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Émile Roubaud

Émile Roubaud was a French biologist and entomologist known for his work on paludism, yellow fever and sleeping sickness. In 1906-08 he worked in the French Congo, where he studied the transmission of trypanosomiasis and the role of tsetse flies. In 1909-12 he took part in a mission in Senegal and Dahomey, where he performed research of animal trypanosomiasis. On this mission he conducted geographical distribution studies of nine tsetse fly species. In 1920, he and Félix Mesnil achieved the first experimental infection of chimpanzees with Plasmodium vivax, he made his career at Pasteur Institute — from 1914 to 1958 he was director of a research laboratory for medical entomology and pest biology at the Institute. Here, he taught classes in medical entomology, he was president of the Société entomologique de France in 1927 and a member of the French Academy of Sciences in 1938. In 1936 he was named president of the Société de pathologie exotique, he is a recipient of the Montyon Prize. La Glossina palpalis, sa biologie, son rôle dans l'étiologie des Trypanosomiases, 1909.

La maladie du sommeil au Congo français, 1909 – Sleeping sickness in the French Congo. Études sur la faune parasitique de l’Afrique occidentale française, 1914 – Studies of parasitic fauna in French West Africa. History of malaria C. Toumanoff. "Nécrologie d'Émile Roubaud". Bulletin de la Société de pathologie exotique. Émile Roubaud on

Launch loop

A launch loop or Lofstrom loop is a proposed system for launching objects into orbit using a moving cable-like system situated inside a sheath attached to the Earth at two ends and suspended above the atmosphere in the middle. The design concept was published by Keith Lofstrom and describes an active structure maglev cable transport system that would be around 2,000 km long and maintained at an altitude of up to 80 km. A launch loop would be held up at this altitude by the momentum of a belt that circulates around the structure; this circulation, in effect, transfers the weight of the structure onto a pair of magnetic bearings, one at each end, which support it. Launch loops are intended to achieve non-rocket spacelaunch of vehicles weighing 5 metric tons by electromagnetically accelerating them so that they are projected into Earth orbit or beyond; this would be achieved by the flat part of the cable which forms an acceleration track above the atmosphere. The system is designed to be suitable for launching humans for space tourism, space exploration and space colonization, provides a low 3g acceleration.

Launch loops were described by Keith Lofstrom in November 1981 Reader's Forum of the American Astronautical Society News Letter, in the August 1982 L5 News. In 1982, Paul Birch published a series of papers in Journal of the British Interplanetary Society which described orbital rings and described a form which he called Partial Orbital Ring System; the launch loop idea was worked on in more detail around 1983–1985 by Lofstrom. It is a fleshed-out version of PORS arranged to form a mag-lev acceleration track suitable for launching humans into space. A launch loop is proposed to be a structure 2,000 km long and 80 km high; the loop runs along at 80 km above the earth for 2000 km descends to earth before looping back on itself rising back to 80 km above the earth to follow the reverse path looping back to the starting point. The loop would be in the form of a tube, known as the sheath. Floating within the sheath is another continuous tube, known as the rotor, a sort of belt or chain; the rotor is an iron tube 5 cm in diameter, moving around the loop at 14 km/s.

When at rest, the loop is at ground level. The rotor is accelerated up to speed; as the rotor speed increases, it curves to form an arc. The structure is held up by the force from the rotor, which attempts to follow a parabolic trajectory; the ground anchors force it to go parallel to the earth upon reaching the height of 80 kilometers. Once raised, the structure requires continuous power to overcome the energy dissipated. Additional energy would be needed to power any vehicles. To launch, vehicles are raised up on an'elevator' cable that hangs down from the West station loading dock at 80 km, placed on the track; the payload applies a magnetic field. This both lifts the payload away from the cable, as well as pulls the payload along with 3g acceleration; the payload rides the rotor until it reaches the required orbital velocity, leaves the track. If a stable or circular orbit is needed, once the payload reaches the highest part of its trajectory an on-board rocket engine or other means is needed to circularize the trajectory to the appropriate Earth orbit.

