The California Zephyr is a passenger train operated by Amtrak between Chicago and the San Francisco Bay Area, via Omaha, Salt Lake City, Reno. At 2,438 miles, it is Amtrak's second longest route after the Texas Eagle branch to Los Angeles, with travel time between the termini taking 511⁄2 hours. Amtrak claims the route as one of its most scenic, with views of the upper Colorado River valley in the Rocky Mountains, the Sierra Nevada; the modern train is the second iteration of a train named California Zephyr, the original train was operated and ran on a different route through Nevada and California. During fiscal year 2016, the California Zephyr carried 417,322 passengers, an increase of 11.2% over FY2015. The train had a total revenue of $51,950,998 in FY2016. Prior to the 1971 creation of Amtrak, three competing trains ran between Chicago and the East Bay, with bus connections to San Francisco: The California Zephyr was operated by the Chicago and Quincy Railroad and Rio Grande Western Railroad, Western Pacific Railroad between Chicago and Oakland along what is today called the Central Corridor and Feather River Route via Omaha and Salt Lake City.
It was discontinued in March 1970 – the only of the three trains not still operating when Amtrak took over service. The City of San Francisco was operated by the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad, Union Pacific Railroad, Southern Pacific Railroad between Chicago and Oakland on the Overland Route via Omaha and Ogden; the San Francisco Chief was operated by the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway via the more southerly Southern Transcon between Chicago and Richmond via Kansas City and Bakersfield. Railpax intended to revive the California Zephyr as part its original route network, using the Burlington Northern east of Denver, the DRG&W between Denver and Ogden and the WP west of Ogden; the California Zephyr route served more populated areas than the Overland Route, ran through rural communities that lacked good highway access, could attract passengers to its scenic routes. However, the WP had shed the last of its money-losing passenger service with the end of the California Zephyr, it was not eligible to participate in Amtrak's formation.
On April 12, 1971, the WP refused to cooperate with Railpax, the SP route between Ogden and Oakland was chosen instead. On April 26, the D&RGW elected not to join Amtrak; the D&RGW chose to operate the Denver–Ogden Rio Grande Zephyr, Amtrak scrambled to piece together a Denver–Cheyenne–Ogden routing on the UP. Between the spring of 1971 and the summer of 1972, passengers traveling between Chicago and Oakland would have to travel on two different trains: the Denver Zephyr, which operated daily between Chicago and Denver, the City of San Francisco, which operated three times a week, between Denver and the San Francisco Bay Area. However, after several false starts, Amtrak consolidated the two trains into one, dubbed the San Francisco Zephyr, homage to both the California Zephyr and the San Francisco Chief, between Chicago and Oakland; the Rio Grande continued to operate the Rio Grande Zephyr between Ogden. In 1983 the D&RGW elected citing increasing losses in passenger operations. Amtrak re-routed the San Francisco Zephyr over the D&RGW's Moffat Subdivision between Denver and Salt Lake City, its original preference from 1971.
The change was scheduled for April 25, but a mudslide at Thistle, Utah closed the line and delayed the change until July 16. With the change of route, Amtrak renamed the train as the California Zephyr; the modern California Zephyr uses the same route as the original east of Winnemucca, Nevada. The train uses the route of the former City of San Francisco, along the Overland Route, between Elko and Sacramento. Across central Nevada, the two rail lines have been combined to use directional running; as such the exact spot the train switches. The western terminus of the train was cut back to Emeryville station when Oakland Central station was closed on August 5, 1994; the California Zephyr was re-extended to Oakland with the opening of the Jack London Square station on May 12, 1995. However, this required a complicated reverse move along street running tracks to reach the wye at West Oakland; the train was cut back again to Emeryville on October 26, 1997. The west-bound train is Amtrak number 5. Upon leaving Chicago Union Station, the train travels along the Metra BNSF Railway Line, with an intermediate stop in Naperville, Illinois.
