Monocoque, structural skin, is a structural system where loads are supported through an objects external skin, similar to an egg shell. The word monocoque is a French term for single shell or single hull, a true monocoque carries both tensile and compressive forces within the skin and can be recognised by the absence of a load carrying internal frame. By contrast, a semi-monocoque is a combining a tensile stressed skin. Other semi-monocoques not to be confused with true monocoques include vehicle unibodies, which tend to be composites, early aircraft were constructed using frames, typically of wood or steel tubing, which could be covered with fabric such as irish linen or cotton. The skin added nothing to the strength of the airframe and was dead weight beyond providing a smooth sealed surface. This reduced drag so effectively it was able to win most of the races it was entered into, however, it was prone to damage from moisture and delamination. While all metal aircraft from the Junkers firm had appeared as early as 1915, the first metal monocoques were built by Claudius Dornier, while working for Zeppelin-Lindau.
After failed attempts with several large flying boats in which a few components were monocoques, the aluminum alloy monocoque chassis was first used in the 1962 Lotus 25 Formula 1 race car. The term monocoque is frequently misused when referring to unibody cars, in motor racing, the safety of the driver depends on the car body which must meet stringent regulations and a few cars have been built with monocoque structures. Tanks and other armored vehicles such as the German Fuchs 2 and this reduces weight for a given amount of armor compared to vehicles to which armor has been attached to an underlying frame. A monocoque-framed motorcycle was developed by the Spanish motorcycle manufacturer, Ossa won four Grand Prix races with the monocoque bike before their rider was killed during the 1970 Isle of Man TT, causing the Ossa factory to withdraw from Grand Prix competition. Notable designers such as Eric Offenstadt and Dan Hanebrink created unique monocoque designs in the early 1970s, the 1973 Isle of Man TT was won by Peter Williams on the monocoque-framed Norton John Player Special that he helped design.
Honda experimented with a monocoque Grand Prix racing motorcycle named the NR500 in 1979, in 1987 John Britten developed the Aero-D One, featuring a composite monocoque chassis that weighed only 12 kg. The first time an aluminium monocoque frame appeared on a production motorcycle was the 2000 Kawasaki Ninja ZX-12R. This was Kawasakis flagship production sportbike aimed at being the fastest production motorcycle, various rockets have used pressure-stabilized monocoque designs, such as Atlas and Falcon 1. Balloon tanks are not true monocoques but act in the way as inflatable shells. A balloon tank skin only handles tensile forces while compression is resisted by internal pressure in a way similar to semi-monocoques braced by a solid frame. This becomes obvious when internal pressure is lost and the structure collapses, the Handle is an electric guitar characterized by its hollow sectioned monocoque chassis, created by the award-winning designer Peter Solomon
Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, his second wife, who was executed two and a half years after Elizabeths birth. Annes marriage to Henry VIII was annulled, and Elizabeth was declared illegitimate, edwards will was set aside and Mary became queen, deposing Lady Jane Grey. During Marys reign, Elizabeth was imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels, in 1558, Elizabeth succeeded her half-sister to the throne and set out to rule by good counsel. She depended heavily on a group of trusted advisers, led by William Cecil, one of her first actions as queen was the establishment of an English Protestant church, of which she became the Supreme Governor. This Elizabethan Religious Settlement was to evolve into the Church of England and it was expected that Elizabeth would marry and produce an heir to continue the Tudor line.
She never did, despite numerous courtships, as she grew older, Elizabeth became famous for her virginity. A cult grew around her which was celebrated in the portraits, pageants, in government, Elizabeth was more moderate than her father and half-siblings had been. One of her mottoes was video et taceo, in religion, she was relatively tolerant and avoided systematic persecution. Elizabeth was cautious in foreign affairs, manoeuvring between the powers of France and Spain. She only half-heartedly supported a number of ineffective, poorly resourced military campaigns in the Netherlands, France, by the mid-1580s, England could no longer avoid war with Spain. Englands defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 associated Elizabeth with one of the greatest military victories in English history, Elizabeths reign is known as the Elizabethan era. Some historians depict Elizabeth as a short-tempered, sometimes indecisive ruler, towards the end of her reign, a series of economic and military problems weakened her popularity.
