A cluster munition is a form of air-dropped or ground-launched explosive weapon that releases or ejects smaller submunitions. This is a cluster bomb that ejects explosive bomblets that are designed to kill personnel and destroy vehicles. Other cluster munitions are designed to destroy runways or electric power transmission lines, disperse chemical or biological weapons, or to scatter land mines; some submunition-based weapons can disperse non-munitions, such as leaflets. Because cluster bombs release many small bomblets over a wide area, they pose risks to civilians both during attacks and afterwards. Unexploded bomblets can kill or maim civilians and/or unintended targets long after a conflict has ended, are costly to locate and remove. Cluster munitions are prohibited for those nations that ratify the Convention on Cluster Munitions, adopted in Dublin, Ireland in May 2008; the Convention entered into force and became binding international law upon ratifying states on 1 August 2010, six months after being ratified by 30 states.
As of 1 April 2018, a total of 120 states have joined the Convention, as 103 States parties and 17 Signatories. The first cluster bomb used operationally was the German SD-2 or Sprengbombe Dickwandig 2 kg referred to as the Butterfly Bomb, it was used in World War II to attack both military targets. The technology was developed independently by the United States and Italy; the US used the 20-lb M41 fragmentation bomb wired together in clusters of 6 or 25 with sensitive or proximity fuzes. From the 1970s to the 1990s cluster bombs became standard air-dropped munitions for many nations, in a wide variety of types, they have been produced by 34 countries and used in at least 23. Artillery shells that employ similar principles have existed for decades, they are referred to as ICM shells. The US military slang terms for them are "firecracker" or "popcorn" shells, for the many small explosions they cause in the target area. A basic cluster bomb consists of a hollow shell and two to more than 2,000 submunitions or bomblets contained within it.
Some types are dispensers that are designed to be retained by the aircraft after releasing their munitions. The submunitions themselves may be fitted with small parachute retarders or streamers to slow their descent. Modern cluster bombs and submunition dispensers can be multiple-purpose weapons containing a combination of anti-armor, anti-personnel, anti-materiel munitions; the submunitions themselves may be multi-purpose, such as combining a shaped charge, to attack armour, with a fragmenting case, to attack infantry and light vehicles. They may have an incendiary function. Since the 1990s submunition-based weapons have been designed that deploy smart submunitions, using thermal and visual sensors to locate and attack particular targets armored vehicles. Weapons of this type include the US CBU-97 sensor-fuzed weapon, first used in combat during Operation Iraqi Freedom, the 2003 invasion of Iraq; some munitions intended for anti-tank use can be set to self-destruct if they reach the ground without locating a target, theoretically reducing the risk of unintended civilian deaths and injuries.
Although smart submunition weapons are much more expensive than standard cluster bombs, fewer smart submunitions are required to defeat dispersed and mobile targets offsetting their cost. Because they are designed to prevent indiscriminate area effects and unexploded ordnance risks, these submunitions are not classified as cluster munitions under the Convention on Cluster Munitions. Incendiary cluster bombs are intended to start fires, just like conventional incendiary bombs, they contain submunitions of white phosphorus or napalm, can be combined anti-personnel and anti-tank submunitions to hamper firefighting efforts. In urban areas they have been preceded by the use of conventional explosive bombs to fracture the roofs and walls of buildings to expose their flammable contents. One of the earliest examples is the so-called Molotov bread basket used by the Soviet Union in the Winter War of 1939–40. Incendiary clusters were extensively used by both sides in the strategic bombings of World War II.
They caused firestorms and conflagrations in the bombing of Dresden in World War II and the firebombing of Tokyo. Some modern bomb submunitions deliver a combustible thermobaric aerosol that results in a high pressure explosion when ignited. Anti-personnel cluster bombs use explosive fragmentation to destroy soft targets. Along with incendiary cluster bombs, these were among the first types of cluster bombs produced by Nazi Germany during World War II, they were used during the Blitz with delay and booby-trap fusing to hamper firefighting and other damage-control efforts in the target areas. They were used with a contact fuze when attacking entrenchments; these weapons were used during the Vietnam War when many thousands of tons of submunitions were dropped on Laos and Vietnam. Most anti-armor munitions contain shaped charge warheads to pierce the armor of tanks and armored fighting vehicles. In some cases, guidance is used to increase the likelihood of hitting a vehicle. Modern guided submunitions, such as those found in the U.
