Jujuy is a province of Argentina, located in the extreme northwest of the country, at the borders with Chile and Bolivia. The only neighboring Argentine province is Salta to the south. Pre-Columbian inhabitants known as the Omaguacas and Ocloyas, who were conquered by the Incas during their expansion period, practiced agriculture and domesticated the guanaco, they had huts made of mud, erected stone fortresses to protect their villages. An example of such fortresses is Pucará de Tilcara, Pucará meaning "fortress". In 1593, a small settlement was erected in the Jujuy valley by the effort of Francisco de Argañaraz y Murguía. In spite of the attacks of the Calchaquíes and Omaguacas aborigines, the population and activity of the village consolidated and grew. At the end of the 17th century, the customs to the Viceroyalty of Peru was transferred from Córdoba to Jujuy. With the separation from Peru and the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, Jujuy lost its importance and its population started to diminish.
During the May Revolution and the battles for the independence of the United provinces of the South, many confrontations took place in Jujuy because the Spanish concentrated their forces in Peru. The people of Jujuy had to endure the Jujuy Exodus, a massive evacuation with a scorched earth policy, led by General Manuel Belgrano; the Spanish surrendered, but the war affected the economy of the area. After a series of internal conflicts, the province declared its autonomy from Tucumán and Salta Provinces on November 18, 1834. Jujuy started a gradual process of economic and social improvement, at the end of the 19th century, the sugarcane industry arose. At the beginning of the following century, the railway connected the province with Buenos Aires, La Paz, Bolivia. Heavy industry first arrived in Jujuy at the hand of General Manuel Savio, a presidential economic advisor who, in 1945, had Argentina's first modern steel mill installed in Jujuy. In 1969, Jujuy joined oil-rich neighboring Salta Province with the discovery of petroleum by the state-owned YPF.
There are three main areas in Jujuy. The Río Grande of Jujuy cuts through the Quebrada de Humahuaca canyon, of heights between 1,000 and 3,500 meters. To the Southeast, the sierras descends to the Gran Chaco region; the vast difference in height and climate produces desert areas such as the Salinas Grandes salt mines, subtropical Yungas jungle. In spite of the different areas, the terrain of the province is arid and semi-desertic, except for the El Ramal valley of the San Francisco River. Temperature difference between day and night is wider in higher lands, precipitations are scarce outside the temperate area of the San Francisco River; the Grande River and the San Francisco River flow to the Bermejo River. The San Juan, La Quiaca and Sansana flow to the Pilcomayo River. Jujuy's economy is moderately underdeveloped, yet diversified, its 2006 economy was an estimated US$2.998 billion, or, US$4,899 per capita. Jujuy is, despite its rural profile, not agrarian. Agriculture contributes about 10% to output and the main agricultural activity is sugarcane.
Its processing represents more than half of the province's gross production, 30% of the national sugar production. The second agricultural activity is tobacco, cultivated in the Southeastern valley, as a major national producer. Other crops include beans and tomatoes, other vegetables for local consumption. Cattle and goats are raised on a small scale for local dairies, llamas, vicuñas and guanacos are raised in significant numbers for wool. Manufacturing is more prominent in Jujuy than in some neighboring provinces, adding 15% to its economy. Jujuy is the second largest Argentine producer of iron, used by the Altos Hornos Zapla steel mill. Other industrial activities include mining for construction material, petroleum extraction at Caimancito, salt production from Salinas Grandes salt basin, the paper production fed by the Jujuy's forests with 20% of the industrial product of the province; the province has been served since 1967 by the Gobernador Horacio Guzmán International Airport. An important and still growing activity, tourism in the area brings a number of Argentine tourists, tourists from other South American countries and Europeans.