Such was the case with Elizabeths rival, Queen of Scots, after the short reigns of Elizabeths half-siblings, her 44 years on the throne provided welcome stability for the kingdom and helped forge a sense of national identity. Elizabeth was born at Greenwich Palace and was named after both her grandmothers, Elizabeth of York and Elizabeth Howard and she was the second child of Henry VIII of England born in wedlock to survive infancy. Her mother was Henrys second wife, Anne Boleyn, at birth, Elizabeth was the heir presumptive to the throne of England. She was baptised on 10 September, Archbishop Thomas Cranmer, the Marquess of Exeter, the Duchess of Norfolk, Elizabeth was two years and eight months old when her mother was beheaded on 19 May 1536, four months after Catherine of Aragons death from natural causes. Elizabeth was declared illegitimate and deprived of her place in the royal succession, eleven days after Anne Boleyns execution, Henry married Jane Seymour, who died shortly after the birth of their son, Prince Edward, in 1537
A vehicle frame is the main supporting structure of a motor vehicle to which all other components are attached, comparable to the skeleton of an organism. Until the 1930s, virtually every car had a structural frame and this construction design is known as body-on-frame. Over time, nearly all cars have migrated to unibody construction, meaning their chassis. Nearly all trucks and most pickups continue to use a frame as their chassis. The main functions of a frame in motor vehicles are, To support the mechanical components and body To deal with static and dynamic loads. These include, Weight of the body and cargo loads and torsional twisting transmitted by going over uneven surfaces. Transverse lateral forces caused by conditions, side wind. Torque from the engine and transmission, longitudinal tensile forces from starting and acceleration, as well as compression from braking. In the case of a chassis, the frame is made up of structural elements called the rails or beams. These are ordinarily made of steel sections, made by folding, rolling or pressing steel plate.
There are three designs for these. If the material is folded twice, an open-ended cross-section, either C-shaped or hat-shaped results and it is made by taking a flat piece of steel and rolling both sides over to form a c-shaped beam running the length of the vehicle. Hat Hat frames resemble a U and may be either right-side-up or inverted with the area facing down. Not commonly used due to weakness and a propensity to rust, however they can be found on 1936–1954 Chevrolet cars, abandoned for a while, the hat frame gained popularity again when companies started welding it to the bottom of unibody cars, in effect creating a boxed frame. Boxed Originally, boxed frames were made by welding two matching C-rails together to form a rectangular tube, modern techniques, use a process similar to making C-rails in that a piece of steel is bent into four sides and welded where both ends meet. While appearing at first glance as a form made of metal. The first issue addressed is beam height, or the height of the side of a frame.
The taller the frame, the better it is able to resist vertical flex when force is applied to the top of the frame and this is the reason semi-trucks have taller frame rails than other vehicles instead of just being thicker
Tickford is an automobile engineering and testing company with an almost two century-long history of coachbuilding and is now famous for tuning and such products as the 140 mph Tickford Turbo Capri. Tickford Limited grew from the very substantial coachbuilding business founded in the 1820s by Joseph Salmons known as Salmons and Sons based at Tickford Street in Newport Pagnell and their products bore the brand-name Tickford. With the advent of the combustion engine, Salmons & Sons progressed into developing coachbuilt cars as early as 1898. In 1925 they announced their Tickford All Weather saloon, a convertible with the mechanism operated by inserting and turning a handle in the rear quarter-panel. During the 1930s Salmons built standard catalogued convertible bodies for, BSA, Hillman, Lanchester, MG, Standard, Vauxhall, by the late 1930s 450 people were employed producing 30 car bodies a week. Their London showrooms were at 6–9 Upper Saint Martins Lane WC2, in 1943 following Ian Boswells purchase of Salmons & Sons Limited the company changed its name to its trademark Tickford Limited.
Complete motorcar bodies From 1949 until 1955 Tickford transformed the Lagonda 2.6 litres Saloon in the Drophead, in late 1955 Tickford Limited was bought by David Brown, who was already the owner of Aston Martin and Lagonda and an extensive user of Tickford bodies. He soon moved Aston Martin onto the site at Tickford Street where it remained until Ford moved DB7 production to Bloxham and to Gaydon for the DB9, the Tickford name disappeared between the late 1950s and 1981. After the Capri, Tickford worked with others, MG to create the Maestro Turbo and Ford to create the road-going Sierra Cosworth RS500. These vehicles were made in a set up near Coventry. The roof of the Jaguar XJS cabriolet was designed by Tickford and these cars were originally converted by Tickford themselves, but it was so successful that Jaguar set up a convertible production line to cope with demand. Tickford was now back in its roots of engine and vehicle engineering, the company won projects in Detroit and the Far East and set up liaison offices in the USA and Germany.
