Cluj-Napoca known as Cluj, is the fourth most populous city in Romania, the seat of Cluj County in the northwestern part of the country. Geographically, it is equidistant from Bucharest and Belgrade. Located in the Someșul Mic river valley, the city is considered the unofficial capital to the historical province of Transylvania. From 1790 to 1848 and from 1861 to 1867, it was the official capital of the Grand Principality of Transylvania; as of 2011, 324,576 inhabitants lived within the city limits, marking a slight increase from the figure recorded at the 2002 census. The Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area has a population of 411,379 people, while the population of the peri-urban area exceeds 420,000 residents; the new metropolitan government of Cluj-Napoca became operational in December 2008. According to a 2007 estimate provided by the County Population Register Service, the city hosts a visible population of students and other non-residents—an average of over 20,000 people each year during 2004–2007.
The city spreads out from St. Michael's Church in Unirii Square, built in the 14th century and named after the Archangel Michael, the patron saint of Cluj-Napoca; the boundaries of the municipality contain an area of 179.52 square kilometres. Cluj-Napoca experienced a decade of decline during the 1990s, its international reputation suffering from the policies of its mayor at the time, Gheorghe Funar. Today, the city is one of the most important academic, cultural and business centres in Romania. Among other institutions, it hosts the country's largest university, Babeș-Bolyai University, with its botanical garden. Cluj-Napoca held the titles of European Youth Capital in 2015 and European City of Sport in 2018. On the site of the city was a pre-Roman settlement named Napoca. After the AD 106 Roman conquest of the area, the place was known as Municipium Aelium Hadrianum Napoca. Possible etymologies for Napoca or Napuca include the names of some Dacian tribes such as the Naparis or Napaei, the Greek term napos, meaning "timbered valley" or the Indo-European root *snā-p-, "to flow, to swim, damp".
The first written mention of the city's current name – as a Royal Borough – was in 1213 under the Medieval Latin name Castrum Clus. Despite the fact that Clus as a county name was recorded in the 1173 document Thomas comes Clusiensis, it is believed that the county's designation derives from the name of the castrum, which might have existed prior to its first mention in 1213, not vice versa. With respect to the name of this camp, it is accepted as a derivation from the Latin term clausa – clusa, meaning "closed place", "strait", "ravine". Similar senses are attributed to the Slavic term kluč, meaning "a key" and the German Klause – Kluse; the Latin and Slavic names have been attributed to the valley that narrows or closes between hills just to the west of Cluj-Mănăștur. An alternative hypothesis relates the name of the city to its first magistrate, Miklus – Miklós / Kolos; the Hungarian form Kolozsvár, first recorded in 1246 as Kulusuar, underwent various phonetic changes over the years. Its Saxon name Clusenburg/Clusenbvrg appeared in 1348.
The Romanian name of the city used to be spelled alternately as Cluj or Cluș, the latter being the case in Mihai Eminescu's Poesis. In 1974, the communist authorities added "-Napoca" to the city's name as a nationalist gesture, emphasising its pre-Roman roots; the full name is used outside of official contexts. In Yiddish it is known as קלאזין or קלויזענבורג; the nickname "treasure city" was acquired in the late 16th century, refers to the wealth amassed by residents, including in the precious metals trade. The phrase is kincses város in Hungarian, given in Romanian as orașul comoară; the Roman Empire conquered Dacia in AD 101 and 106, during the rule of Trajan, the Roman settlement Napoca, established thereafter, is first recorded on a milestone discovered in 1758 in the vicinity of the city. Trajan's successor Hadrian granted Napoca the status of municipium as municipium Aelium Hadrianum Napocenses. In the 2nd century AD, the city gained the status of a colonia as Colonia Aurelia Napoca. Napoca became thus the seat of a procurator.
The colonia was evacuated in 274 by the Romans. There are no references to urban settlement on the site for the better part of a millennium thereafter. At the beginning of the Middle Ages, two groups of buildings existed on the current site of the city: the wooden fortress at Cluj-Mănăștur and the civilian settlement developed around the current Piața Muzeului in the city centre. Although the precise date of the conquest of Transylvania by the Hungarians is not known, the earliest Hungarian artifacts found in the region are dated to the first half of the 10th century. In any case, after that time, the city became part of the Kingdom of Hungary. King Stephen I made the city the seat of the castle county of Kolozs, King Saint Ladislaus I of Hungary founded the abbey of Cluj-Mănăștur, destroyed during the Tatar invasions in 12
Industrial porcelain enamel is the use of porcelain enamel for industrial, rather than artistic, applications. Porcelain enamel, a thin layer of ceramic or glass applied to a substrate of metal, is used to protect surfaces from chemical attack and physical damage, modify the structural characteristics of the substrate, improve the appearance of the product. Enamel has been used for art and decoration since the period of Ancient Egypt, for industry since the Industrial Revolution, it is most used in the production of cookware, home appliances, bathroom fixtures, water heaters, scientific laboratory equipment. The most important characteristic of porcelain enamel, from an industrial perspective, is its resistance to corrosion. Mild steel is used in every industry and a huge array of products, it can produce smooth, glossy finishes in a wide array of colours. Being a fired ceramic, porcelain enamel is highly heat-resistant. Porcelain enamel sees less frequent employment of some of its other properties.