After passing through Aurora, the train passes through the endless corn, soybean fields and small farming towns of Illinois and Iowa. The route crosses into Iowa at the Burlington Rail Bridge across the Mississippi River in Burlington, Iowa into Nebraska between Council Bluffs and Omaha. Overnight, into the early morning, the train traverses Nebraska and northeastern Colorado, before making a morning arrival in Denver. At Denver the train departs BNSF Railway-owned track. From Denver west, the train runs along the Union Pacific Railroad's Central Corridor; the scenery changes departing Denver as the train climbs the Rocky Mountains. After going through the Tunnel District, the line crosses the Continental Divide via the 6.2 mile-long Moffat Tunnel under James Peak. The tracks f
A heritage railway is a railway operated as living history to re-create or preserve railway scenes of the past. Heritage railways are old railway lines preserved in a state depicting a period in the history of rail transport; the British Office of Rail and Road defines heritage railways as follows: "...'lines of local interest', museum railways or tourist railways that have retained or assumed the character and appearance and operating practices of railways of former times. Several lines that operate in isolation provide genuine transport facilities, providing community links. Most lines constitute tourist or educational attractions in their own right. Much of the rolling stock and other equipment used on these systems is original and is of historic value in its own right. Many systems aim to replicate both the look and operating practices of historic former railways companies." Heritage railway lines have historic rail infrastructure, substituted in modern rail systems. Historical installations, such as hand-operated points, water cranes, rails fastened with hand-hammered rail spikes, are characteristic features of heritage lines.
Unlike tourist railways, which carry tourists and have modern installations and vehicles, heritage-line infrastructure creates views and soundscapes of the past in operation. Due to a lack of modern technology or the desire for historical accuracy, railway operations can be handled with traditional practices such as the use of tokens. Heritage infrastructure and operations require the assignment of roles, based on historical occupations, to the railway staff. Some, or all and volunteers, including Station masters and signalmen, sometimes wearing period-appropriate attire, can be seen on some heritage railways. Most heritage railways use heritage rolling stock, although modern rail vehicles can be used to showcase railway scenes with historical-line infrastructure. While some heritage railways are profitable tourist attractions, many are not-for-profit entities. Still other heritage railways offer a viable public-transit option, can maintain operations with revenue from regular riders or government subsidies.
Children's railways are extracurricular educational institutions where children and teenagers learn about railway work. The railways developed in the USSR during the Soviet era. Many were called "Pioneer railways", after the youth organisation of that name; the first children's railway opened in Moscow in 1932 and, at the breakup of the USSR, 52 children's railways existed in the country. Although the fall of communist governments has led to the closure of some, preserved children's railways are still functioning in post-Soviet states and Eastern European countries. Many children's railways were built on parkland in urban areas. Unlike many industrial areas served by a narrow-gauge railway, parks were free of redevelopment. Child volunteers and socialist fiscal policy enabled the existence of many of these railways. Children's railways which still carry traffic have retained their original infrastructure and rolling stock, including vintage steam locomotives. Examples of children's railways with steam locomotives include the Dresden Park Railway in Germany.
Creating passages for trains up steep hills and through mountain regions offers many obstacles which call for technical solutions. Steep grade railway technologies and extensive tunneling may be employed; the use of narrow gauge allows tighter curves in the track, offers a smaller structure gauge and tunnel size. At high altitudes and logistical difficulties, limited urban development and demand for transport and special rolling-stock requirements have left many mountain railways unmodernized; the engineering feats of past railway builders and views of pristine mountain scenes have made many railways in mountainous areas profitable tourist attractions. Pit railways have been in operation in underground mines all over the world. Small rail vehicles transport ore, waste rock, workers through narrow tunnels. Sometimes trains were the sole mode of transport in the passages between the work sites and the mine entrance; the railway's loading gauge dictated the cross-section of passages to be dug. At many mining sites, pit railways have been abandoned due to mine closure or adoption of new transportation equipment.