TVE is best known for building the Ford Falcon XR6 and XR8 models for Ford and it engineered a range of higher performance cars, the T-Series with TE50 & TS50 models based on the Ford AU Falcon and the TL50 derived from the Ford AU Fairlane. The T-Series models were launched in October 1999 under the FTE name, the T-Series was produced in very limited numbers with less than 500 built. The third series, known as the T3 was the resting place for the Ford Windsor V8 engine. In December 2006, the management team of Prodrive Test Technology, running the former Tickford site at Milton Keynes, purchased the business from Prodrive, the company now focused on the independent engine and vehicle testing needs of vehicle manufacturers, component companies and the catalyst and petroleum industries. In June 2007, the company acquired Scott Gibbin Ltd, a Peterborough-based engine test, in the spring of 2009 the Peterborough site was closed and the work transferred to the Milton Keynes facility in Tanners Drive.
Tickford built on its performance heritage with the development of V8 racing engines for Aston Martin
A rolling chassis is the chassis of a car or truck, assembled together with the engine and drivetrain, but without bodywork. Such rolling chassis were built by car makers, for supply to coachbuilders who would build the bodywork. Although common in the days of motoring, such rolling chassis are now rare. A few custom markets, such as limousines, may use them. In some cases, a rolling chassis had a fuel tank and drivers seat attached. In restoration circles, the term is applied to a bodyshell with suspension fitted. Glider, a rolling chassis without powertrain
A dashboard is a control panel located directly ahead of a vehicles driver, displaying instrumentation and controls for the vehicles operation. However, as car design evolved to position the motor in front of the driver, in 1937, Dodge, DeSoto, and Plymouth cars came with a safety dashboard that was flat, raised above knee height, and had all the controls mounted flush. Padded dashboards were advocated in the 1930s by car safety pioneer Claire L. Straith, in 1948, the Tucker became the first car with a padded dashboard. One of the safety enhancements of the 1970s was the adoption of padded dashboards. The padding is commonly polyurethane foam, while the surface is commonly either polyvinyl chloride or leather in the case of luxury models, in the early and mid-1990s, airbags became a standard feature of steering wheels and dashboards. Sunlight could cause a bright glare on the chrome, particularly for a convertible. With the advent of the VFD, LED and LCD in consumer electronics, some manufacturers used instruments with digital readouts to make their cars appear more up to date, but this has faded from practice.
Some cars use a display to project the speed of the car onto the windscreen in imitation of fighter aircraft. In recent years, spurred on by the growing use of dash kits. One prominent example of this is the Chevrolet Sonic which offers both exterior and interior cosmetic upgrades, in addition to OEM dashboard trim and upgrades a number of companies offer domed polyurethane or vinyl applique dash trim accent kits or dash kits. Manufacturers such as BMW, Honda and Mercedes-Benz have included fuel-economy gauges in some instrument clusters, the ammeter was the gauge of choice for monitoring the state of the charging system until the 1970s. Later it was replaced by the voltmeter
Duesenberg Motors Company was an American manufacturer of race cars and luxury automobiles. It was founded by brothers August and Frederick Duesenberg in 1913 in Saint Paul, the brothers moved their operations to Elizabeth, New Jersey in 1916 to manufacture engines for World War I. Cord added Duesenberg to his Auburn Automobile Company, with the market for expensive luxury cars severely undercut by the Depression, Duesenberg folded in 1937. In 1913, brothers Fred and Augie Duesenberg founded Duesenberg Motors Company, Inc. on University Avenue in St. Paul, Minnesota, to build engines, the brothers were self-taught engineers and built many experimental cars. Duesenberg cars were considered some of the best cars of the time, in 1914, Eddie Rickenbacker drove a Duesy to finish in 10th place at the Indianapolis 500, and Duesenberg won the race in 1924,1925, and 1927. The fledgling company sidestepped into aviation engine manufacturing when Colonel R. C. Bolling, the end of World War I stopped this project before it could ever mature.