S. CBU-97, can use an explosively formed penetrator. Unguided shaped-charge submunitions are designed to be effective against entrenchments that incorporate overhead cover. To simplify supply and increase battlefield effectiveness by allowing a single type of round to be used against nearly any target, submunitions that incorporate both fragmentation and shaped-charge effec
The green parakeet is a medium-sized parrot native to Central America, from the southernmost tip of Texas south to northern Nicaragua. This species was placed in the genus Aratinga as A. holochlora, divided into various subspecies. It was split into three species as green conure, pacific conure, Socorro conure. Today it is recognised as single species with a threatened subspecies endemic to Socorro in the Revillagigedo Islands, Mexico; the bird is 32 cm in length, is green in color. It has a yellow beak; the bird feeds on seeds, various fruits, corn. It can sometimes be considered a crop pest. Wild birds use scrub and swamp forests and forest clearings; the US population takes advantage of palm groves in cities. Green parakeet pairs find holes in trees in which to nest, where the female lays three or four eggs, it nests colonially in crevices on cliff faces. After the breeding season is completed, the birds form large communal roosts; the species occurs from southern Texas and northern Mexico south through the Middle American isthmus to southwestern Nicaragua.
It inhabits a variety of woody habitats. In western Nicaragua, their nesting sites lie within the El Chocoyero - El Brujo Protected Area, but the birds still face threats from the outside world when they leave the reserve to feed; the A. brevipes subspecies is threatened by habitat loss due to feral sheep and predation by feral cats. Surveys from 2006 and 2007 estimated a population around 300 individuals, suggesting a population decline from previous population estimates; the status of populations in southern Texas is unclear, with some claiming them to be feral escapees. However, the groups in the Rio Grande Valley are now regarded as occurring because of the proximity of confirmed native populations, the deforestation of Tamaulipas which forced them to disperse, earlier evidence from 1911 of these parakeets consuming a strawberry harvest at Combs, it has become an invasive species around the world, as well. It has been sighted in the Iberian peninsula of birds that escaped from their owners and return to the wild.
National Geographic Field Guide to the Birds of North America ISBN 0-7922-6877-6 National Audubon Society The Sibley Guide to Birds, by David Allen Sibley, ISBN 0-679-45122-6
Raúl Corrales Fornos was a Cuban photographer. Since 1961 he was member of the Photography Section of the Union de Escritores y Artistas de Cuba. Corrales was moved to Havana as a child, he worked as a newspaper vendor, a shoeshine boy and a janitor, but his hobby of photography grew more and more serious. In the 1950s Corrales joined the Partido Socialista Popular and worked as a photographer for the Party's newspaper, he specialized in going to the remote parts of Cuba to photograph the everyday lives of poor peasants and workers. During a police raid in the late 1950s all of Corrales photographic work was destroyed. After the Revolution of 1959 against the Batista Government, Raúl Corrales joined the Communist Party of Cuba, he was one of Fidel Castro's official photographers for many years. Corrales worked for three decades in the Office of Historical Affairs, helping to preserve and organize the Castro dictatorships documentary and photographic legacy, he had many exhibitions of his work, such as 35 con la 35 at the Galería Habana in 1980.
In 1985 his work was seen in Homenaje a Raúl Corrales at the Museo Nacional de Bellas Havana. In 1993 Visa pour l'Image. 5 Festival International du Photoreportage was seen at France. His photos were exhibited in 1998 in Raúl Corrales. Exposición Retrospectiva at the Fototeca de Cuba, Havana. In 2002 Raúl Corrales was shown at the Couturier Gallery, Los Angeles and the C. Grimaldis Gallery, Maryland, he formed part of many collective exhibitions: In 1966 Primera Muestra de la Cultura Cubana was seen at Pabellón Cuba, Havana. In 1978 some of his images were selected and presented in Hecho en Latinoamérica I, Primera Muestra de la Fotografía Latinoamericana Contemporánea at the Museo de Arte Moderno, Mexico, he was part of the exhibition Cuba Then and Now at the Gallery at 678, New York City, in 1998 and in 2002 Cuba 1960-2000. Sogno e realtá at the Italian Foundation for Turín, Italy. Corrales won the Premio Salón de Artes Plásticas, UNEAC in 1979, he was awarded Salón 23 y M, Hotel Habana Libre. In 1996 he was recognized with the National Prize Of Visual Arts, granted by the Ministerio de Cultura of Cuba.
His work can be found in collections such as at the Centro Studi e Archivio della Comunicazione, Universidad de Parma, Italy. In Cuba his work can be found in important collections: Casa de las Américas and Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Havana. Corrales was survived by his wife Norma López Corrales, a daughter, two sons, his granddaughter, Claudia Corrales, is an accomplished photographer, works as a resource person for National Geographic Photographic Expeditions in Cuba. "Photographer Raul Corrales, 81".