The eddy current technique is compact and powerful, but inefficient. With each launch the rotor temperature increases by 80 kelvins due to power dissipation. If launches are spaced too close together, the rotor temperature can approach 770 °C, at which point the iron rotor loses its ferromagnetic properties and rotor containment is lost. Closed orbits with a perigee of 80 km quite decay and re-enter, but in addition to such orbits, a launch loop by itself would be capable of directly injecting payloads into escape orbits, gravity assist trajectories past the Moon, other non closed orbits such as close to the Trojan points. To access circular orbits using a launch loop a small'kick motor' would need to be launched with the payload which would fire at apogee and would circularise the orbit. For GEO insertion this would need to provide a delta-v of about 1.6 km/s, for LEO to circularise at 500 km would require a delta-v of just 120 m/s. Conventional rockets require delta-vs of 14 and 10 km/s to reach GEO and LEO respectively.

Launch loops in Lofstrom's design are placed close to the equator and can only directly access equatorial orbits. However other orbital planes might be reached via high altitude plane changes, lunar perturbations or aerodynamic techniques. Launch rate capacity of a launch loop is limited by the temperature and cooling rate of the rotor to 80 per hour, but that would require a 17 GW power station. For a launch loop to be economically viable it would require customers with sufficiently large payload launch requirements. Lofstrom estimates that an initial loop costing $10 billion with a one-year payback could launch 40,000 metric tons per year, cut launch costs to $300/kg. For $30 billion, with a larger power generation capacity, the loop would be capable of launching 6 million metric tons per year, given a five-year payback period, the costs for accessing space with a launch loop could be as low as $3/kg. Compared to space elevators, no new high-tensile strength materials have to be developed, since the structure resists Earth's gravity by supporting its own weight with the kinetic energy of the moving loop, not by tensile strength.


Tramway (industrial)

Tramways are laid railways, sometimes with the wagons or carriages moved without locomotives. Since individual tramway cars are not intended to carry the weight of typical standard-gauge railway equipment, the tramways over which they operate may be built of less substantial materials. Tramways can take many forms. Many, if not most, are narrow-gauge railway technologies. Motive power to move the trains can be manually pushed by hand, pulled by animals, cable hauled by a stationary engine, or use small locomotives. At the other extreme they could be complex and lengthy systems, such as the Lee Moor Tramway in the county of Devon, England, in the United Kingdom; the term is not in use in North America but in common use in the United Kingdom, elsewhere, where British Railway terminology and practices had large influences on management practices and railway cultures such as Australia, New Zealand, those parts of Asia that consulted with British experts when undergoing modernization. In New Zealand, they are known as bush tramways, while in parts of Australia where American experts were influential, the term is less common.

They do not carry passengers, although staff may make use of them, either or unofficially—and are not meant to be permanent. The term was applied to wagons running on primitive tracks in early England and Europe; the name seems to date from around 1517 and to be derived from an English dialect word for the shaft of a wheelbarrow—in turn from Low German traam beam. The tracks themselves were sometimes known as gangways, dating from before the 12th century, being simply planks laid upon the ground "going road". In south Wales and Somerset the term "dramway" is used, with vehicles being called drams; the alternative term is "wagonway" which consisted of horses and tracks which were used for hauling wagons. The wheels would be guided along grooves. In time, to combat wear, the timber would be reinforced with an iron strip covering; this developed to use "L"-shaped steel plates, the track being known as a plateway. The origin of the word railway is uncertain, but Benjamin Outram was referring to his lines as railways in the early 19th century.

The fact that many of these lines were built for horse-drawn vehicles, were dimensioned accordingly, is thought to be behind the modern 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge. An alternative appeared, the so-called "edge-rail" where the wagons were guided by having the wheels flanged instead of running in grooves. Since these rails were raised above the ground they were less to be blocked by debris, but they obstructed other traffic, they were, the forerunners of the modern railway. These early lines were built to transport minerals from mines to canal wharves. From about 1830, more extensive trunk railways appeared, becoming faster and more sophisticated and, for safety reasons, the requirements placed on them by Parliament became more and more stringent. See rail tracks; these restrictions were excessive for the small mineral lines and it became possible in the United Kingdom for them to be categorised as Light railways subject to certain provisos laid down by the Light Railways Act 1896. Meanwhile, in the United Kingdom the term tramway became the term for passenger vehicles that ran on tracks in the public highway, sharing with other road users.