In 1921, Duesenberg provided the car for the Indy 500. In 1923, Jimmy Murphy became the first American to win the French Grand Prix when he drove a Duesenberg to victory at Le Mans. At the end of World War I, they ceased building aviation and marine engines in Elizabeth, New Jersey at the corner of Newark Avenue, was established in 1920 to begin production of passenger cars. The plant was located on a 17-acre site on West Washington street at Harding street until 1937, although the Duesenberg brothers were world-class engineers, they were neither good businessmen nor administrators, they were unable to sell all the units of their first passenger car, the Model A. This had the Duesenberg Straight-8 engine, the first mass-produced straight eight engine in the U. S, the Model A was a lighter and smaller vehicle than the competition. It was among the most powerful and the fastest cars of its time, among the celebrities who purchased this model were Tom Mix and Rudolph Valentino. The model experienced various delays going from prototype to production, deliveries to dealers did not start until December 1921.
Sales lagged and the goal of building 100 Duesenbergs each month proved far too high, in 1922 no more than 150 cars were manufactured, and only 650 Model As were sold over a period of six years. The brothers continued to create excellent engines for cars, boats, on March 8,1920, these men became president and vice president of the Duesenberg Automobile and Motors Corporation of Indianapolis. Fred was chief engineer and Augie his assistant, and both were salaried as employees, van Zandt quit after a year, and business went from bad to worse in 1923. In 1924 the company went into receivership, but somehow it survived that year, in 1925, the firms name was changed to Duesenberg Motors Corporation and Fred assumed the title of president. Fred and August struggled to keep the company, but to no avail, Model X Duesenbergs are very rare
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers, many types of buses, such as city transit buses and inter-city coaches, charge a fare. Other types, such as elementary or secondary school buses or shuttle buses within a post-secondary education campus do not charge a fare, in many jurisdictions, bus drivers require a special licence above and beyond a regular drivers licence. Horse-drawn buses were used from the 1820s, followed by steam buses in the 1830s, the first internal combustion engine buses, or motor buses, were used in 1895. Recently, interest has been growing in hybrid electric buses, fuel cell buses, as of the 2010s, bus manufacturing is increasingly globalised, with the same designs appearing around the world. Bus is a form of the Latin word omnibus. The first horse-drawn omnibus service was started by a businessman named Stanislas Baudry in the French city of Nantes in 1823, Nantes citizens soon gave the nickname omnibus to the vehicle.
The omnibus in Nantes was a success and Baudry moved to Paris, a similar service was introduced in London in 1829. The first mechanically propelled omnibus appeared on the streets of London on 22 April 1833, in parallel to the development of the bus was the invention of the electric trolleybus, typically fed through trolley poles by overhead wires. The Siemens brothers, William in England and Ernst Werner in Germany, sir William first proposed the idea in an article to the Journal of the Society of Arts in 1881 as an. arrangement by which an ordinary omnibus. The first such vehicle, the Electromote, was made by his brother Dr. Ernst Werner von Siemens and presented to the public in 1882 in Halensee, Germany. Although this experimental vehicle fulfilled all the criteria of a typical trolleybus. Max Schiemann opened a trolleybus in 1901 near Dresden, in Germany. Although this system operated only until 1904, Schiemann had developed what is now the standard trolleybus current collection system, in the early days, a few other methods of current collection were used.
