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Cnidaria

Cnidaria is a phylum under kingdom Animalia containing over 11,000 species of aquatic animals found both in freshwater and marine environments: they are predominantly marine. Their distinguishing feature is cnidocytes, specialized cells that they use for capturing prey, their bodies consist of mesoglea, a non-living jelly-like substance, sandwiched between two layers of epithelium that are one cell thick. They have two basic body forms: swimming medusae and sessile polyps, both of which are radially symmetrical with mouths surrounded by tentacles that bear cnidocytes. Both forms have a single body cavity that are used for digestion and respiration. Many cnidarian species produce colonies that are single organisms composed of medusa-like or polyp-like zooids, or both. Cnidarians' activities are coordinated by simple receptors. Several free-swimming species of Cubozoa and Scyphozoa possess balance-sensing statocysts, some have simple eyes. Not all cnidarians reproduce sexually, with many species having complex life cycles of asexual polyp stages and sexual medusae.

Some, omit either the polyp or the medusa stage. Cnidarians were grouped with ctenophores in the phylum Coelenterata, but increasing awareness of their differences caused them to be placed in separate phyla. Cnidarians are classified into four main groups: the wholly sessile Anthozoa. Staurozoa have been recognised as a class in their own right rather than a sub-group of Scyphozoa, the parasitic Myxozoa and Polypodiozoa were recognized as cnidarians in 2007. Most cnidarians prey on organisms ranging in size from plankton to animals several times larger than themselves, but many obtain much of their nutrition from dinoflagellates, a few are parasites. Many are preyed on by other animals including starfish, sea slugs, fish and other cnidarians. Many scleractinian corals—which form the structural foundation for coral reefs—possess polyps that are filled with symbiotic photo-synthetic zooxanthellae. While reef-forming corals are entirely restricted to warm and shallow marine waters, other cnidarians can be found at great depths, in polar regions, in freshwater.

Recent phylogenetic analyses support monophyly of cnidarians, as well as the position of cnidarians as the sister group of bilaterians. Fossil cnidarians have been found in rocks formed about 580 million years ago, other fossils show that corals may have been present shortly before 490 million years ago and diversified a few million years later. However, molecular clock analysis of mitochondrial genes suggests a much older age for the crown group of cnidarians, estimated around 741 million years ago 200 million years before the Cambrian period as well as any fossils. Cnidarians form a phylum of animal that are more complex than sponges, about as complex as ctenophores, less complex than bilaterians, which include all other animals. Both cnidarians and ctenophores are more complex than sponges as they have: cells bound by inter-cell connections and carpet-like basement membranes. Cnidarians are distinguished from all other animals by having cnidocytes that fire harpoon like structures and are used to capture prey.

In some species, cnidocytes can be used as anchors. Cnidarians are distinguished by the fact that they have only one opening in their body for ingestion and excretion i.e. they don't have a separate mouth and anus. Like sponges and ctenophores, cnidarians have two main layers of cells that sandwich a middle layer of jelly-like material, called the mesoglea in cnidarians. Hence and ctenophores have traditionally been labelled diploblastic, along with sponges. However, both cnidarians and ctenophores have a type of muscle that, in more complex animals, arises from the middle cell layer; as a result, some recent text books classify ctenophores as triploblastic, it has been suggested that cnidarians evolved from triploblastic ancestors. Most adult cnidarians appear as either free-swimming medusae or sessile polyps, many hydrozoans species are known to alternate between the two forms. Both are radially symmetrical, like a tube respectively. Since these animals have no heads, their ends are described as "oral" and "aboral".

Most have fringes of tentacles equipped with cnidocytes around their edges, medusae have an inner ring of tentacles around the mouth. Some hydroids may consist of colonies of zooids that serve different purposes, such as defense and catching prey; the mesoglea of polyps is thin and soft, but that of medusae is thick and springy, so that it returns to its original shape after muscles around the edge have contracted to squeeze water out, enabling medusae to swim by a sort of jet propulsion. In medusae the only supporting structure is the mesoglea. Hydra and most sea anemones close their mouths when they are not feeding, the water in the digestive cavity acts as a hydrostatic skeleton, rather like a water-filled balloon. Other polyps such as Tubularia use columns of water-filled cells for support. Sea pens stiffen the mesoglea with calcium carbonate spicules and tough fibrous proteins, rather like sponges. In some colonial polyps, a chitinous periderm gives

Pushmonkey (album)

Pushmonkey is the second studio album by the American band Pushmonkey, released in 1998. All songs composed by Pushmonkey "Lefty" – 4:23 "Now" – 5:12 "No Dumb Wrong" – 3:52 "Cut the Cord" – 4:30 "Handslide" – 3:25 "Caught My Mind" – 3:56 "Ashtray Red" – 3:42 "Spider" – 3:11 "Limitless" – 5:50 "Loner" – 4:14 "Maybe" – 4:24 Tony Park – lead vocals, trumpet Darwin Keys – drums, vocals Will Hoffman – guitar, vocals Pat Fogarty – bass, vocals Howie Behrens – guitar, vocals

