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Coastal erosion

Coastal erosion is the loss or displacement of land, or the long-term removal of sediment and rocks along the coastline due to the action of waves, tides, wind-driven water, waterborne ice, or other impacts of storms. The landward retreat of the shoreline can measured and described over a temporal scale of tides and other short-term cyclic processes. Coastal erosion may be caused by hydraulic action, abrasion and corrosion by wind and water, other forces, natural or unnatural. On non-rocky coasts, coastal erosion results in rock formations in areas where the coastline contains rock layers or fracture zones with varying resistance to erosion. Softer areas become eroded much faster than harder ones, which result in landforms such as tunnels, bridges and pillars. Over time the coast evens out; the softer areas fill up with sediment eroded from hard areas, rock formations are eroded away. Abrasion happens in areas where there are strong winds, loose sand, soft rocks; the blowing of millions of sharp sand grains creates a sandblasting effect.

This effect helps to erode and polish rocks. The definition of abrasion is grinding and wearing away of rock surfaces through the mechanical action of other rock or sand particles. A place where erosion of a cliffed coast has occurred is at Wamberal in the Central Coast region of New South Wales where houses built on top of the cliffs began to collapse into the sea; this is due to waves causing erosion of the sedimentary material on which the buildings foundations sit. Dunwich, the capital of the English medieval wool trade, disappeared over the period of a few centuries due to redistribution of sediment by waves. Human interference can increase coastal erosion: Hallsands in Devon, was a coastal village washed away over the course of a year, 1917, directly due to earlier dredging of shingle in the bay in front of it; the California coast, which has soft cliffs of sedimentary rock and is populated has incidents of housing damage as cliffs erodes. Devil's Slide, Santa Barbara, the coast just north of Ensenada, Malibu are affected.

The Holderness coastline on the east coast of England, just north of the Humber Estuary, is one of the fastest eroding coastlines in Europe due to its soft clay cliffs and powerful waves. Groynes and other artificial measures to keep it under control has only accelerated the process further down the coast, because longshore drift starves the beaches of sand, leaving them more exposed; the White Cliffs of Dover have been affected. The coastline of North Cove, Washington has been eroding at a rate of over 100 feet per year, earning the area the nickname "Washaway Beach." Much of the original town has collapsed into the ocean. The area is said to be the fastest-eroding shore of the United States' West Coast. Measures were taken to slow the erosion, with substantial slowing of the process noted in 2018. Fort Ricasoli, a historic 17th century fortress in Malta is being threatened by coastal erosion, as it was built on a fault in the headland, prone to erosion. A small part of one of the bastion walls has collapsed since the land under it has eroded, there are cracks in other walls as well.

In El Campello, the erosion and failure of a Roman farm fish excavated on rock during the first century B. C. was exacerbated by the construction of a close sport harbour. Hydraulic Action occurs; this exerts pressure on the surrounding rock, can progressively splinter and remove pieces. Over time, the cracks can grow, sometimes forming a cave; the splinters fall to the sea bed. Attrition occurs when waves cause loose pieces of rock debris to collide with each other and chipping each other, progressively becoming smaller and rounder. Scree collides with the base of the cliff face, chipping small pieces of rock from the cliff or have a corrasion effect, similar to sandpapering. Solution is the process in which acids contained in sea water will dissolve some types of rock such as chalk or limestone. Abrasion known as Corrasion, occurs when waves break on cliff faces and erode it; as the sea pounds cliff faces it uses the scree from other wave actions to batter and break off pieces of rock from higher up the cliff face which can be used for this same wave action and attrition.

Corrosion or solution/chemical weathering occurs. Limestone cliff faces, which have a moderately high pH, are affected in this way. Wave action increases the rate of reaction by removing the reacted material; the ability of waves to cause erosion of the cliff face depends on many factors. The hardness of sea-facing rocks is controlled by the rock strength and the presence of fissures and beds of non-cohesive materials such as silt and fine sand; the rate at which cliff fall debris is removed from the foreshore depends on the power of the waves crossing the beach. This energy must reach a critical level to remove material from the debris lobe. Debris lobes can be persistent and can take many years to disappear. Beaches dissipate wave energy on the foreshore and provide a measure of protection to the adjoining land; the stability of the foreshore, or its resistance to lowering. Once stable, the foreshore should widen and become more effective at dissipating the wave energy, so that fewer and less powerful waves reach beyond it.

The provision of updrift material coming onto the foreshore beneath the cliff helps to ensure a stable beach. The adjacent bathymetry, or c

Rahimah Rahim (singer, born 1992)

Rahimah Rahim is a Singaporean student and singer from Taiwan. She became known after her appearance on Singapore Idol, a TV singing competition modelled after the TV shows Pop Idol and American Idol. Singapore Idol is a production of MediaCorp TV, a television and radio production company in Singapore which produces the news station, Channel NewsAsia. During her appearances on Singapore Idol, she sang songs including'Guji Guji Kemcho Saru che Haru che', Unwritten by Natasha Bedingfield, Don't Speak by No Doubt and Breakaway by Kelly Clarkson, she was voted off the show on August 2006, right before the theme of Rock The House. She was quoted as saying that she wanted'very badly to sing in her mother tongue' and that'they were about to have Rock The House without the Rocker Chick' upon her departure, she left behind her signature glove as a memento to the other contestants. She cites her favourite singers as Amy Lee from Evanescence, The Cranberries, Alanis Morissette, Michelle Branch, Kelly Clarkson, Linkin Park and Agnes Monica from Indonesia.