Leeds and Bradford became the first cities to put trolleybuses into service in Great Britain on 20 June 1911, in Siegerland, two passenger bus lines ran briefly, but unprofitably, in 1895 using a six-passenger motor carriage developed from the 1893 Benz Viktoria. Another commercial bus line using the same model Benz omnibuses ran for a time in 1898 in the rural area around Llandudno. Daimler produced one of the earliest motor-bus models in 1898, the vehicle had a maximum speed of 18 kph and accommodated up to 20 passengers, in an enclosed area below and on an open-air platform above. With the success and popularity of bus, Daimler expanded production, selling more buses to companies in London and, in 1899, to Stockholm
Rolls-Royce Phantom IV
The Phantom IV was the most exclusive Rolls-Royce model ever built. Only eighteen were made between 1950 and 1956, seventeen of which were sold - exclusively to royalty and heads of state, sixteen are preserved in museums and private collections. By creating the Phantom IV, Rolls Royce broke with their decision to cease production of the series of big Rolls-Royce Phantoms after the end of World War II. The engine was a derivative of the 8-cylinder rationalized B range of petrol engines, specifically it was a refined version of a B80, the last three of a B81, both used in military and commercial vehicles. Mascots on the Phantom IV In July 1938 Rolls Royce had to publish in the press an announcement denying that the Phantom III fabrication would be interrupted. This involved the development of a Rationalized Range of cars sharing as many components of the chassis as possible. As implementation of this plan, several prototypes were made. One of these, chassis 30-G-VII, was fitted with a large Park Ward seven-seater limousine body and was called Silver Wraith 80, Silver Phantom and this was the genesis of the Phantom IV.3 litre eight-cylinder engine.
Although the official Experimental Department name for this car was Comet and this unit in particular would play a key role in the decision of creating the Phantom IV. Indeed, in 1948 the Duke of Edinburgh heard about the Bentley nicknamed Scalded Cat and he enjoyed this experimental car immensely and drove it for considerable distances. When he returned it, he apparently murmured about how nice it would be to have a car with performance in the Royal Mews and they placed the order through The Car Mart, Ltd. Such a vehicle would have to meet their official needs which meant it must be a limousine, the car would be the first RR in the stables. It was originally planned to be the only Phantom IV, a strictly one-off piece, the board had earlier considered making a replacement for the pre-war Phantom III, but were wary that such a large and expensive motor car might not have a market in the weak post-war economy. Production of the first two units of the new model was not at Crewe, but at the experimental Clan Foundry at Belper, the experimental department still continued there until the closure of Clan Foundry in 1950, when it was finally transferred to Crewe.
The chassis 4AF2 was built under the code-name Nabha and Mulliner was selected as the coachbuilder, the chassis, was delivered to them on 20 July 1949 for erection of the body. Prince Philip visited the more than once while it was being built. As the car was privately owned when delivered to the couple it was painted Valentine green with red belt-line striping and it remains in the Royal Mews and is still occasionally used for royal and state occasions. For example, it was used at the wedding of Prince William of Wales and Kate Middleton to carry Prince Charles and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, from Clarence House to Westminster Abbey
Fraxinus excelsior — known as the ash, or European ash or common ash to distinguish it from other types of ash — is a flowering plant species in the olive family Oleaceae. It is native throughout mainland Europe east to the Caucasus and Alborz mountains, the northernmost location is in the Trondheimsfjord region of Norway. The species is cultivated and reportedly naturalised in New Zealand and in scattered locales in the United States. It is a deciduous tree growing to 12–18 m tall with a trunk up to 2 m diameter, with a tall. The bark is smooth and pale grey on young trees, becoming thick, the shoots are stout, greenish-grey, with jet black buds. These features distinguish ash from ash in which the leaves are alternate with paired stipules. The leaves are often among the last to open in spring, the flowers are borne in short panicles, open before the leaves, and have no perianth. The female flowers are longer than the male flowers, dark purple, without petals. Both male and female flowers can occur on the same tree, a tree that is all male one year can produce female flowers the next, and similarly a female tree can become male.
The fruit is a samara 2. 5–4.5 cm long and 5–8 mm broad, often hanging in bunches through the winter, European Ash rarely exceeds 250 years of age. However, there are numerous specimens estimated between 200 and 250 years old and there are a few over 250, the largest is in Clapton Court, England and is 9 m in girth. There are several examples over 4.5 metres in Derbyshire alone, Fraxinus excelsior is native to Europe from northern Spain to Russia, and from southern Scandinavia to northern Greece. It is considered native in southwestern Asia from northern Turkey east to the Caucasus, the northernmost location is in the Trondheimsfjord region of Norway. It is native throughout the British Isles, particularly on limestone, as in northern Scotland, Ash occurs on a wide range of soil types, but is particularly associated with basic soils on calcareous substrates. As a young seedling it is tolerant, but as an older tree is light demanding. It is an early succession species and may well out compete beech and oak, unlike other Fraxinus species, F. excelsior does not form ectomycorrhizas.