Most tourists head for San Salvador de Jujuy to start their exploration of the province. The Horacio Guzmán international airport, 34 km from San Salvador, connects the province with Buenos Aires, Córdoba, some destinations in Bolivia. Apart from the fantastic contrast of land colours and formations, tourists are attracted by the strong aboriginal roots in the culture of Jujuy. Aymará and Quechua cultures coexist in the area, ruins of the Incas are well conserved. Tourists who come to Jujuy visit the area of the Quebrada de Humahuaca and its Cerro de los Siete Colores, Pucará de Tilcara, Salinas Grandes and many small towns. Other less frequent destinations include the Calilegua National Park in the Yungas jungle, La Quiaca, Laguna de Pozuelos, Laguna Guayatayoc; the province is divided into 16 departments. Department: Cochinoca El Carmen Doctor Manuel Belgrano Humahuaca Ledesma Palpalá Rinconada San Antonio San Pedro Santa Bárbara Santa Catalina Susques Tilcara Tumbaya Valle Grande Yav
Buenos Aires Province
Buenos Aires is the largest and most populous Argentinian province. It takes the name from the city of Buenos Aires, which used to be part of the province and the provincial capital until it was federalized in 1880. Since in spite of bearing the same name, the province does not include the national capital city proper, though it does include all other localities of the Greater Buenos Aires metropolitan area surrounding it; the current capital of the province is the city of La Plata, founded in 1882. The province is the only within the whole Argentina to be divided into partidos and furtherly into localidades, borders the provinces of Entre Ríos to the northeast. Uruguay is just near the Atlantic Ocean to the east; the entire province is part of the Pampas geographical region. The province has a population of 39 % of Argentina's total population. Nearly 10 million people live in Greater Buenos Aires; the area of the province, 307,571 km2, makes it the largest in Argentina with around 11% of the country's total area.
The inhabitants of the province before the 16th century advent of Spanish colonisation were aboriginal peoples such as the Charrúas and the Querandíes. Their culture was lost over the next 350 years, they were subjected to Eurasian plagues from. The survivors joined other tribes or have been absorbed by Argentina's European ethnic majority. Pedro de Mendoza founded Santa María del Buen Ayre in 1536. Though the first contact with the aboriginals was peaceful, it soon became hostile; the city was evacuated in 1541. Juan de Garay re-founded the settlement in 1580 as Santísima Trinidad y Puerto Santa María de los Buenos Aires. Amidst ongoing conflict with the aboriginals, the cattle farms extended from Buenos Aires, whose port was always the centre of the economy of the territory. Following the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata at the end of the 18th century, the export of meat and their derivatives through the port of Buenos Aires was the basis of the economic development of the region.
Jesuits unsuccessfully tried to peacefully assimilate the aboriginals into the European culture brought by the Spanish conquistadores. A certain balance was found at the end of the 18th century, when the Salado River became the limit between both civilizations, despite frequent malones; the end to this situation came in 1879 with the Conquest of the Desert in which the aboriginals were completely exterminated. After the independence from Spain in 1816, the city and province of Buenos Aires became the focus of an intermittent Argentine Civil War with other provinces. A Federal Pact secured by Governor Juan Manuel de Rosas in 1831 led to the establishment of the Argentine Confederation and to his gaining the sum of public power, which provided a tenuous unity. Ongoing disputes regarding the influence of Buenos Aires, between Federalists and Unitarians, over the Port of Buenos Aires fueled periodic hostilities; the province was declared independent on September 1852, as the State of Buenos Aires.
Concessions gained in the 1859 Pact of San José de Flores and a victory at the Battle of Pavón led to its reincorporation into the Argentine Republic on December 17, 1861. Intermittent conflicts with the nation did not cease until 1880, when the city of Buenos Aires was formally federalized and, administratively separated from the province. La Plata was founded in 1882 by Governor Dardo Rocha for the purpose of becoming the provincial capital; the equivalent of a billion dollars of British investment and pro-development and immigration policies pursued at the national level subsequently spurred dramatic economic growth. Driven by European immigration and improved health, the province's population, like Argentina's, nearly doubled to one million by 1895 and doubled again by 1914. Rail lines connected nearly every town and hamlet in the province by 1914; this era of accelerated development was cut short by the Wall Street Crash of 1929, which caused a sharp drop in commodity prices and led to a halt in the flow of investment funds between nations.