Some show mines offer mantrip rides into the mine. The Metro 1, built from 1894 to 1896, is the oldest line of the Budapest Metro system and the second-oldest underground railway in the world; the M1 underwent major reconstruction during the 1980s and 1990s, Line 1 now serves eight original stations whose original appearance has been preserved. In 2002, the line was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In the Deák Ferenc Square concourse's Millennium Underground Museum, many other artifacts of the metro's early history may be seen; the first heritage railway to be rescued and run by volunteers was the Talyllyn Railway in Wales. This narrow-gauge line, taken over by a group of enthusiasts in 1950, was the beginning of the preservation movement worldwide. In Britain, heritage railways are railway lines which
Metrolink is a commuter rail system in Southern California consisting of seven lines and 62 stations operating on 534 miles of rail network. The system operates in Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, Ventura counties, as well as to Oceanside in San Diego County, it connects with the Los Angeles County Metro Rail and Metro Busway system, the San Diego Coaster commuter rail and Sprinter light rail services, with Amtrak's Pacific Surfliner, Coast Starlight, Southwest Chief, Sunset Limited intercity rail services. The system, founded in 1991 as the Southern California Regional Rail Authority and adopting "Metrolink" as its moniker, started operation in 1992. Average weekday ridership was 39,838 as of 2017. In addition to suburban communities and cities, Metrolink serves several points of interest such as Downtown Los Angeles, Hollywood Burbank Airport, California State University, Los Angeles, Angel Stadium of Anaheim, the San Clemente Pier. Special service has been extended to the Pomona Fairplex, the Ventura County Fairgrounds, the Auto Club Speedway for certain events.
Metrolink's fare structure is based on a flat fee for boarding the train and an additional cost for distance with fares being calculated in 25-cent increments between stations. Metrolink tickets are valid fare for most connecting trains. Fare increases occur annually in July, to coincide with increased fuel and labor expenses, have averaged between 3.5% and 5% per year. The oil price increases since 2003 are to blame for increasing fares, as Metrolink trains are powered by diesel fuel; the member agencies of the SCRRA purchased 175 miles of track, maintenance yards, stations and other property from Southern Pacific for $450 million in 1990. The rights to use Los Angeles Union Station were purchased from Union Pacific, the station's owner at the time, for $17 million in the same year; the Authority was formally founded in 1991. Amtrak began operation of the Ventura, Santa Clarita, San Bernardino lines on October 26, 1992 under contract to the SCRRA. In 1993, service was expanded to include the Orange County Lines.
The Inland Empire-Orange County Line opened in 1995. In 1995, more trains on the Orange County service were funded; the 91 Line opened in 2002. From July 2004, Metrolink fares were changed from zone based to one based on distance. In 2005 a five-year operational contract was awarded to Connex Railroad/Veolia Transport. In 2005, the Orange County Transportation Authority approved a plan to increase frequencies to 76 trains daily on the Orange County and Inland Empire-Orange County Lines by 2009, funding for increased Metrolink service was included in the renewal of the Measure M sales tax for transportation approved by voters in November 2006. A proposed station in Yorba Linda was canceled in 2005 due to local opposition. In July 2008, it was announced. Following the 2008 Chatsworth train collision in which 25 people died and 135 were injured a number of safety measures were taken. In 2010, the first of 117 energy absorbing passenger carriages were received by the operator. Amtrak regained the contract to operate Metrolink beginning in July 2010.
Average weekday ridership for the fourth quarter of 2009 was 38,400. In 2010, to save money in the face of funding cuts, the Metrolink board voted to reduce mid-day service on the Inland Empire–Orange County Line, as well as weekend service on both the Orange County and Inland Empire–Orange County lines. Average weekday ridership was 41,000 during May 2011. A survey found that 90% of users during a typical weekday in 2009 would have driven alone or carpooled and that the system replaced an estimated 25,000 vehicle trips. During a weekend closure of Interstate 405 in July 2011, the system recorded its highest-ever weekend ridership of 20,000 boardings, 50% higher than the same weekend in 2010 and 10% higher than the previous weekend ridership record which occurred during U2 360° Tour in June 2011. Ridership continued to rise in 2012, when average weekday ridership reached 42,265. Although 2013 annual boardings were 12.07 million, ridership dropped to 11.74 million by fall 2014, contrary to projections.