The Bonelli's eagle is a large bird of prey. The common name of the bird commemorates the Italian ornithologist and collector Franco Andrea Bonelli, credited with gathering the type specimen likely from an exploration of Sardinia; some antiquated texts refer to this species as the crestless hawk-eagle. Like all eagles, Bonelli's eagle belongs to the family Accipitridae, its feathered legs marked it as member of the booted eagle subfamily. This species breeds from southern Europe, Africa on the montane perimeter of the Sahara Desert and across the Indian Subcontinent to Indonesia. On the great Eurasian continent, this may be found a nesting species as far west as Portugal and as far east as southeastern China and Thailand, it is a resident breeder. The Bonelli's eagle is found in hilly or mountainous habitats, with rocky walls or crags and open to wooded land, in arid to semi-moist climate, from sea level to 1,500 m; this eagle, though it can be considered opportunistic, is something of a special predator of certain birds and mammals rabbits and pigeons.
On evidence, when staple prey populations decline or are locally scarce, Bonelli's eagle switch to being an opportunistic predator of a wide variety of birds. Despite its persistence over a large range and its continued classification as a least concern species by the IUCN, the Bonelli's eagle has declined precipitously in various parts of its range, including all of its European distribution, may face potential local extinction due to widespread habitat destruction, electrocution from electricity pylons and persistent persecution. Bonelli's eagle is a member of the Aquilinae or booted eagles, a rather monophyletic subfamily of the accipitrid family. At least 38 species are housed in the subfamily, all with signature well-feathered tarsi; the African hawk-eagle was once lumped with the Bonelli's eagle but several morphological differences between the two species, life history discrepancies and their allopatric distribution lead them to being considered separate species. Despite the differences between the Bonelli's eagle and the African hawk-eagle the two species are visibly similar and are still considered sister species.
Recent DNA research resulted in the two species being moved, in 2014, to the genus Aquila from Hieraaetus, along with another dissimilar species, the Cassin's hawk-eagle. More and Bonelli's, African hawk- and Cassin's hawk-eagles were found to be genetically related to the golden eagle species complex, which includes Verreaux's eagle, Gurney's eagle and wedge-tailed eagle; these species are all rather larger than the Bonelli's and African hawk-eagles with differing proportions to their wings and legs and much darker coloured plumages. Furthermore, the four other traditional members of the genus Aquila have been revealed to be a separate species complex despite showing superficial similarity to the golden eagle group, i.e. being large and long winged with rather dark colours. Beyond the nominate subspecies of Bonelli's eagle, found throughout its range in Eurasia, a second subspecies dwells in the Lesser Sunda Islands, A. f. renschi. The latter race is linearly smaller, compared to other Bonelli's eagles tends to have more strikingly barred remiges and tail, the belly and crissum more boldly marked.
At one time, its restricted and isolated range have caused authors to suggest A. f. renschi may be a full species but recent studies have indicated that it is not genetically distinct enough to be considered a separate species. Furthermore, the most recent analysis couldn't rule out early introductions at least playing a part in the species presence in the Lesser Sundas, as some other established wild birds on those islands are certain to have reached there by early human introductions; the Bonelli's eagle is a large bird of prey and a medium-sized eagle. When still classified as a member of the genus Hieraaetus, it was considered the largest extant species therein, however, as a member of Aquila it is amongst the smallest-bodied species. Amongst the accepted species of Aquila eagles, it is of similar size to the tawny eagle larger than the African hawk-eagle and notably larger than the Cassin's hawk-eagle. Like most birds of prey, the Bonelli's eagle displays reverse sexual dimorphism as the female is larger than the male to the contrary of most other kinds of birds, in this case she may average about 10% larger overall.
Total length in fully-grown eagles of the species can vary from 55 to 74 cm. Wingspan in males can vary from 143 to 163 cm. Prior claims put the weight of this species as 1.4 to 2.4 kg, however this slightly underrepresents both their size and the sexual dimorphism of this eagle. A large sample of full grown males from western Europe were found to average 1.94 kg, with a range of 1.4 to 2.24 kg, while 87 females were found to average 2.62 kg, with a range of 2.1 to 3.03 kg. Mature males from western Europe were found to have averaged 65 cm in total length and 155 cm in wingspan while mature females averaged 70.7 cm in total length and 167.8 cm in wingspan. Although the linear measurements increase in average size in the eastern Asian part of the range, body weight was similar or sl
Pulmonary enteric adenocarcinoma is rare subtype of pulmonary adenocarcinoma. The presentation is similar to that of other lung cancers. There is nothing in the radiological appearances. Two-thirds of reported cases have occurred in the right lung; the reason for this difference may be due to chance. The typical histological appearance of this tumour of tall columnar cells arranged in an irregular glandular cavity or cribriform pattern with extensive central necrosis; the cells resemble those of colorectal carcinomas. Diagnosis of this type of lung cancer is by biopsy and special staining. CT and colonoscopy to rule out a colonic primary are recommended. Optimal treatment for this condition is not known. Surgery to remove the lesion is the usual form of treatment. Whether radiotherapy or chemotherapy can offer any advantage is not known; the small number of reported cases makes any prognostication difficult. Survival seems to be somewhat better than the more common types of lung cancer; this type is considered to be rare with fewer than 30 reports in the literature.