The new Concordance and Perón governments funded ambitious lending and public works programs, visible in Buenos Aires Province through the panoply of levees, power plants, water works, paved roads, municipal buildings, schools and massive regional hospitals. The province's population, after 1930, began to grow disproportionately in the suburban areas of Buenos Aires; these suburbs had grown to include 4 million out of the province's total 7 million people in 1960. Much of the area these new suburbs were developed on consisted of wetlands and were prone to flooding. To address this, Governor Oscar Alende initiated the province's most important flood-control project to date, the Roggero Reservoir. Completed a decade in 1971, the reservoir and associated electric and water-treatment facilities encouraged still more, more orderly, development of the Greater Buenos Aires region, which today includes around 10 million people, it did not address worsening pollution resulting from the area's industrial growth, which had made itself evident since aroun
Salta is a province of Argentina, located in the northwest of the country. Neighboring provinces are from the east clockwise Formosa, Santiago del Estero, Tucumán and Catamarca, it surrounds Jujuy. To the north it borders Bolivia and Paraguay and to the west lies Chile. Before the Spanish conquest, numerous native peoples lived in the valleys of what is now Salta Province; the Atacamas lived in the Puna, the Wichís, in the Chaco region. The first conquistador to venture into the area was Diego de Almagro in 1535. Hernando de Lerma founded San Felipe de Lerma in 1582, following orders of the viceroy Francisco de Toledo, Count of Oropesa. By 1650, the city had around five hundred inhabitants. An intendency of "Salta del Tucumán" was created within the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. In 1774, San Ramón de La Nueva Orán was founded between Tarija. In 1783, in recognition of the growing importance of the city, the capital of the intendency of Salta del Tucumán was moved from San Miguel de Tucumán to Salta.
The battle of Salta in 1813 freed the territory from Spain, but occasional attacks were mounted from the Viceroyalty of Peru as late as 1826. Gervasio de Posadas created the Province of Salta in 1814, containing the current provinces of Salta and parts of southern Bolivia and northern Chile. Exploiting internal Argentine conflicts that arose after the Argentine Declaration of Independence, Bolivia annexed Tarija in 1826. In 1834, Jujuy became a separate province; the borders of Salta were further reduced with the loss of Yacuiba to Bolivia. The National Government of Los Andes, constituted from the province in 1902 with a capital at San Antonio de los Cobres, was returned to Salta Province in 1943 as the Department of Los Andes. Antonio Alice's painting, La muerte de Güemes, which received a Gold Medal at the Centenary Exposition, is on display at the offices of the Salta Provincial Government; the total land area of the province is 155,488 km2, making it the sixth largest province by area in Argentina.
The main rivers of the province are the Pilcomayo and the Juramento, which becomes the Salado River. Salta Province is located at a geologically active region, suffers from occasional earthquakes. There have been four earthquakes of note in the province: In 1692, registering 7.0 on the Richter magnitude scale, at IX on the Mercalli intensity scale, In 1844, registering 6.5 on the Richter magnitude scale, VII Mercalli intensity, In 1948, registering 7.0 on the Moment magnitude scale, IX Mercalli intensity, In 2010, registering 6.1 or 6.3, VI Mercalli intensity. The 1692 earthquake was the inspiration for Salta's annual citywide festival, held on 16 September, in honor of El Señor y la Virgen del Milagro; the province is located in the tropical zone and has a warm climate in general, though it has marked variation in climate types owing to the variation in altitudes. The orientation of the Andes influences the distribution of precipitation within the province; the easternmost parts of the province have a semi-arid climate with a dry winter season.
The mean annual temperature and precipitation are 500 millimetres. Temperatures can reach up to 47 °C during summers; the first slopes of the Andes force the moist, easterly winds to rise, provoking high condensation leading to the formation of clouds that generate copious amounts of rain. The eastern slopes of the mountains receive between 1,000 to 1,500 mm of precipitation a year, although some places receive up to 2,500 mm of precipitation annually owing to orographic precipitation. Most of the precipitation is concentrated with winters being dry; the high rainfall on these first slopes creates a thick jungle that extends in a narrow strip along these ranges, creating an area of great species diversity. At higher altitudes on these slopes, the climate is cooler and more humid, with the vegetation consisting of deciduous and pine trees. Between the high altitudes to the west and the low plains to the east lie the valleys; the climate of these valleys is temperate, allowing for human settlement and agricultural activities.
