, and the water caltrop, Trapa natans. In some species the calyx not only persists after flowering, but instead of withering and this is an effective protection against some kinds of birds and insects, for example in Hibiscus trionum and the Cape gooseberry.
Morphologically, both sepals and petals are modified leaves, the calyx and the corolla are the outer sterile whorls of the flower, which together form what is known as the perianth. The term tepal is usually applied when the parts of the perianth are difficult to distinguish, e. g. the petals and sepals share the same color, or the petals are absent and the sepals are colorful. When the undifferentiated tepals resemble petals, they are referred to as petaloid, as in petaloid monocots, since they include Liliales, an alternative name is lilioid monocots. Examples of plants in which the term tepal is appropriate include genera such as Aloe, in contrast, genera such as Rosa and Phaseolus have well-distinguished sepals and petals. The number of sepals in a flower is its merosity, flower merosity is indicative of a plants classification. The merosity of a flower is typically four or five. The merosity of a monocot or palaeodicot flower is three, or a multiple of three, the development and form of the sepals vary considerably among flowering plants.
They may be free or fused together, the sepals are much reduced, appearing somewhat awn-like, or as scales, teeth, or ridges. Most often such structures protrude until the fruit is mature and falls off, examples of flowers with much reduced perianths are found among the grasses. In some flowers, the sepals are fused towards the base, in other flowers a hypanthium includes the bases of sepals and the attachment points of the stamens
Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO. Although it occurs naturally as the mineral zincite, most zinc oxide is produced synthetically, ZnO is a wide-bandgap semiconductor of the II-VI semiconductor group. The native doping of the due to oxygen vacancies or zinc interstitials is n-type. This semiconductor has several properties, including good transparency, high electron mobility, wide bandgap. Pure ZnO is a powder, but in nature it occurs as the rare mineral zincite. Crystalline zinc oxide is thermochromic, changing from white to yellow when heated in air and this color change is caused by a small loss of oxygen to the environment at high temperatures to form the non-stoichiometric Zn1+xO, where at 800 °C, x =0.00007. Zinc oxide is an amphoteric oxide, ZnO forms cement-like products when mixed with a strong aqueous solution of zinc chloride and these are best described as zinc hydroxy chlorides. This cement was used in dentistry, ZnO forms cement-like material when treated with phosphoric acid, related materials are used in dentistry.
A major component of zinc phosphate cement produced by this reaction is hopeite, ZnO decomposes into zinc vapor and oxygen at around 1975 °C with a standard oxygen pressure. In a carbothermic reaction, heating with carbon converts the oxide into zinc vapor at a lower temperature. ZnO + C → Zn + CO Zinc oxide can react violently with aluminium and magnesium powders, with chlorinated rubber and linseed oil on heating causing fire and it reacts with hydrogen sulfide to give zinc sulfide. ZnO + H2S → ZnS + H2O Zinc oxide crystallizes in two forms, hexagonal wurtzite and cubic zincblende. The wurtzite structure is most stable at ambient conditions and thus most common, the zincblende form can be stabilized by growing ZnO on substrates with cubic lattice structure. In both cases, the zinc and oxide centers are tetrahedral, the most characteristic geometry for Zn, ZnO converts to the rocksalt motif at relatively high pressures about 10 GPa. Hexagonal and zincblende polymorphs have no inversion symmetry and this and other lattice symmetry properties result in piezoelectricity of the hexagonal and zincblende ZnO, and pyroelectricity of hexagonal ZnO.
The hexagonal structure has a point group 6 mm or C6v, and the space group is P63mc or C6v4. The lattice constants are a =3.25 Å and c =5.2 Å, as in most group II-VI materials, the bonding in ZnO is largely ionic with the corresponding radii of 0.074 nm for Zn2+ and 0.140 nm for O2−. This property accounts for the formation of wurtzite rather than zinc blende structure
Kretek /ˈkrɛtɛk/ are cigarettes made with a blend of tobacco and other flavors. The word kretek itself is a term for the crackling sound of burning cloves. Partly due to favorable taxation compared to white cigarettes, kreteks are by far the most widely smoked form of cigarettes in Indonesia, in Indonesia, there are hundreds of kretek manufacturers, including small local makers and major brands. Most of the widely known brands, including Dji Sam Soe 234, Minak Djinggo, Gudang Garam. The origin of kretek cigarettes can be traced to the late 19th century, the creator of kretek was Haji Jamhari, a native of Kudus in Indonesias Central Java region. Suffering from chest pains, Jamhari attempted to reduce the pain by rubbing clove oil on his chest, Jamhari sought a means of achieving a deeper relief and smoked his hand-rolled cigarettes after adding dried clove buds and rubber tree sap. According to the story, his asthma and chest pains vanished immediately, word of Jamhari’s product spread rapidly among his neighbors, and the product soon became available in pharmacies as rokok cengkeh, clove cigarettes.