Blaming the decrease on the worst recession since World War II, Metrolink said it found itself caught between cutting service and boosting fares, both of which would further decrease ridership. Metrolink began offering mobile ticketing in early 2016; the Riverside County Transportation Commission extended the 91 Line southeast 24 miles to Perris, using the existing San Jacinto Branch Line, which it purchased in 1993. Initial plans were for construction/renovation of the line to begin in 2012, but these were delayed by a lawsuit filed by homeowners in the affected area, who challenged the RCTC's environmental report; the lawsuit was settled in late July 2013. Construction on the $248.3 million extension began in October 2013. In mid-February 2016, the extension's opening was planned in March of that year; the extension opened in June 2016
The Capitol Corridor is a 270-mile passenger train route operated by Amtrak between San Jose and Auburn, California. Most trains operate between San Jose and Sacramento parallel to Interstate 880 and Interstate 80. One round trip per day runs from Oakland through the eastern Sacramento suburbs to Auburn, in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. Capitol Corridor trains started in 1991. Like all regional trains in California, the Capitol Corridor is operated by a joint powers authority; the Capitol Corridor Joint Powers Authority is governed by a board that includes two elected representatives from each of eight counties the train travels through. The CCJPA contracts with the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District to provide day-to-day management, Amtrak to operate and maintain the rolling stock; the California Department of Transportation provides the funding and owns the rolling stock. The First Transcontinental Railroad was completed to Oakland from the south in 1869. Following the completion of the California Pacific Railroad in 1879, most long-distance service of the Southern Pacific reached Oakland from the north.
Long-distance service from the south ran to San Francisco via the Peninsula. The Western Pacific Railroad and Santa Fe Railroad ran long-distance service with limited local stops. Commuter service around Oakland was provided by the electric interurban trains of the SP-owned East Bay Electric Lines and Key System. By the end of the 1930s, the SP operated five daily local round trips plus a number of long-distance trains between Oakland and Sacramento; the Oakland Lark and an unnamed local train provided local service between Oakland and San Jose on the Coast Line. The inland Niles Subdivision was served by a daily Oakland–Tracy local and a commute-timed Oakland–San Jose local; the Oakland–San Jose trip on the Niles Subdivision was discontinued on September 29, 1940, followed by the Oakland–Tracy trip in 1941. The two Oakland–San Jose trips on the Coast Line were discontinued on May 1, 1960; the last local service between Oakland and Sacramento was the Senator, discontinued by the SP on May 31, 1962.
At the start of the 1990s, three Amtrak intercity trains operated in the Bay Area: the long-distance California Zephyr and Coast Starlight, the regional San Joaquin. Of the three lines, only the Coast Starlight ran between San Jose and Sacramento—once a day in each direction, at inconvenient times. In 1990, California voters passed two ballot propositions providing $105 million to expand service along the route; the new service, named Capitols, debuted on December 12, 1991 with three daily round trips between San Jose and Sacramento. Of these, a single round trip continued to an eastern Sacramento suburb. One of the ballot propositions, Proposition 116, provided the name Capitol Corridor—so named because it links the location of California's first state capitol, San Jose, with the current location, Sacramento; the service was known as the Capitols until April 29, 2001, when Amtrak renamed it the Capitol Corridor. The Capitols ran via the Coast Line from Elmhurst to Santa Clara, with no stops between Oakland and San Jose.
In 1992, after the completion of track and signal work, the Capitols were rerouted onto the Niles Subdivision further inland between Elmhurst and Newark. The new route allowed the addition of infill stations at Fremont in 1993 and Hayward in 1997; the Oakland Central station, damaged by the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, was closed in 1994, replaced by new stations at Emeryville in 1993 and Oakland – Jack London Square in 1995. Additional infill stations were added at Santa Clara – Great America in 1993, Oakland Coliseum in 2005, the existing Caltrain station in Santa Clara – University in 2012, at Fairfield–Vacaville in 2017. One daily round trip was extended east to Colfax via Rocklin and Auburn on January 26, 1998; the trip was cut back to Auburn on February 27, 2000. Service was increased from the original three daily round trips; the fifth round trip was added in November 1998, followed by the sixth in February 1999. Installation of positive train control along the route was completed by November 2018.
Additional stations have been proposed along the route at Hercules and Dixon. The Capitol Corridor Vision Implementation Plan is a long range outline of possible improvements to the service. Near term suggested improvements include double tracking between San Jose and a realignment to the Coast Subdivision and a new station at the Ardenwood Park-and-Ride followed by track improvements between Emeryville and Richmond. Goals include tunneling under Jack London Square to eliminate the street-running section there, rerouting freight traffic over another right-of-way between Sacramento and Martinez, eventual electrification of the line. Funding for Capitol Corridor upgrades in the amount of $93 million was allocated by Senate Bill 1 in 2018, part of which are being used to plan the realignment to the Coast Subdivision and the new station from the Vision Plan; this project lays the groundwork for future double tracking and service increases along the re-rou
The Superliner is a type of bilevel intercity railroad passenger car used by Amtrak, the national rail passenger carrier in the United States. Amtrak ordered the cars to replace older single-level cars on its long-distance trains in the Western United States; the design was based on the Budd Hi-Level vehicles, employed by the Santa Fe Railway on its El Capitan trains. Pullman-Standard built 284 cars, known as Superliner I, in 1975–1981; the Superliner I cars were the last passenger cars built by Pullman. Car types include coaches, dining cars and sleeping cars. Most passenger spaces are on the upper level; the Sightseer Lounge observation cars have distinctive floor-to-ceiling windows on the upper level. Boarding is on the lower level; the first Superliner I cars entered service in February 1979, with deliveries continuing through 1981. Amtrak assigned the cars to both long-distance and short-distance trains in the Western United States; the first permanent assignment, in October 1979, was to the Chicago–Seattle Empire Builder.