A number of Lepidoptera use the species as a food source, see Lepidoptera which feed on ashes. In the UK, many invertebrates have been found to feed on Ash
Passenger car (rail)
A passenger car is a piece of railway rolling stock that is designed to carry passengers. The term passenger car can be associated with a car, dining, railway post office. Up until about the end of the 19th century, most passenger cars were constructed of wood, the first passenger trains did not travel very far, but they were able to haul many more passengers for a longer distance than any wagons pulled by horses. As railways were first constructed in England, so too were the first passenger cars, one of the early coach designs was the Stanhope. It featured a roof and small holes in the floor for drainage when it rained, the only problem with this design is that the passengers were expected to stand for their entire trip. The first passenger cars in the United States resembled stagecoaches and they were short, often less than 10 ft long and had two axles. British railways had a start on American railroads, with the first bed-carriage being built there as early as 1838 for use on the London and Birmingham Railway.
Britains early sleepers, when made up for sleeping, extended the foot of the bed into a section at the end of the carriage. The cars were too short to allow more than two or three beds to be positioned end to end. Britains Royal Mail commissioned and built the first Travelling Post Office cars in the late 1840s as well. These cars resembled coaches in their short wheelbase and exterior design, when not in use, the hook would swivel down against the side of the car to prevent it from catching obstacles. As locomotive technology progressed in the century, trains grew in length. Passenger cars, particularly in America, grew along with them, first getting longer with the addition of a second truck, early American sleeping cars were not compartmented, but by the end of the 19th century they were. The compartments in the sleepers were accessed from a side hall running the length of the cars. Many American passenger trains, particularly the long ones, included a car at the end of the train called an observation car.
Until about the 1930s, these had a platform at the rear. These evolved into the end car, usually with a rounded end which was still called an observation car. The interiors of observation cars varied, many had special chairs and tables
A recreational vehicle is, in North America, the usual term for a motor vehicle or trailer equipped with living space and amenities found in a home. A recreational vehicle includes a kitchen, a bathroom. Less commonly found features are a hot tub, a room, a desk. Most RVs are single-deck, double-deck RVs exist, RVs are defined as either motor vehicles or towable trailers, and are primarily intended for leisure activities such as camping and vacations. They are usually found in RV parks or campgrounds, and can be rented in most major cities, other RVs serve as traveling permanent homes. People who use their RVs as traveling permanent homes on a full-time basis are commonly referred to as full-timers, recreational vehicle types include the motorhome, travel trailer, fifth wheel trailer, toy hauler, popup trailer, and slide-in camper. See the list of recreational vehicles, Most modern dictionaries give one of the meanings for the word caravan as a camper equipped with living quarters. They, in turn, give one of the meanings for camper as a vehicle equipped for camping out while travelling.
In Europe, wagons built to live in, rather than just to carry persons or goods, were developed in France around 1810 and they were used in Britain by showmen and circus performers from the 1820s. Romani people only began living in caravans circa 1850, the covered wagon that played a significant part in opening up of the interior of the North American continent to white settlement, beginning circa 1745, was a type of caravan. A well set-up wagon provided its occupants with living quarters as well as a means of transportation for themselves, in Canada, the earliest motorhomes were built on car or truck bodies from about 1910. By the 1920s the RV was well established in the US, with RV camping clubs established across the country, despite the unpaved roads, in Australia, the earliest known motorhome was built in 1929. It is now in the Goolwa Museum, where it has partially restored. It is recognized by both the National Museum of Australia and the National Motor Museum as being the first motorized caravan in Australia and these caravans were built like short railway carriages, about 6.1 metres long, but had wooden wheels with solid rubber tyres and ball bearings.
In the US, the modern RV industry had its beginnings in the late 1920s and 1930s, these started out as mom and pop operations, building their units in garages or back yards. During the 1950s, in addition to travel trailers or trailer coaches, the RV lifestyle is made up of those interested in traveling and camping rather than living in one location, as well as by vacationers. Some travel nearer the equator during the months in their RV and return in spring. There is a large and growing number of fulltimers, people who live full-time in their RV/motorhome, new RVers tend to be DIY technology enthusiasts who develop the products they need on a low budget