The male:female ratio is 1. This condition is more common in smokers; this type of lung cancer was first recognised by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer in 2011. It was first described in 1991
The status of women in Ghana and their roles in Ghanaian society has changed over the past few decades. There has been a slow increase in the political participation of Ghanaian women throughout history. Women are given equal rights under the Constitution of Ghana, yet disparities in education and health for women remain prevalent. Additionally, women have much less access to resources. Ghanaian women in rural and urban areas face different challenges. Throughout Ghana, female-headed households are increasing. Multiple forms of violence against women still exist in Ghana. In recent years, feminist organizations and women's rights groups have increased. Efforts to bring about gender equality continue to grow in Ghana; the government of Ghana has signed on to numerous international goals and conventions to enhance women's rights in Ghana. Although women are guaranteed political participation rights under the 1992 Ghana Constitution, there is a lack of female representation in government. There has never been a female president in Ghana.
In 2012, 19 women occupied seats in Parliament. In 2017, the number of women elected to Parliament grew, 37 women were elected. However, Ghanaian women still make up only 13.5% of Parliament. In the courts, the Chief Justice is Sophia Akuffo, the second women to be appointed to this position; the first women to be appointed as Chief Justice was Georgina Wood. Additionally, women only make up a small percentage of the total judges in Supreme Courts. In 2009, 23% of Supreme Court judges were women. There has been a slow increase of women in Parliament since the adoption of the multiparty system in 1992. Ghana has taken multiple steps to increase equality in the political sphere. For example, the government signed and ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination. There are many institutions in Ghana. Women's groups and activists in Ghana are demanding for gender policies and programmes to improve the livelihood of women. Additionally, the government has a ministry dedicated to women and the Ministry of Gender and Social Protection focuses on policy formation on issues that pertain to women and children.
Despite the efforts of NGOs and political parties, female participation in politics in Ghana remains low. The lack of political participation from women in Ghana can be attributed to longstanding cultural norms; the traditional belief that women in Ghana should not have responsibilities outside the home contributes to the deficiency of women in politics. Leadership is a skill, traditionally associated with boys and men; when women in Ghana take leadership positions, they can face discrimination. Polygyny refers to marriages. In precolonial times, polygyny was encouraged for wealthy men. Polygamy was traditionally seen as a source of labor for men, as multiple wives allowed for more unpaid labor. In patrilineal societies, dowry received from marrying off daughters was a traditional means for fathers to accumulate additional wealth. Today, the percentage of women in polygynous marriages in rural areas is double that of women in urban areas; the age group with the most women in polygynous marriages is 45–49, followed by the 15–19 age group and the 40–44 group.
Rates of polygynous marriages decrease as wealth level increase. In traditional societies, marriage under customary law was arranged or agreed upon by the fathers and other senior kinsmen of the prospective bride and bridegroom; this type of marriage served to link the two families/groups together in social relationships. The age at which marriage was arranged varied among ethnic groups, but men married women somewhat younger than they were; some of the marriages were arranged by the families long before the girl attained puberty. In these matters, family considerations outweighed personal ones – a situation that further reinforced the subservient position of the wife; the alienation of women from the acquisition of wealth in conjugal relationships, was strengthened by traditional living arrangements. Among matrilineal groups, such as the Akan, married women continued to reside at their maternal homes. Meals prepared by the wife would be carried to the husband at his maternal house. In polygynous situations, visitation schedules would be arranged.
The separate living patterns reinforced the idea that each spouse is subject to the authority of a different household head, because spouses are always members of different lineages, each is subject to the authority of the senior men of his or her lineage. The wife, as an outsider in the husband's family, would not inherit any of his property, other than that granted to her by her husband as gifts in token appreciation of years of devotion; the children from this matrilineal marriage would be expected to inherit from their mother's family. The Dagomba, on the other hand, inherit from fathers. In these patrilineal societies where the domestic group includes the man, his wife or wives, their children, several dependent relatives, the wife was brought into closer proximity to the husband and his paternal family, her male children assured her of more direct access to wealth accumulated in the marriage with her husband. Today, marriage dynamics vary between rural and urban areas. Polygyny is more common in rural areas, a married woman is supported by large groups of relatives as well as co-wives.
Urban Ghana has adopted a more "Western" practice of m