Superliner II deliveries began in 1993. Tunnel clearances prevent their use on the Northeast Corridor. On May 1, 1971, Amtrak assumed control of all private sector intercity passenger rail service in the United States, with a mandate to reverse decades of decline, it retained about 184 of the 440 trains. To operate these trains, Amtrak inherited a fleet of 300 locomotives and 1,190 passenger cars, most of which dated from the 1940s and 1950s. No new sleeping cars had been built for service in the United States since 1955. Conventional single-level cars made up most of Amtrak's inherited fleet, but it included 73 Hi-Level cars from the Santa Fe; the Budd Company built these between 1954 and 1964. Michael R. Weinman, who worked at the design firm Louis T. Klauder & Associates, recalled that when Amtrak issued a request for proposal in 1973 for a "totally new" passenger car, it "was assumed" that the design would be bilevel. Thirteen companies responded to the RFP; the design was finished by mid-1974 and Amtrak invited four companies to bid on its construction: Boeing, Pullman-Standard, Rohr.
Pullman-Standard won the contract. Amtrak ordered 235 Superliner I cars from Pullman-Standard on April 2, 1975, with deliveries scheduled for between January 1977 and June 1978; the order consisted of 120 coaches, 55 sleepers, 34 diners, 26 lounges. Amtrak soon increased the order to 284 cars: it added 30 coaches, 15 sleepers, 5 diners, deleted 1 lounge; the initial order cost $143.6 million. The railroad asked its employees to name the new cars, announced the winning entry in its internal newsletter of June 1, 1977: "Vistaliner," harkening back to the Vista-Domes of the Chicago and Quincy Railroad, but the newsletter went on to note that the name was under copyright by another company, so the cars would be dubbed "Superliners," a name created by Needham, Harper & Steers Amtrak's advertising agency. As the cars arrived in 1978 and 1979, Amtrak put them into use on short-haul routes radiating from Chicago; the first coaches entered regular service on February 1979, running from Chicago to Milwaukee.
The coaches, led by an EMD F40PH locomotive, displaced the regular Turboliner equipment. The equipment continued to operate on the run for several weeks; the Illini and Shawnee trains received Superliner coaches soon after. A public unveiling took place at Union Station in Chicago on October 11, 1979, followed by a short trip over the Burlington Northern Railroad to Lisle; the following day, the Shawnee had the dubious distinction of the first Superliner accident, a collision with an Illinois Central Gulf Railroad freight train at Harvey, IL, which claimed the lives of 2 crew members of the freight train. Amtrak's first choice for Superliner assignments had been the financially-troubled Floridian, a Chicago–Florida long-distance train, but the two years' delay in delivery scuppered these plans. Amtrak turned next to the Empire Builder; this long-distance train ran between Chicago and Seattle through the plains of Montana and North Dakota. Winters in that part of the United States are harsh, featuring cold temperatures.