Mean annual precipitation is around most of it during summer. Mean temperatures exceed 20 °C during the summer, while during winter, they are below 14 °C. Further west, the Altiplano is a plateau at 3,000 m to 4,000 m above sea level; the climate is arid and cold: high temperatures vary little, ranging from 14 °C to 21 °C. All rain falls in the summer, with values between 200 mm and 400 mm in total. Several salt flats exist in this area. At the highest altitudes found in the western parts of the province, the climate is arid and cold, with large diurnal ranges. Salta's economy is underdeveloped, yet diverse, its economy in 2006 was estimated at US$5.141 billion or, US$4,764 per capita, 45% below the national average. In 2012, its economy was estimated at $23,971 pesos per capita. Manufacturing plays a si
Argentine National Anthem
The "Argentine National Anthem" is the national anthem of Argentina. Its lyrics were written by the Buenos Aires-born politician Vicente López y Planes and the music was composed by the Spanish musician Blas Parera; the work was adopted as the sole official song on May 11, 1813, three years after the May Revolution. Some first, quite different, anthems were composed from 1810; the present, much shorter, anthem comprises only the first and last verses and the chorus of the 1813 Patriotic March, omitting much emotional text about the struggle for independence from Spain. The third Argentine national anthem was named "Marcha Patriótica" renamed "Canción Patriótica Nacional", "Canción Patriótica", it has been called "Himno Nacional Argentino" since it was published with that name in 1847. The first Argentine national anthem was the "Patriotic March", published on 15 November 1810 in the Gazeta de Buenos Ayres, it had lyrics by music by Blas Parera. This original composition made no reference to the name of Argentina or an independentist will, talked instead about Spain being conquered by France in the Peninsular War, the absolutist restoration begun by the Council of Regency, the need to keep the republican freedoms achieved so far in the Americas: "Spain was victim / of the plotting Gaul / because to the tyrants / she bent her neck / If there treachery / has doomed a thousands cities / let sacred freedom and union reign here / Let the father to the sons / be able to say / enjoy rights / that I did not enjoy".
In mid-1812, the ruling triumvirate ordered the Buenos Aires Cabildo to commission a national anthem. Cayetano Rodríguez, a Franciscan friar, wrote a text, approved on 4 August; the Catalan musician Blas Parera, music director of the local theater, set it to music and performed it for the first time with the orchestra he conducted on 1 November. Less than a year the Assembly of Year XIII estimated that the song was not effective enough to serve as a national anthem. On 6 March 1813 several poets were asked to submit lyrics; the poem by the lawyer Vicente López y Planes was unanimously considered the best. It was approved as the "sole national march" on May 11, 1813. Parera was asked to compose a new musical setting around the same date, he must have finished the piece in a few days. Oral tradition has it that the premiere took place on May 14, 1813 at the home of the aristocrat Mariquita Sánchez de Thompson, but there is no documentary evidence of that. If this episode is true Parera, contrary to certain misconceptions and under no visible coercion.
The published song sheet is dated 14 May 1813. He again conducted the official premiere in the theater on May 28, was paid 200 pesos; the composition was known as Canción Patriótica Nacional, simply as Canción Patriótica, but in Juan Pedro Esnaola's early arrangement, dated around 1848, it appeared under the title Himno Nacional Argentino, the name has been retained until today. In the complete version of the Anthem of May it is noted that the political vision portrayed is not only Argentine, but Latin American; the lyrics are ardently pro-independence and anti-Spanish, as the country was at that time fighting for its independence from Spain. The song became popular immediately. Within ten years documented performances took place throughout Argentina, in Chile and Colombia until they had their own national anthems. Different versions emerged. In 1860 Esnaola was commissioned to create an official version, he took the task to heart, making many changes to the music, including a slower tempo, a fuller texture, alterations to the melody, enrichment of the harmony.
In 1927 a committee produced a historicist version that undid several of Esnaola's changes, but introduced new problems in the sung line. After a heated public debate fueled by the newspaper La Prensa, this version was rejected and, following the recommendations of a second committee, Esnaola's arrangement was reinstated. In 1944 it was confirmed as the official state anthem. Throughout the 19th century the anthem was sung in its entirety. However, once harsh feelings against Spain had dissipated, the country had become home to many Spanish immigrants, a modification was introduced by a decree of President Julio Argentino Roca on March 30, 1900: "Without producing alterations in the lyrics of the National Anthem, there are in it verses that describe the concept that nations universally have regarding their anthems in peaceful times, that harmonize with the serenity and dignity of thousands of Spanish that share our living, those that can and must be preferred to be sung in official parties, for they respect the traditions and the law in no offense to anyone, the President of the Republic decrees that: In official or public parties, as well as in public schools, shall be sung only the first and last verses and the chorus of the National Song sanctioned by the General Assembly on May 11, 1813."