Horse-drawn, they developed to use electric power from an overhead line. A development of the tramway in the United Kingdom dispensed with tracks, but retained electric power from overhead wires. In 2000 the CarGoTram began operating as a cargo tram for the Volkswagen factory in Dresden. In Australia, most "tramways" were in practice heavy railways, or equivalent to British light railways, but known as tramways for legal reasons; these include: Kerang–Koondrook Tramway, a 5 ft 3 in gauge private railway which junctioned with the Victorian Railways at Kerang. Yass Tramway, a standard gauge branch line operated by the New South Wales Government Railways. Silverton Tramway in New South Wales which junctioned end on with the South Australian Railways. Iron Knob Tramway in South Australia. 15 lines in Queensland operated by local councils under the Tramways Act of 1882, such as the Belmont Tramway and Beaudesert Shire Tramway. 28 sugar cane railways in Queensland, each operated by a sugar cane mill.

Pemberton Tramway, a tourist railway in Western Australia


Sollipulli is an ice-filled volcanic caldera and volcanic complex, which lies southeast of the small town of Melipeuco in the La Araucanía Region, Chile. It is part of the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes, one of the four volcanic belts in the Andes chain; the volcano has evolved in close contact with glacial ice. It differs from many calderas in that Sollipulli appears to have collapsed in a non-explosive manner; the age of collapse is not yet known. The ice drains through the north of the caldera. Sollipulli has developed on a basement formed by Cenozoic geological formations. Sollipulli was active in the Holocene epochs. A large Plinian eruption occurred 2,960–2,780 years before present, forming the Alpehué crater and generating a high eruption column and ignimbrite deposits; the last activity occurred 710 ± 60 years before present and formed the Chufquén scoria cone on the northern flank. Sollipulli is among the 118 volcanoes. Sollipulli lies in Cautín Province, Melipeuco commune; the Sollipulli volcano is in the western part of the Nevados de Sollipulli mountain range, bordered to the north and east by river valleys.

The communes of Curarrehue, Panguipulli and Villarrica are in the area, Melipeuco lies 20 km northwest. The volcano is part of the Kütralkura geopark project. Sollipulli is part of the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes, one of the four belts of volcanoes which are found in the mountain range; the other three are the Northern Volcanic Zone, the Central Volcanic Zone and the Austral Volcanic Zone. These volcanic zones are separated by gaps where there is no volcanic activity and the subduction of the Pacific Ocean crust is shallower than in the volcanically active areas. About 60 volcanoes have erupted in historical time in the Andes, 118 additional volcanic systems show evidence of Holocene eruptions. There are 60 volcanoes in the Southern Volcanic Zone; the volcanoes Llaima and Villarrica have been active during recent history. Sollipulli is a stratovolcano, which has one 4-kilometre-wide caldera on its summit and southwest of it the 1-kilometre-wide Alpehué crater; the crater is draped by pyroclastic flow deposits, its rim reaches a height of 200 m.

The rims of the caldera rise 150 m above the ice in the caldera. On the southern and eastern side the caldera is bordered by several lava domes; the caldera most was not formed by a large explosive eruption, considering that no deposits from such an eruption have been found. The volcano is formed by lava flows, lava domes, pillow lavas as well as pumice falls and other material; the edifice has a volume of about 85 km3 and covers a surface area of about 250 km2. Radial valleys extend away from the top. A number of particular landforms on Sollipulli formed under the influence of glacial ice, such as the caldera structure; the Nevados de Sollipulli mountain chain west of the Sollipulli caldera are a chain of volcanoes, eroded. They are formed by lava flows. Closer to the caldera they are better preserved, with individual flows issuing from fissure vents; this chain is one of several east–northeast striking volcano alignments in the Southern Volcanic Zone, the regional tectonics favour magma ascent along such alignments.

