Hughes County, Oklahoma
Hughes County is a county located in south central U. S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,003, its county seat is Holdenville. The county was named for W. C. Hughes, an Oklahoma City lawyer, a member of the Oklahoma Constitutional Convention; the area now occupied. The Creeks settled in the northern part. In 1834, Camp Holmes was used as a base for the Dodge-Leavenworth Expedition, it was near Edwards' Store on one of the first settlements in this area. When the Choctaw and Gulf Railroad built in 1895, the Edward's settlement was moved north for access to the railroad; the town established there was named Holden, for a railroad official. However, the Post Office Department would not accept that name because it was too similar to the name Holder; the town was renamed Holdenville. The post office opened November 15, 1895. Holdenville incorporated in 1898. Hughes County was created at statehood and named for W. C. Hughes, an Oklahoma City lawyer, a member of the Oklahoma Constitutional Convention.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 815 square miles, of which 805 square miles is land and 10 square miles is water; the county is located in the Sandstone Hills physiographic region. It is drained by the North Canadian River, Canadian River, Little River; the county includes Wetumka lakes. U. S. Highway 75 U. S. Highway 270 State Highway 9 State Highway 27 State Highway 48 Okfuskee County McIntosh County Pittsburg County Coal County Pontotoc County Seminole County As of the census of 2000, there were 14,154 people, 5,319 households, 3,675 families residing in the county; the population density was 18 people per square mile. There were 6,237 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 72.77% White, 4.48% Black or African American, 16.18% Native American, 0.21% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.98% from other races, 5.36% from two or more races. 2.49% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 94.3 % spoke 2.5 % Spanish as their first language.
There were 5,319 households out of which 28.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.50% were married couples living together, 11.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.90% were non-families. 28.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.20% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 27.20% from 25 to 44, 23.20% from 45 to 64, 18.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 105.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $22,621, the median income for a family was $29,153. Males had a median income of $22,337 versus $18,029 for females; the per capita income for the county was $12,687. About 16.70% of families and 21.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.40% of those under age 18 and 17.60% of those age 65 or over.
Agriculture and cattle raising have long been important to the county economy. Primary crops have been cotton, corn, oats and soybeans; the most important other employers in the county are: Davis Correctional Center, Tyson Foods, Wes Watkins Technology Center, Aquafarms, which has since gone out of business. Hughes County has one level 4 hospital, Holdenville General Hospital, a city-owned hospital under the Holdenville Public Works Authority, opened in 1969 as a 55 licensed bed general medical-surgical hospital; the hospital experienced a fire on May 18, 2002. On June 30, 2002, the renovated hospital reopened with 25 licensed beds, on July 1, 2002, was re-designated by CMS as a Critical Access Hospital; this designation effects the way. In 1998, the city formed the Holdenville Hospital Authority. In July 2011, the hospital became a Tier 1 Affiliate with St. Anthony Hospital; this allows collaboration between the hospitals to improve services and support for patient transfers to higher levels of care when needed.
In 1979 Hughes County Commissioners established a 522 Ambulance Service Board, Opened Hughes County EMS. Hughes County EMS is an ALS level service licensed by the State of Oklahoma, with Paramedics on every unit; the system operates 4 units, 2 out of Holdenville and Horntown during certain times of the year, Horntown functions as a posting point with the crews in Calvin and Wetumka. The following sites are in Hughes County are listed on the National Register of Historic Places: Dustin Agricultural Building, Dustin Holdenville Armory, Holdenville Holdenville City Hall, Holdenville Levering Mission, Wetumka Moss School Gymnasium, Holdenville Spaulding School Gymnasium--Auditorium, Spaulding Stuart Hotel, Stuart John E. Turner House, Holdenville Wetumka Armory, Wetumka Wetumka Cemetery Pavilion and Fence, Wetumka Womack, Rosemary McCombs Maxey, Southern Spaces staff. "Fife Family Cemetery", Southern Spaces, September 15, 2008. Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture - Hughes County Oklahoma Digital Maps: Digital Collections of Oklahoma and Indian Territory
As general terms, Indian Territory, the Indian Territories, or Indian country describe an evolving land area set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of Native Americans who held aboriginal title to their land. In general, the tribes ceded land they occupied in exchange for land grants in 1803; the concept of an Indian Territory was an outcome of the 18th- and 19th-century policy of Indian removal. After the Civil War, the policy of the government was one of assimilation; the term Indian Reserve describes lands the British government set aside for indigenous tribes between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River in the time before the American Revolutionary War. Indian Territory came to refer to an unorganized territory whose general borders were set by the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834, was the successor to the remainder of the Missouri Territory after Missouri received statehood; the borders of Indian Territory were reduced in size as various Organic Acts were passed by Congress to create incorporated territories of the United States.