The song includes a line that has given rise to controversy: Buenos--Ayres se pone á la frente De los pueblos de la ínclita union. In the manuscript and an early printed song-sheet the word opone is used.
Bernardino de la Trinidad González Rivadavia y Rivadavia was the first President of Argentina called the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata, from February 8, 1826 to June 27, 1827. He was left without finishing his studies. During the British Invasions he served as Third Lieutenant of the Galicia Volunteers, he participated in the open Cabildo on May 1810 voting for the deposition of the viceroy. He had a strong influence on the First Triumvirate and shortly after he served as Minister of Government and Foreign Affairs of the Province of Buenos Aires. Although there was a General Congress intended to draft a constitution, the beginning of the War with Brazil led to the immediate establishment of the office of President of Argentina. Argentina's Constitution of 1826 was promulgated but was rejected by the provinces. Contested by his political party, Rivadavia resigned and was succeeded by Vicente López y Planes. Rivadavia retired to Spain, where he died in 1845, his remains were repatriated to Argentina in 1857.
Today his remains rest in a mausoleum located in Plaza Miserere, adjacent to Rivadavia Avenue, named after him. Rivadavia was born in Buenos Aires on May 20, 1780, the fourth son of Benito Bernardino González de Rivadavia, a wealthy Spanish lawyer, his first wife María Josefa de Jesús Rodríguez de Rivadeneyra. On December 14, 1809, he married Juana del Pino y Vera Mujica, daughter of the viceroy of the Río de la Plata, Joaquín del Pino and his second wife, the vicereine Rafaela Francisca de Vera Mujica y López Pintado, his military appointment was rejected by Mariano Moreno. Rivadavia was active in both the Argentine resistance to the British invasion of 1806 and in the May Revolution movement for Argentine Independence in 1810. In 1811, Rivadavia became the dominant member of the governing triumvirate as Secretary of the Treasury and Secretary of War; until its fall in October 1812, this government focused on creating a strong central government, moderating relations with Spain, organizing an army.
By 1814 the Spanish King Ferdinand VII had returned to the throne and started the Absolutist Restoration, which had grave consequences for the governments in the Americas. Manuel Belgrano and Rivadavia were sent to Europe to seek support for the United Provinces from both Spain and Britain, they sought to promote the crowning of Francisco de Paula, son of Charles IV of Spain, as regent of the United Provinces, but in the end he refused to act against the interests of the King of Spain. The diplomatic mission was a failure, both in Britain, he visited France as well, returned to Buenos Aires in 1821, at their friends' request. During his stay in Britain, Rivadavia saw the growing development of the Industrial Revolution, the rise of Romanticism, he sought to promote a similar development in Buenos Aires, invited many people to move to the city. He convinced Aimé Bonpland to visit the country. In June 1821, he was named minister of government to Buenos Aires by governor Martín Rodríguez. Over the next five years, he exerted a strong influence, focused on improving the city of Buenos Aires at the expense of greater Argentina.
To make the former look more European, Rivadavia constructed large avenues, schools and lighted streets. He founded the University of Buenos Aires, as well as the Theatre and Medicine Academies and the continent's first museum of natural science, he persuaded the legislature to authorize a one-million pound loan for public works that were never undertaken. The provincial bonds were sold in London through the Baring Brothers Bank and Buenos Aires-based British traders acting as financial intermediaries; the borrowed money was in turn lent to these businessmen. Of the original million pounds the Buenos Aires government received only £552,700; the province's foreign debt was transferred to the nation in 1825, its final repayment being made in 1904. A strong supporter of a powerful, centralized government in Argentina, Rivadavia faced violent resistance from the opposition federalists. In 1826, Rivadavia was elected the first President of Argentina. During his term he founded many museums, expanded the national library.