The flanks of the volcano are covered by lava flows. Glaciers and streams have smoothed the lava flows. Two scoria cones are situated on the northern flank, Chufquén and Redondo, each associated with lava flows. Both the main caldera and the Alpehué crater contain glaciers, which in the caldera reached a thickness of 650 m in 1992 and fills it; these glaciers feature typical ice structures such as crevasses and there may be a subglacial lake in the caldera. Three lakes are found in the caldera at its margins, the easterly Sharkfin lake, the southeasterly Dome lake and the southwesterly Alpehué lake; these northwest. Other than the caldera and crater glaciers, the only snow cover on Sollipulli is seasonal; the glacier within the caldera of Sollipulli is shrinking. The process of glacier retreat is accelerated by ash being deposited on the glacier through eruptions at the neighbouring volcano Puyehue-Cordón Caulle. In 2011, the volume of the glacier was 4.5 ± 0.5 km3. Melting of the glacier risks generating lahars and putting water supplies in the region into jeopardy.

Subduction has been ongoing on the western side of South America since 185 million years ago and has resulted in the formation of the Andes and volcanic activity within the range. About 27

Delia Lawrie

Delia Phoebe Lawrie is an Australian politician. She was a member of the Northern Territory Legislative Assembly from 2001 to 2016, representing the electorate of Karama, she was a Labor member from 2001 to 2015, served as their leader and Leader of the Opposition from 2012 to 2015. On 10 October 2015, following her loss of Labor preselection to recontest her seat at the 2016 election, she resigned from the party to sit as an independent. Born in the original Darwin Hospital, she attended Nightcliff Middle School, she worked as a journalist and as an industrial officer before entering Parliament. After Territory Labor won the second-largest majority government in the history of the Territory at the 2005 election, Lawrie was promoted to Chief Minister Clare Martin's cabinet as Minister for Family and Community Services and Minister for Sport and Recreation. In a 2006 cabinet reshuffle, she dropped Sport and Recreation and added Lands and Planning and Multicultural Affairs. Martin retired in 2007, was succeeded by Paul Henderson.

Following the resignation of Deputy Chief Minister Marion Scrymgour, Henderson named Lawrie deputy leader and hence Deputy Chief Minister. She served as Treasurer, Attorney-General and Minister for Justice. Following 25 August 2012 territory elections at which Labor was defeated, Henderson resigned as party leader and Lawrie was elected as his replacement. In 2012, the Henderson Labor government granted Unions NT a rent-free ten-year lease of the historic Stella Maris site in Darwin. An inquiry into the circumstances of the grant was initiated by the CLP government after the 2012 territory election, commissioner John Lawler found that the process was not transparent, that the conduct of Lawrie and Gerry McCarthy in relation to the grant was "not accountable or responsible". Lawrie claimed she had been denied procedural fairness, took the case to the NT Supreme Court, which dismissed her case on 1 April 2015. Attorney-general John Elferink referred Lawrie to the Northern Territory Police for investigation of "possible breaches of the criminal law".

After the failure of the Supreme Court case, the Labor caucus announced it had lost confidence in Lawrie's leadership, passed a spill motion. Michael Gunner announced. However, on 19 April, Lawrie announced she was resigning as leader to focus on the legal investigation, leaving Gunner to take the leadership unopposed, she declined a place in Gunner's shadow ministry and became the only backbench member of the eight-member ALP Caucus. In October 2015, the NT branch of the Labor Party disendorsed Lawrie, after concern her legal issues were harming Labor's election chances. Labor instead preselected Ngaree Ah Kit as its candidate in Karama at the next election. A few days after being disendorsed, Lawrie resigned from the Labor Party, stated that she would consider recontesting her seat as an independent candidate at the next election, she recontested her seat at the 2016 election as an independent but was narrowly defeated by ALP candidate Ngaree Ah Kit. In 2019 there was speculation that Lawrie would run again in the 2020 election but she ruled this out.

In 2019 it was alleged that Lawrie was behind a move to oust Michael Gunner, the man who ousted her as Labor leader, as Chief Minister and replaced him with Infrastructure Minister Eva Lawler according to leaked text messages. Lawler has denied any moves to oust Gunner. Delia Lawrie is the daughter of former Northern Territory politician Dawn Lawrie