First marketed as a product, kreteks became widely popular. In those years, the used to hand-roll kreteks to sell on order without any specific brand, packing. A resident of Kudus named Nitisemito had the idea of starting serial production, commercial manufacture did not start in earnest until the 1930s. Furthermore, he developed a means of production called the abon system which offered opportunities for other entrepreneurs with insufficient capital. However, most manufacturers have opted to have their workers working under the roof of their own factories. Nowadays, only a few manufacturers make use of the abon system. During the period from 1960 until 1970, kreteks became a symbol against white cigarettes. In mid 1980’s, the number of machine-produced cigarettes exceeded that of hand-rolled ones, one of the largest income sources of Indonesia, the kretek industry comprises 500 large and small manufacturers employing a total of around 10 million people. Since 2009, kreteks are not legal for sale in the United States, the quality and variety of tobacco play an important role in kretek production.
One kretek brand can contain more than 30 types of tobacco, minced dried clove buds weighing about 1/3 of the tobacco blend are added. Sometimes, the last process which machine-made or hand-rolled kreteks go through is the spraying of sweetener at the end of the cigarette
The onion, known as the bulb onion or common onion, is a vegetable and is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium. This genus contains several other species variously referred to as onions and cultivated for food, such as the Japanese bunching onion, the onion. The name wild onion is applied to a number of Allium species and its ancestral wild original form is not known, although escapes from cultivation have become established in some regions. The onion is most frequently a biennial or a perennial plant, the onion plant has a fan of hollow, bluish-green leaves and its bulb at the base of the plant begins to swell when a certain day-length is reached. The bulbs are composed of shortened, underground stems surrounded by fleshy modified scale that envelop a central bud at the tip of the stem, in the autumn, the foliage dies down and the outer layers of the bulb become dry and brittle. The crop is harvested and dried and the onions are ready for use or storage, the crop is prone to attack by a number of pests and diseases, particularly the onion fly, the onion eelworm, and various fungi cause rotting.
Some varieties of A. cepa, such as shallots and potato onions, Onions are cultivated and used around the world. As a food item, they are served cooked, as a vegetable or part of a prepared savoury dish. They are pungent when chopped and contain certain chemical substances which irritate the eyes, the onion plant, known as the bulb onion or common onion, is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium. It was first officially described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1753 work Species Plantarum, a. cepa is known exclusively from cultivation, but related wild species occur in Central Asia. The most closely related species include A. vavilovii and A. asarense from Iran, however and Hopf state that there are doubts whether the A. vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop. The vast majority of cultivars of A. cepa belong to the common onion group and are referred to simply as onions. The Aggregatum group of cultivars includes both shallots and potato onions, the genus Allium contains a number of other species variously referred to as onions and cultivated for food, such as the Japanese bunching onion, Egyptian onion, and Canada onion.
The onion plant has grown and selectively bred in cultivation for at least 7,000 years. It is a plant, but is usually grown as an annual. Modern varieties typically grow to a height of 15 to 45 cm, the leaves are yellowish- to bluish green and grow alternately in a flattened, fan-shaped swathe. They are fleshy and cylindrical, with one flattened side and they are at their broadest about a quarter of the way up, beyond which they taper towards a blunt tip. The base of leaf is a flattened, usually white sheath that grows out of a basal disc
Myrtaceae is the myrtle family, a family of dicotyledonous plants placed within the order Myrtales. Myrtle, the bay rum tree, guava, allspice, all species are woody, with essential oils, and flower parts in multiples of four or five. One notable character of the family is that the phloem is located on both sides of the xylem, not just outside as in most other plants, the leaves are evergreen, alternate to mostly opposite and usually with an entire margin. The flowers have a number of five petals, though in several genera the petals are minute or absent. The stamens are usually conspicuous, brightly coloured and numerous. Recent estimates suggest the Myrtaceae include approximately 5950 species in ca 132 genera, the family has a wide distribution in tropical and warm-temperate regions of the world, and are typically common in many of the worlds biodiversity hotspots. Genera with capsular fruits such as Eucalyptus, Angophora, genera with fleshy fruits have their greatest concentrations in eastern Australia and Malesia and the Neotropics.