The 1907 Oklahoma Enabling Act created the single state of Oklahoma by combining Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory, ending the existence of an Indian Territory. Indian Territory known as the Indian Territories and the Indian Country, was land within the United States of America reserved for the forced re-settlement of Native Americans. Therefore, it was not a traditional territory for the tribes settled upon it; the general borders were set by the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834. The territory was located in the Central United States. While Congress passed several Organic Acts that provided a path for statehood for much of the original Indian Country, Congress never passed an Organic Act for the Indian Territory. Indian Territory was never an organized incorporated territory of the United States. In general, tribes could not sell land to non-Indians. Treaties with the tribes restricted entry of non-Indians into tribal areas; the region never had a formal government until after the American Civil War.
After the Civil War, the Southern Treaty Commission re-wrote treaties with tribes that sided with the Confederacy, reducing the territory of the Five Civilized Tribes and providing land to resettle Plains Indians and tribes of the Midwestern United States. These re-written treaties included provisions for a territorial legislature with proportional representation from various tribes. In time, the Indian Territory was reduced to; the Organic Act of 1890 reduced Indian Territory to the lands occupied by the Five Civilized Tribes and the Tribes of the Quapaw Indian Agency. The remaining western portion of the former Indian Territory became the Oklahoma Territory; the Oklahoma organic act applied the laws of Nebraska to the incorporated territory of Oklahoma Territory, the laws of Arkansas to the still unincorporated Indian Territory. The concept of an Indian territory is the successor to the British Indian Reserve, a British North American territory established by the Royal Proclamation of 1763 that set aside land for use by the Native American people.
The proclamation limited the settlement of Europeans to Crown-claimed lands east of the Appalachian Mountains. The territory remained active until the Treaty of Paris that ended the American Revolutionary War, land was ceded to the United States; the British administration reduced the land area of the Indian Reserve – the United States further reduced it after the American Revolutionary War – until it included only lands west of the Mississippi River. At the time of the American Revolution, many Native American tribes had long-standing relationships with British who were loyal to the British Empire, but they had a less-developed relationship with the Empire's colonists-turned-rebels. After the defeat of the British, the Americans twice invaded the Ohio Country and were twice defeated, they defeated the Indian Western Confederacy at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794 and imposed the Treaty of Greenville, which ceded most of what is now Ohio, part of present-day Indiana, the lands that include present-day Chicago and Detroit, to the United States federal government.
The period after the American Revolutionary War was one of rapid western expansion. The areas occupied by Native Americans in the United States were called Indian country, not an unorganized territory, as the areas were established by treaty. In 1803 the United States of America agreed to purchase France's claim to French Louisiana for a total of $15 million. President Thomas Jefferson doubted the legality of the purchase. However, the chief negotiator, Robert R. Livingston believed that the 3rd article of the treaty providing for the Louisiana Purchase would be acceptable to Congress; the 3rd article stated, in part: the inhabitants of the ceded territory shall be incorporated in the Union of the United States, admitted as soon as possible, according to the principles of the Federal Constitution, to the enjoyment of all the rights and immunities of citizens of the United States. Which committed the US government to "the ultimate, but not to the immediate, admission" of the territory as multiple states, "postponed its incorporation into the Union t
U.S. Route 75
U. S. Route 75 is a major north–south U. S. Highway that extends 1,239 miles in the central United States; the highway's northern terminus is in Noyes, Minnesota, at the Canada–US border, where it once continued as Manitoba Highway 75 on the other side of the now-closed border crossing. Its southern terminus is at Interstate 30 and Interstate 45 in Dallas, where it is known as North Central Expressway. U. S. 75 was a cross-country route, from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico at Texas. However, the entire segment south of Dallas has been decommissioned in favor of Interstate 45, a cutoff section of town-to-town surface road having become Texas State Highway 75; the first freeway in Texas was a several-mile stretch of US 75 --The Gulf Freeway, opened to Houston traffic on October 1, 1948. The stretch of US 75 between Interstate 30 and the Oklahoma state line has exits numbered consecutively from 1 to 75, excluding 9-19. All other Texas freeways that have exit numbers are coordinated with mile markers. From Denison north to the Oklahoma border, US 75 is concurrent to U.