Number Ones (Janet Jackson album)

Number Ones is the second greatest hits album by American recording artist Janet Jackson, released on November 17, 2009, by Interscope Geffen A&M Records and Universal Music Enterprises. The double-disc album is composed of 33 of her number-one hit singles spanning various music charts across the globe. Number Ones collects singles from her third studio album Control to her 10th studio album Discipline, was made possible as a joint venture between Universal and EMI Music; the album's single, "Make Me", was made available for digital download on September 22, 2009. On December 22, "Make Me" became her 19th number-one hit single on the Billboard Hot Dance Club Songs chart; the compilation album was acclaimed by music critics, who praised her catalogue and influence in the music industry. Jackson promoted the album with interviews and television performances, including a performance on American Music Awards 2009, it was further promoted with the Number Ones, Up Close and Personal Tour in 2011, which visited North America, Asia and Africa.

In September 2009, Janet Jackson performed "Scream" on the 2009 MTV Video Music Awards as part of a medley tribute to Michael Jackson, who died three months earlier. Following this, "Make Me" was released on Jackson's official website as an audio stream for those who joined the site's e-mail newsletter. On September 22, 2009 it was released as a digital download for purchase. Although claims were made that "Make Me" is a tribute song to her late brother, Michael Jackson's 1979 single "Don't Stop'Til You Get Enough", Jackson stated in an interview with Ryan Seacrest it is not, despite the similarity of the lyrics in the song's outro. In October 2009, UMe issued a press release stating "Make Me" would be included in Jackson's second greatest hits album, comprising 33 of her global number one singles; the two-disc set spans chart-topping singles from Control to Discipline across the Billboard Hot 100, Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs, Hot Dance Club Songs, Hot Adult Contemporary Tracks, international charts such as Oricon and the South African Singles Chart.

Number Ones debuted at number 22 on the Billboard 200, selling 40,374 copies in its first week, has since sold 273,000 in the US. The Best was certified Gold in the UK for sales in excess of 100,000. "Make Me" became Jackson's nineteenth number one on the Hot Dance Club Songs chart. She became the first artist to earn number one singles on the Dance/Club play chart across the last four decades, starting from the 1980s to the 2010s. Number Ones received universal acclaim from music critics. Sal Cinquemani of Slant Magazine gave the album four-and-a-half stars, commenting "that the songs on Janet Jackson's first-ever comprehensive hits collection, Number Ones, have been sequenced in chronological order only magnifies the impact she had on late-'80s and early-'90s pop, when she helped define the sound of Top 40 radio along with the likes of Madonna and her brother Michael." He comments on the commercial decline of her recent work, stating "ut just as Number Ones's sequencing highlights Janet's impressive early years, it underscores her startlingly abrupt decline...and the "hits" from her last three albums are a mere footnote here."

Andy Kellman of Allmusic remarked: "Say what you want about Janet peaking with Jam & Lewis during the latter half of the'80s—to be fair, the argument is valid—but she did rack up a career's worth of solid hits during the years that followed. If they were not as sonically innovative and lacked the same amount of pop appeal of the Control/Rhythm Nation-era singles, they made a significant impact and have aged well." Val Christopher of Rockstar Weekly commented, "A look back at Jackson's storied career provides more than ample reason for her being one of the world's most recognizable people. Number Ones opens with a string of Jackson's best and most memorable tracks.'What Have You Done For Me Lately','Nasty','Control','Miss You Much' and her finest single,'Rhythm Nation'." "Make Me": It was released as the first and only single from the album on September 22, 2009. It is the only new song included on the album; the song was presented as an audio stream to those who joined her official mailing list in September that month it was released via digital download.

The song failed to chart on the US Billboard Hot 100, but it reached the number one position on the Hot Dance Club Songs chart and it peaked at number 71 on the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart. It entered the top 50 in Italy, the top 20 in Japan and the top 75 in UK. To celebrate the release of Number Ones, Universal Music Group and Flash Mob America organized three fan gatherings on November 14, 2009 in Los Angeles. Kyle Anderson of MTV reported fans' gatherings in various Los Angeles locations "to dance and pay tribute to some of the veteran diva's best dance moves and songs." Jackson made an appearance at the gathering. ABC's In the Spotlight with Robin Roberts interviewed Jackson in a one-hour interview special that aired on November 18, 2009. A few days singer performed an eight-minute medley of six hits during the American Music Awards of 2009, it included "Control", "Miss You Much", "What Have You Done for Me Lately", "If", "Make Me", finished with "Together Again". At the end of the performance, the singer received standing ovation from the audience.

Jackson traveled to the United Kingdom to further promote the album. She performed "Make Me" on The X Factor results show on December 6, 2009, she pre-recorded the performance so she could perform as the headliner of the Jingle Bell Ball in London. She closed the concert with a medley of her greates