Porcelain enamel is used most in the manufacture of products that will be expected to come under regular chemical attack or high heat such as cookware and laboratory equipment. It is used in the production of many household goods and appliances those used in the kitchen or bathroom area: pots, cooktops, sinks, bathtubs walls and other surfaces. Porcelain enamel is used architecturally as a coating for wall panels, it may be used externally to provide weather resistance and desirable appearance, or internally to provide wear resistance. In recent years, agricultural silos have been constructed with porcelain enamelled steel plates to protect the interior from corrosion and the exterior from weathering; the application of industrial porcelain enamel can be a complicated process involving many different and technical steps. All enamelling processes involve the preparation of frit, the unfired enamel mixture. Most modern applications involve two layers of enamel: a ground-coat to bond to the substrate and a cover-coat to provide the desired external properties.
Because frits must be mixed at higher temperatures than the firing requires, most modern industrial enamellers do not mix their own frits completely. For ground coats, the composition of a frit for any given application is determined by the metal used as the substrate: different varieties of steel, different metals such as aluminium and copper, require different frit compositions to bond to them. For cover coats the frit is composed to both bind to the ground-coat and produce the desired external properties. Frit is prepared by mixing the ingredients and milling the mixture into a powder; the ingredients, most metal oxides and minerals such as quartz, soda ash and cobalt oxide, are acquired in particulate form. Once prepared, this powdered frit is slumped and stirred to promote distribution of materials. After smelting, the frit is again milled into a powder, most by ball mill grinding. For wet application of enamel, a slurry of frit suspended in water must be created. In order to remain in suspension, frits must either be milled to an fine particle size or mixed with a suspension agent such as clay or electrolytes.
The metal to be used as a substrate is determined by the application to which the product will be put, independent of any enamel considerations. Most used are steels of various compositions, but used are aluminium and copper. Before the application of enamel, the surface of the substrate must be prepared with a number of processes; the most important processes are the cleaning of the surface of the substrate. To facilitate this, frequent processes performed on substrates are degreasing, alkaline neutralization, rinsing. Enamel may be applied to the substrate via many different methods; these methods are most delineated into either wet or dry applications, determined by whether the enamel is applied as a dry powder or a liquid slurry suspension. The simplest method of dry application for cast-iron substrates, is to heat the substrate and roll it in powdered frit; the frit particles adhere to its surface. This method req
Globe Rowing Club is a rowing club in Greenwich, an area in the South East of London, England. Established in 1923, the club house and boat house are based on Crane Street in the historic centre of Greenwich, as part of the Trafalgar Rowing Trust; the club uses both the River Thames and the London Regatta Centre at the Royal Docks for water outings, admits male and female rowers of all ages, but is known for its high performance Junior programme. The rowing club was established at J. Stone & Co's engineering works in Deptford's Arklow Road and was called Stones Rowing Club, with membership restricted to company employees. In the first years after the club was established, the boats used were heavy Clinker fours, hired from local waterman in East Greenwich and were used on Sunday mornings; this was found to be cost prohibitive and, in time, the club applied to Stone's engineering works for a grant to purchase new equipment. This was refused, as a result the club broke away from the works and set up independently to attract new members from elsewhere, with headquarters in the nearby Lord Clyde public house.
The club was hence known as the Clyde Rowing Club. During the mid 1930s, the headquarters were moved to another public house, The Globe on Royal Hill in Greenwich, from which the rowing club took its current name, Globe Rowing Club; the club had a headquarters at the nearby Mitre public house in Greenwich. Globe was only the second club in East London after Curlew Rowing Club to hold club regattas, with the earliest taking place shortly after the end of the Second World War, the participants being watermen working on nearby Thames shuttles and barges; the club was the first rowing club in East London to use an eight. In August 1981, members of Globe Rowing Club set a Guinness World Record for "The greatest distance for paddling a hand propelled bath tub in 24 hr...by a team of 25" The record distance set was "60 miles 88 yd". In 2006, Greenwich Council granted permission, with contributions from Sport England, the Trafalgar 2001 Trust Ltd for the club to develop the facilities on the corner of Crane Street and Eastney Street, creating a heated, lit boathouse, indoor training room and clubhouse known as the Trafalgar Rowing Centre.
In the early 2010s, Globe's Junior section began a partnership with non-profit organisation London Youth Rowing, to bring indoor and water rowing to increase participation in the sport and allow those from disadvantaged backgrounds to participate. Many of the junior members who have gone on to achieve national and international rowing success have done so as a result of the partnership with LYR; the Junior section of Globe Rowing Club achieved national and international attention in the 2015–2018 quadrennium for a series of national and international medal wins and the unprecedented inclusion of 6 junior globe members in the Great British rowing trial squad. Notable results include. In 2017, Globe Junior Julia Olawumi became the first rower from the club to commit to a NCAA Division 1 school for rowing choosing the University of Tulsa in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Globe Rowing Club Website