S. Route 69. US-75 remains concurrent to US-69 from the Texas border north to Atoka. While US-69 continues to the northeast as a multilane highway, US-75 turns north to serve several small communities between Atoka and Henryetta. Through travellers bypass this segment of US-75 via US-69 and the Indian Nation Turnpike, where the speed limit is 75 miles per hour. From Henryetta through Tulsa and on through Bartlesville to the Kansas State Line, US-75 is once again a multilane highway. In the early 1990s, some portions of US-75 in Oklahoma were slated to become part of the Interstate Highway System; the 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act states that "upon the request of the Oklahoma State highway agency, the Secretary shall designate the portion of United States Route 69 from the Oklahoma-Texas State line to Checotah in the State of Oklahoma as a part of the Interstate System." This would have created an Interstate route from Interstate 40 south to the Texas line, including the portion of US-75 co-signed with US-69 south of Atoka.
The legislation was unclear whether the route would enter Texas to connect with or become an extension of Interstate 45. A current plan is to construct a new segment of the Oklahoma Turnpike along the US-69 corridor to bring it to corridor standards. A major north–south artery in Kansas, US-75 enters the state at Caney, it crosses Interstate 35 south of Olivet at the BETO Junction. From I-35 to Melvern Lake, US-75 is a Super-2 highway, with controlled access interchanges at Township Road, K-278, K-31 southbound. From Melvern Lake to just north of Lyndon, US-75 and K-31 share a long concurrency. At U. S. Route 56 near Scranton US-75 becomes a freeway. There is no direct access to the Kansas Turnpike from US-75, but the highway joins with Interstate 470 less than 1 mile from 470's interchange with the turnpike. US-75 and Interstate 470 run together along the west side of Topeka to Interstate 70. US-75 turns east along Interstate 70 for about 3 miles before exiting northbound as a freeway; this freeway segment runs to Elmont becomes an expressway to Holton.
The remainder of US-75 in Kansas is two lanes. The highway exits the state north of Sabetha. There was a US-75 Alternate in Kansas, it was on Topeka Boulevard and was the route US-75 took through Topeka. U. S. 75 enters Nebraska south of Dawson. From Nebraska City northward, it parallels the Missouri River. A brief section which serves as a bypass for Nebraska City is an expressway called the J. Sterling Morton Beltway. Nebraska City itself is served with Business Route U. S. 75. U. S. 75 and U. S. Route 34 overlap from Union to Plattsmouth. North of Plattsmouth, U. S. 75 becomes the Kennedy Freeway, serving as an arterial highway through Bellevue and the South Omaha neighborhood of Omaha. It follows Interstate 480 through central Omaha before branching off as the North Omaha Freeway. From Interstate 680 northward to Nashville U. S. 75 is an expressway. North of Nashville it becomes a two-lane road again, it is concurrent with U. S. Route 30 in Blair, it joins with U. S. Route 77 at Winnebago; the two highways run together until their junction with Interstate 129 and U.
S. Route 20 at South Sioux City. U. S. 75 follows I-129 and U. S. 20 towards the Missouri River and Iowa. U. S. 75 is a major north–south artery in the northwestern corner of Iowa. It enters the state by a Missouri River crossing at Sioux City concurrent with Interstate 129 and U. S. Route 20. U. S. 75 and U. S. 20 run together on a freeway bypass around the southeast side of Sioux City before U. S. 20 turns east at Gordon Drive. U. S. 75 continues as a freeway to the Woodbury County/Plymouth County line, where it becomes an expressway. This expressway becomes a freeway bypass of Le Mars. North of Le Mars, U. S. 75 exits off the freeway bypass, which continues on as Iowa Highway 60, turns north. U. S. 75 continues as a two-lane, undivided highway passing through Sioux Center and Rock Rapids before leaving the state north of Iowa Highway 9. The segment from the Missouri River to LeMars is part of a larger expressway project which will provide a direct connection between Sioux City and the Twin Cities region in Minnesota.