Eucalyptus is a dominant, nearly ubiquitous genus in the more parts of Australia. Eucalyptus regnans is the tallest flowering plant in the world, other important Australian genera are Callistemon and Melaleuca. Species of the genus Osbornia, native to Australasia, are mangroves, eugenia and Calyptranthes are among the larger genera in the neotropics. Historically, the Myrtaceae were divided into two subfamilies, subfamily Myrtoideae was recognized as having fleshy fruits and opposite, entire leaves. Most genera in this subfamily have one of three recognized types of embryos. The genera of Myrtoideae can be difficult to distinguish in the absence of mature fruits. Myrtoideae are found worldwide in subtropical and tropical regions, with centers of diversity in the Neotropics, northeastern Australia, in contrast, subfamily Leptospermoideae was recognized as having dry, dehiscent fruits and leaves arranged spirally or alternate. The Leptospermoideae are found mostly in Australasia, with a centre of diversity in Australia, many genera in Western Australia have greatly reduced leaves and flowers typical of more xeric habitats.
Thus, many workers are now using a recent analysis by Wilson et al. as a point to test further analyses of the family. The genera Heteropyxis and Psiloxylon have been separated as separate families by many authors in the past as Heteropyxidaceae and Psiloxylaceae, Wilson et al. included them in Myrtaceae. These two genera are believed to be the earliest arising and surviving lineages of Myrtaceae
The flowering plants, known as Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approx. 13,164 known genera and a total of c.295,383 known species, angiosperm means a plant that produces seeds within an enclosure, in other words, a fruiting plant. The term angiosperm comes from the Greek composite word meaning enclosed seeds, the ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period, during the range 245 to 202 million years ago, and the first flowering plants are known from 160 mya. They diversified extensively during the Lower Cretaceous, became widespread by 120 mya, angiosperms differ from other seed plants in several ways, described in the table. These distinguishing characteristics taken together have made the angiosperms the most diverse and numerous land plants, the amount and complexity of tissue-formation in flowering plants exceeds that of gymnosperms. The vascular bundles of the stem are arranged such that the xylem and phloem form concentric rings, in the dicotyledons, the bundles in the very young stem are arranged in an open ring, separating a central pith from an outer cortex.
In each bundle, separating the xylem and phloem, is a layer of meristem or active formative tissue known as cambium, the soft phloem becomes crushed, but the hard wood persists and forms the bulk of the stem and branches of the woody perennial. Among the monocotyledons, the bundles are more numerous in the stem and are scattered through the ground tissue. They contain no cambium and once formed the stem increases in diameter only in exceptional cases, the characteristic feature of angiosperms is the flower. Flowers show remarkable variation in form and elaboration, and provide the most trustworthy external characteristics for establishing relationships among angiosperm species, the function of the flower is to ensure fertilization of the ovule and development of fruit containing seeds. The floral apparatus may arise terminally on a shoot or from the axil of a leaf, occasionally, as in violets, a flower arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf. There are two kinds of cells produced by flowers.
Microspores, which divide to become pollen grains, are the male cells and are borne in the stamens. The female cells called megaspores, which divide to become the egg cell, are contained in the ovule. The flower may consist only of parts, as in willow. Usually, other structures are present and serve to protect the sporophylls, the individual members of these surrounding structures are known as sepals and petals. The outer series is usually green and leaf-like, and functions to protect the rest of the flower, the inner series is, in general, white or brightly colored, and is more delicate in structure. It functions to attract insect or bird pollinators, attraction is effected by color and nectar, which may be secreted in some part of the flower