Traditional steam-heated equipment broke down, causing Amtrak to cancel service. The Superliners, with their electrical head-end power, were far better suited for the conditions; the Empire Builder became the first long-distance train to use Superliners, the first train permanently assigned them, on October 28, 1979. Amtrak's new national timetable depicted a Superliner coach on the front cover, the listing for the Empire Builder carried a heading which read "Amtrak's Superliner is Somethin' Special." At the same time, Superliners entered service on the short-haul Pacific International and Mount Rainier in the Pacific Northwest. With the Empire Builder in operation, Amtrak began re-equipping the remaining long-distance trains in the west; the second permanent Superliner train was the Desert Wind a day train between Los Angeles and Ogden, which gained coaches on June 30, 1980. The San Francisco Zephyr, a long-distance train on the traditional Overland Route between Chicago and San Francisco
Seattle is a seaport city on the West Coast of the United States. It is the seat of Washington. With an estimated 730,000 residents as of 2018, Seattle is the largest city in both the state of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America. According to U. S. Census data released in 2018, the Seattle metropolitan area’s population stands at 3.87 million, ranks as the 15th largest in the United States. In July 2013, it was the fastest-growing major city in the United States and remained in the Top 5 in May 2015 with an annual growth rate of 2.1%. In July 2016, Seattle was again the fastest-growing major U. S. city, with a 3.1% annual growth rate. Seattle is the northernmost large city in the United States; the city is situated on an isthmus between Puget Sound and Lake Washington, about 100 miles south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the fourth-largest port in North America in terms of container handling as of 2015; the Seattle area was inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers.
Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived from Illinois via Portland, Oregon, on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851; the settlement was moved to the eastern shore of Elliott Bay and named "Seattle" in 1852, in honor of Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. Today, Seattle has high populations of Native, Scandinavian and Asian Americans, as well as a thriving LGBT community that ranks 6th in the United States for population. Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century, the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. Growth after World War II was due to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing; the Seattle area developed into a technology center from the 1980s onwards with companies like Microsoft becoming established in the region. Internet retailer Amazon was founded in Seattle in 1994, major airline Alaska Airlines is based in SeaTac, serving Seattle's international airport, Seattle–Tacoma International Airport.
The stream of new software and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Owing to its increasing population in the 21st century and the state of Washington have some of the highest minimum wages in the country, at $15 per hour for smaller businesses and $16 for the city's largest employers. Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs existed along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District; the jazz scene nurtured the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson, others. Seattle is the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix, as well as the origin of the bands Nirvana, Pearl Jam, Alice in Chains, Foo Fighters and the alternative rock movement grunge. Archaeological excavations suggest that Native Americans have inhabited the Seattle area for at least 4,000 years. By the time the first European settlers arrived, the people occupied at least seventeen villages in the areas around Elliott Bay.
The first European to visit the Seattle area was George Vancouver, in May 1792 during his 1791–95 expedition to chart the Pacific Northwest. In 1851, a large party led by Luther Collins made a location on land at the mouth of the Duwamish River. Thirteen days members of the Collins Party on the way to their claim passed three scouts of the Denny Party. Members of the Denny Party claimed land on Alki Point on September 28, 1851; the rest of the Denny Party set sail from Portland and landed on Alki point during a rainstorm on November 13, 1851. After a difficult winter, most of the Denny Party relocated across Elliott Bay and claimed land a second time at the site of present-day Pioneer Square, naming this new settlement Duwamps. Charles Terry and John Low remained at the original landing location and reestablished their old land claim and called it "New York", but renamed "New York Alki" in April 1853, from a Chinook word meaning "by and by" or "someday". For the next few years, New York Alki and Duwamps competed for dominance, but in time Alki was abandoned and its residents moved across the bay to join the rest of the settlers.
David Swinson "Doc" Maynard, one of the founders of Duwamps, was the primary advocate to name the settlement after Chief Seattle of the Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. The name "Seattle" appears on official Washington Territory papers dated May 23, 1853, when the first plats for the village were filed. In 1855, nominal land settlements were established. On January 14, 1865, the Legislature of Territorial Washington incorporated the Town of Seattle with a board of trustees managing the city; the Town of Seattle was disincorporated on January 18, 1867, remained a mere precinct of King County until late 1869, when a new petition was filed and the city was re-incorporated December 2, 1869, with a mayor–council government. The corporate seal of the City of Seattle carries the date "1869" and a likeness of Chief Sealth in left profile. Seattle has a history of boom-and-bust cycles, like many other cities near areas of extensive natural and mineral resources. Seattle has risen several times economically gone into precipitous decline, but it has used those periods to rebuild solid infrastructure
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of its eastern boundary with Idaho; the parallel 42 ° north delineates the southern boundary with Nevada. Oregon is one of only four states of the continental United States to have a coastline on the Pacific Ocean. Oregon was inhabited by many indigenous tribes before Western traders and settlers arrived. An autonomous government was formed in the Oregon Country in 1843 before the Oregon Territory was created in 1848. Oregon became the 33rd state on February 14, 1859. Today, at 98,000 square miles, Oregon is the ninth largest and, with a population of 4 million, 27th most populous U. S. state. The capital, Salem, is the second most populous city in Oregon, with 169,798 residents. Portland, with 647,805, ranks as the 26th among U. S. cities. The Portland metropolitan area, which includes the city of Vancouver, Washington, to the north, ranks the 25th largest metro area in the nation, with a population of 2,453,168.