In Minnesota, U. S. 75 stays close to the state's western border. It passes through few large towns. U. S. 75 enters Minnesota south of Luverne near Ash Creek and Steen, passes though Pipestone and Breckenridge. It is the main north–south route through Moorhead. North of Moorhead, the route turns northeast to pass through Crookston turns northwest towards the Red River of t
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Atoka County, Oklahoma
Atoka County is a county located in the U. S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,007, its county seat is Atoka. The county was formed before statehood from Choctaw Lands, its name honors a Choctaw Chief named Atoka; the area encompassed by the present Atoka County was part of Shappaway County in the Pushmataha District of the Choctaw Nation. About 1854, the area was formally designated Atoka County; the name, which honored Choctaw Chief Atoka, a leader of a party which migrated from Georgia to Indian Territory, was retained when Oklahoma became a state. In 1858, the Butterfield and Overland established a stage route through the area. One station, Waddell's was near Wesley, a second station, Geary's was between Waddell's and the Muddy Boggy River, while a third was at Boggy Depot. During the Civil War, Confederate troops established. After the war, the town of Atoka was established. In 1872, the Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railway built a track through the county, it bypassed Boggy Depot and passed through Atoka, increasing the importance of Atoka and contributing to the decline of Boggy Depot.
The economy of Atoka County has been built on coal mining, limestone quarrying and agriculture. Cattle raising became the leading business in the mid-twentieth century. A major employer is the Oklahoma State Penitentiary Farm, a medium security prison that opened in 1933. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 990 square miles, of which 976 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. Atoka County is drained by North Boggy, Clear Boggy and Muddy Boggy Creeks, which are tributaries of the Red River. Atoka Reservoir is in the northern section of the county; the Ouachita Mountains are in the eastern part of the county, while the Sandstone Hills and Coastal Plains physiographic regions provide a more level terrain suitable for agriculture in the north and western part of the county. About 12 miles WSW of the town of Atoka is Boggy Depot State Park, the historic site of a once large community on the Butterfield Overland Mail stagecoach route; the Katian Age of the Ordovician Period of geological time is named for Katy Lake, 2 miles north east of Atoka.
The Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point of the Katian stage is the Black Knob Ridge Section in the county. U. S. Highway 69 U. S. Highway 75 State Highway 3 State Highway 7 State Highway 43 Indian Nation Turnpike Pittsburg County Pushmataha County Choctaw County Bryan County Johnston County Coal County As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 14,182 people, 4,964 households, 3,504 families residing in the county; the population density was 14 people per square mile. There were 5,673 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile. 73.8% of the population were White, 13.8% Native American, 3.7% Black or African American, 0.4% Asian, 1.1% of some other race and 7.1% of two or more races. 2.9 % were Latino. 24.5 % were of 8.5 % German ancestry. 97.4% spoke English and 1.4% Spanish as their first language. There were 4,964 households out of which 31.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.90% were married couples living together, 10.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.40% were non-families.
27.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.60% under the age of 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 29.10% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, 14.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 117.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 119.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $24,752, the median income for a family was $29,409. Males had a median income of $26,193 versus $18,861 for females; the per capita income for the county was $12,919. About 15.70% of families and 19.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.40% of those under age 18 and 21.10% of those age 65 or over. The Oklahoma Department of Corrections operates the Mack Alford Correctional Center in an unincorporated area, near Stringtown.