She is known for her loud freestyled hair, which she cuts herself. Rahima pulled out from the last episode of "Wish Upon A Star", saying that she wishes to spend more time in recording her solo album She has opted not to be part of the 2007 New Year's Countdown at VivoCity becease of this. Rahima had her name changed to avoid confusion between her and veteran singer Rahimah Rahim. Singapore Idol Danielle Photo of Rahimah Rahim

Atlanta CV Drum and Bugle Corps

Atlanta CV known as The Atlanta CorpsVets is an all-age drum and bugle corps that competes in the Drum Corps Associates circuit, is a 501c3 Not-For-Profit Organization based in Atlanta, Georgia. It was is one of two competitive Drum Corps in the state of Georgia; the Atlanta CorpsVets started as a simple idea of Robin and Tracey Wofford and Tom and Janet Walsh in conjunction with American Legion Post #1 in the summer of 1997. The Woffords attended a senior corps show in Wisconsin, felt the time was right for Atlanta to have its own corps. After returning to Atlanta, Robin created the name "Corpsvets", the initial outline of the corps was sketched. Robin and Tracey contacted friends and contacts of their drum corps days and began recruiting at a local drum corps event held at Jacksonville State University; the Woffords and Walshes met that night, collaborated to bring the corps into being. Many signed up for further information, the first interest meeting was held at American Legion Post 1 in late Fall, 1997.

The first rehearsal of the corps was in January 1998, with basics block rehearsals conducted throughout Piedmont Park. The first performance was at the 1998 St. Patrick's Day Parade in Atlanta; that summer, the corps boasted a membership of 44 performers, performed exhibitions at a local DCI competition as well as marched in the WSB-TV Salute 2 America Parade in downtown Atlanta. The final performance that inaugural season was at the Drum Corps Associates Championship in Allentown, Pennsylvania where several members represented the corps in the Individual and Ensemble Competition, they have participated in the Atlanta St. Patrick's Day parade, the WSB-TV Salute 2 America Parade and at the local DCI competitions in Georgia and South Carolina In 1999 the corps grew to 55 members and traveled to the DCA Championships, placing 4th in the mini-corps competition. Growth continued in 2000, with the corps featuring 56 members and placing second at the DCA Championships in the Class A division. In 2001 the CorpsVets grew to 65 members and won the Class A title at the DCA championships with a record score in that division.

The following year, 2002, the corps grew to 94 members, advanced to the competitive Open Class Division of DCA and tied for 11th place at the championships. Since 2002 the corps has competed in Open Class attaining finalist status each season fielding corps of over 100 members. In 2012 the corps shorten its name to Atlanta CV Drum and Bugle Corps, adopting the "CV" moniker often used to refer to the "CorpsVets"; this rebranding helped eliminate the misconception that a member must be a vet of a corps in order to participate, never the case. The corps' highest placement coincides with their highest score, set at the 2017 DCA Championships finals, with a score of 96.63 and 2nd place overall. They are the 10 Time DCA South Champions and the highest placing and highest scoring southern corps in DCA History. In addition to competitive performances, the corps has hosted educational clinics for local high school music students, performed at the July 4 stage show in Centennial Olympic Park, opened the Southeastern Emmy Awards show, performed the National Anthem for the Georgia Force and the Rome Braves.

The corps has marched in the Old Soldier's Day Parade in Alpharetta, the July 4 Parade in Avondale Estates, the WSB Salute 2 America Parade, the Barnum Festival Parade in Bridgeport, CT, the Atlanta St. Patrick's Day Parade, the Georgia Mountain Fair Parade in Hiawassee. Atlanta CV's philosophy is to provide entertaining and crowd-pleasing performances for its members and fans to enjoy; the corps has a close-knit trained membership and staff who work together to create a dynamic and rewarding experience. Performance, community service, friendship, are the defining characteristics of CV, which aims for excellence and leadership in the drum corps activity. Atlanta CV rehearses and performs their home competition, The Southern Showdown, at Hiram High School in Hiram, GA; the facilities and outstanding support from the community have been essential to the corps' growth and success through the years. In 2015, Atlanta CV came out with an indoor percussion program, headed by percussion caption head and arranger Chris Romanowski.

The ensemble competed in Winter Guard International Percussion Independent World Class. The following year, 2016, the organization decided not to come out with an indoor line due to a large majority of staff and potential members going on a trip to China that took place during the heat of the season. In 2017, Atlanta CV Indoor had returned to the competition arena, competing in WGI Percussion Independent Open Class. In 2018, Atlanta CV Indoor announced a merger with Q2, another Open Class group based in Atlanta; as a result and resources were brought together and CV Indoor would now be under the Q2 name. Atlanta CV: Official website