Oregon is one of the most geographically diverse states in the U. S. marked by volcanoes, abundant bodies of water, dense evergreen and mixed forests, as well as high deserts and semi-arid shrublands. At 11,249 feet, Mount Hood, a stratovolcano, is the state's highest point. Oregon's only national park, Crater Lake National Park, comprises the caldera surrounding Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States; the state is home to the single largest organism in the world, Armillaria ostoyae, a fungus that runs beneath 2,200 acres of the Malheur National Forest. Because of its diverse landscapes and waterways, Oregon's economy is powered by various forms of agriculture and hydroelectric power. Oregon is the top timber producer of the contiguous United States, the timber industry dominated the state's economy in the 20th century. Technology is another one of Oregon's major economic forces, beginning in the 1970s with the establishment of the Silicon Forest and the expansion of Tektronix and Intel.
Sportswear company Nike, Inc. headquartered in Beaverton, is the state's largest public corporation with an annual revenue of $30.6 billion. The earliest evidence of the name Oregon has Spanish origins; the term "orejón" comes from the historical chronicle Relación de la Alta y Baja California written by the new Spaniard Rodrigo Montezuma and made reference to the Columbia River when the Spanish explorers penetrated into the actual North American territory that became part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. This chronicle is the first topographical and linguistic source with respect to the place name Oregon. There are two other sources with Spanish origins, such as the name Oregano, which grows in the southern part of the region, it is most probable that the American territory was named by the Spaniards, as there are some populations in Spain such as "Arroyo del Oregón" considering that the individualization in Spanish language "El Orejón" with the mutation of the letter "g" instead of "j". Another early use of the name, spelled Ouragon, was in a 1765 petition by Major Robert Rogers to the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The term referred to the then-mythical River of the West. By 1778, the spelling had shifted to Oregon. In his 1765 petition, Rogers wrote: The rout...is from the Great Lakes towards the Head of the Mississippi, from thence to the River called by the Indians Ouragon... One theory is that the name comes from the French word ouragan, applied to the River of the West based on Native American tales of powerful Chinook winds on the lower Columbia River, or from firsthand French experience with the Chinook winds of the Great Plains. At the time, the River of the West was thought to rise in western Minnesota and flow west through the Great Plains. Joaquin Miller explained in Sunset magazine, in 1904, how Oregon's name was derived: The name, Oregon, is rounded down phonetically, from Ouve água—Oragua, Or-a-gon, Oregon—given by the same Portuguese navigator that named the Farallones after his first officer, it in a large way, means cascades:'Hear the waters.' You should steam up the Columbia and hear and feel the waters falling out of the clouds of Mount Hood to understand the full meaning of the name Ouve a água, Oregon.
Another account, endorsed as the "most plausible explanation" in the book Oregon Geographic Names, was advanced by George R. Stewart in a 1944 article in American Speech. According to Stewart, the name came from an engraver's error in a French map published in the early 18th century, on which the Ouisiconsink River was spelled "Ouaricon-sint", broken on two lines with the -sint below, so there appeared to be a river flowing to the west named "Ouaricon". According to the Oregon Tourism Commission, present-day Oregonians pronounce the state's name as "or-uh-gun, never or-ee-gone". After being drafted by the Detroit Lions in 2002, former Oregon Ducks quarterback Joey Harrington distributed "Orygun" stickers to members of the media as a reminder of how to pronounce the name of his home state; the stickers are sold by the University of Oregon Bookstore. Oregon is 295 miles north to south at longest distance, 395 miles east to west. With an area of 98,381 square miles, Oregon is larger than the United Kingdom.
It is the ninth largest state in the United States. Oregon's highest point is the summit of Mount Hood, at 11,249 feet, its lowest point is the sea level of the Pacific Ocean along the Oregon Coas