Atoka Caney Stringtown Tushka Wardville Lane The following sites in Atoka County are listed on the National Register of Historic Places: Underwood, William Henry. "A History Atoka County, Oklahoma". Bryan County Heritage Association, 1997. 213. Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture - Atoka County Oklahoma Digital Maps: Digital Collections of Oklahoma and Indian Territory Atoka County Sheriff's Office
The boll weevil is a beetle which feeds on cotton buds and flowers. Thought to be native to Central Mexico, it migrated into the United States from Mexico in the late 19th century and had infested all U. S. cotton-growing areas by the 1920s, devastating the industry and the people working in the American South. During the late 20th century, it became a serious pest in South America as well. Since 1978, the Boll Weevil Eradication Program in the U. S. allowed full-scale cultivation to resume in many regions. The adult insect has a long snout, is grayish color, is less than 6 mm long. Adult farms after diapause, they emerge and enter cotton fields from early spring through midsummer, with peak emergence in late spring, feed on immature cotton bolls. The boll weevil lays its eggs inside ripening bolls of the cotton plants; the female can lay up to 200 eggs over a 10- to 12-day period. The oviposition leaves wounds on the exterior of the flower bud; the eggs hatch in 3 to 5 days within the cotton squares, feed for 8 to 10 days, pupate.
The pupal stage lasts another 5 to 7 days. The lifecycle from egg to adult spans about three weeks during the summer. Under optimal conditions, 8 to 10 generations per season may occur. Boll weevils begin to die at temperatures at or below −5 °C. Research at the University of Missouri indicates they cannot survive more than an hour at −15 °C; the insulation offered by leaf litter, crop residues, snow may enable the beetle to survive when air temperatures drop to these levels. Other limitations on boll weevil populations include extreme drought, its natural predators include fire ants, spiders, a parasitic wasp, Catolaccus grandis. The insects sometimes emerge from diapause; the cotton boll weevil The insect crossed the Rio Grande near Brownsville, Texas, to enter the United States from Mexico in 1892 and reached southeastern Alabama in 1909. By the mid-1920s, it had entered all cotton-growing regions in the U. S. travelling 40 to 160 miles per year. It remains the most destructive cotton pest in North America.
Since the boll weevil entered the United States, it has cost U. S. cotton producers about $13 billion, in recent times about $300 million per year. The boll weevil contributed to the economic woes of Southern farmers during the 1920s, a situation exacerbated by the Great Depression in the 1930s; the boll weevil appeared in Venezuela in 1949 and in Colombia in 1950. The Amazon Rainforest was thought to present a barrier to its further spread, but it was detected in Brazil in 1983, an estimated 90% of the cotton farms in Brazil are now infested. During the 1990s, the weevil spread to Argentina; the International Cotton Advisory Committee has proposed a control program similar to that used in the U. S. Bollworm attacks on cotton and other plants. During early years of the weevil's presence, growers sought warm soils and early-ripening cultivars. Following World War II, the development of new pesticides such as DDT enabled U. S. farmers again to grow cotton as an economic crop. DDT was extremely effective, but U.
S. weevil populations developed resistance by the mid-1950s. Methyl parathion and pyrethroids were subsequently used, but environmental and resistance concerns arose as they had with DDT, control strategies changed. While many control methods have been investigated since the boll weevil entered the United States, insecticides have always remained the main control methods. In the 1980s, entomologists at Texas A&M University pointed to the spread of another invasive pest, the red imported fire ant, as a factor in the weevils' population decline in some areas. Other avenues of control that have been explored include weevil-resistant strains of cotton, the parasitic wasp Catolaccus grandis, the fungus Beauveria bassiana, the Chilo iridescent virus. Genetically engineered Bt cotton is not protected from the boll weevil. Although it was possible to control the boll weevil, to do so was costly in terms of insecticide costs; the goal of many cotton entomologists was to eradicate the pest from U. S. cotton.
In 1978, a large-scale test was begun in eastern North Carolina and in Southampton County, Virginia, to determine the feasibility of eradication. Based on the success of this test, area-wide programs were begun in the 1980s to eradicate the insect from whole regions; these are based on cooperative effort by all growers together with the assistance of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service of the United States Department of Agriculture. The program has been successful in eradicating boll weevils from all cotton-growing states with the exception of Texas, most of this state is free of boll weevils. Problems along the southern border with Mexico have delayed eradication in the extreme southern portions of this state. Follow-up programs are in place in all cotton-growing states to prevent the reintroduction of the pest; these monitoring programs rely on pheromone-baited traps for detection. The boll weevil eradication program, although slow and costly, has paid off for cotton growers in reduced pesticide costs.
This program and the screwworm program of the 1950s are among the biggest and most successful insect control programs in history. The Library of Congress American Memory Project contains a number of oral history materials on the boll weevil's impact. A 2009 study found "that as the weevil traversed the American South, it disrupted local economies reduced the value of land, triggered substantial intr
Pittsburg County, Oklahoma
Pittsburg County is a county located in the U. S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 45,837, its county seat is McAlester. The county was formed from part of the Choctaw Nation in Indian Territory in 1907. County leaders believed that its coal production compared favorably with Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania at the time of statehood. Pittsburg County comprises OK Micropolitan Statistical Area; the area forms the present Pittsburg county was part of the Choctaw Nation after the Choctaw tribe was forced to relocate to Indian Territory from its home in the Southeastern United States in the early 1830s. Some important trails, including the Texas Road and one route of the California Trail passed through it. In 1840, James Perry established a village called Perryville that became an important stop near the place where the two trails crossed. During the Civil War, Perryville served as an important supply depot for Confederate forces until the Union Army captured and burned the town.
It became defunct after the Missouri and Texas Railway bypassed it in 1872, the remaining inhabitants moved to McAlester. The Butterfield Overland Mail route followed a route through this area. James J. McAlester moved to the Choctaw Nation in 1872, opened a trading post and married a Chickasaw woman; this qualified him to obtain citizenship rights in the Chickasaw Nations. When the MK&T built its line, McAlester laid claim to the coal deposits in the Perryville area, which he and some partners leased to the Osage Coal and Mining Company, owned by the Missouri Pacific Railroad and acquired by the MK&T in 1888. Pittsburg County was formed on July 1907 as an original county from Choctaw land. County leaders, thinking its coal production compared favorably with Pittsburgh, named the new county after the Pennsylvania city with the "h" removed. Coal mining continued to expand until the early 20th century. Production began to decline after 1920, never recovered. By 1966, the county production was no longer reported.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,378 square miles, of which 1,305 square miles is land and 72 square miles is water; the county's topography is hilly to mountainous. The Ouachita Mountains extend into the southeastern portion; the Canadian River drains most of the county and with Eufaula Lake form the northern boundary of the county. The southern part of the county is drained by several creeks that flow into the Kiamichi River and into the Red River. McIntosh County Haskell County Latimer County Pushmataha County Atoka County Coal County Hughes County As of the census of 2010, there were 45,837 people, 18,623 households, 15,389 families residing in the county; the population density was 13/km². There were 22,634 housing units at an average density of 6/km²; the racial makeup of the county was 73.6% White/Caucasian, 3.3% Black or African American, 13.8% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.78% from other races, 7.6% from two or more races.
3.14% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 17.4% were of American, 12.7% Irish, 11.3% German, 9.4% English and 7.2% Italian ancestry according to Census 2010. There were 18,623 households out of which 29.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.90% were married couples living together, 11.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.40% were non-families. 27.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.90. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.50% under the age of 18, 7.80% from 18 to 24, 26.90% from 25 to 44, 24.60% from 45 to 64, 17.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 101.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,679, the median income for a family was $35,190.
Males had a median income of $28,470 versus $19,886 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,494. About 13.60% of families and 17.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.70% of those under age 18 and 13.30% of those age 65 or over. Although Pittsburg county was noted for its coal production, agriculture has long been important to the county economy. Just after statehood, farmers controlled 20 percent of the county's land area; the most important cash crops were cotton. By 1960, sorghum had become the most important crop. In 2000, wheat had become the top crop. Manufacturing became significant when the U. S. Navy built an ammunition depot at McAlester during World War II, it employed 8,000 people in 1945. The U. S. Army took over the facility in 1977; the Corps of Engineers built Eufaula Lake between 1956 and 1964, which brought tourism, land development and a major source of hydroelectric power. Haileyville Hartshorne Krebs McAlester Arpelar Blanco Longtown Bache Blocker Bugtussle Haywood Ti The following sites in Pittsburg County are listed on the National Register of Historic Places