His government had many problems an ongoing war with Brazil over territory in modern Uruguay and resistance from provincial authorities. Faced with the rising power of the Federalist Party and with several provinces in open revolt, Rivadavia submitted his resignation on June 27, 1827, he was succeeded by Vicente López y Planes. At first he returned to private life, but fled to exile in Europe in 1829. Rivadavia returned to Argentina in 1834 to confront his political enemies, but was sentenced again to exile, he went first to Brazil and to Spain, where he died on September 2, 1845. He asked. Rivadavia is recognized as the first president of Argentina though his rule was accepted only in Buenos Aires, he did not complete a full mandate, there was no constitution for more than half of his rule, did not start a presidential succession line; the chair of the President of Argentina is known as the "chair of Rivadavia", but only metaphorically: Rivadavia took everything when he left office, including the chair, which could never be retrieved.
Liberal historians praise Rivadavia as a great historical man, for his work improving education and separation of church and state. Revisionist authors condemn his Anglophilia, the weak customs barriers that allowed the entry of big British imports, harming the weak Argent
Entre Ríos Province
Entre Ríos is a central province of Argentina, located in the Mesopotamia region. It borders the provinces of Buenos Aires and Santa Fe, Uruguay in the east, its capital is Paraná, which lies opposite the city of Santa Fe. Together with Córdoba and Santa Fe, since 1999, the province is part of the economic-political association known as the Center Region; the first inhabitants of the area, now Entre Ríos were the Charrúa and Chaná who each occupied separate parts of the region. Spaniards entered in 1520, when Rodríguez Serrano ventured up the Uruguay River searching for the Pacific Ocean; the first permanent Spanish settlement was erected in the current La Paz Department at the end of the 16th century. As governor of Asunción first and of Buenos Aires, Hernandarias conducted expeditions to Entre Ríos unexplored lands. Juan de Garay, after founding Santa Fe, explored this area. However, the region remained indigenous and uninhabited by Europeans until a group of colonists from neighbouring Santa Fe Province settled on the Bajada del Paraná in the late seventeenth century, now the site of the provincial capital.
At the same time towns appear, which we now know as Nogoyá, Gualeguay, Gualeguaychú, Concepción del Uruguay and Concordia. Tomás de Rocamora further explored the area in 1783 under the threat of a Portuguese invasion from Brazil, gave official status to many of the above-mentioned towns, he was the first to refer to the region as Entre Ríos. At this stage, European settlement was minimal, though during the May Revolution, the few colonists in the cities along the Paraná shore supported Manuel Belgrano and his army on his way to Paraguay. On September 29, 1820, the leader Francisco Ramírez declared the territory an autonomous entity, the Republic of Entre Ríos; this lasted until his assassination on July 10 of the next year. In 1853, in a meeting of all the provinces except Buenos Aires, Paraná was elected as the capital of the Argentine Confederation, the Governor of Entre Ríos and leader Urquiza as its first president; the provincial capital was moved to Concepción del Uruguay. Urquiza, who had first won against Buenos Aires at the Battle of Cepeda in 1859, let his troops move back in the Battle of Pavón in 1861, which allowed his rival Bartolomé Mitre from Buenos Aires to become president.
At the time he was fulfilling his third term as governor of the province from 1860 to 1864 and after a voluntary interruption was reelected in 1886, but he was assassinated in 1870 after altogether 16 years of governing before finishing his mandate, ordered by his supportor Ricardo López Jordán, not trusting him anymore. Urquiza encouraged immigration through "colonization contracts", setting up many agricultural colonies with European settlers. According to data of the 1903 census, of the 425,373 inhabitants of the province, 153,067 were immigrants. Entre Rios' economy is the sixth largest in Argentina, its output in 2006 was estimated at US$7.71 billion, or, US$6,710 per capita in 2006. In 2013, its output was estimated at $63.814 billon Pesos or, 48,327 pesos per capita at current market prices. This was 21% below the average GDP per capita of 69,678 pesos for Argentina in 2013 at current market prices, its economy has long been more agricultural than the median in Argentina, comprising about 15% of output.
Entre Rios' agricultural products include rice, wheat and citrus of which it is the second biggest producer, exporting 16% of the production to Europe. Livestock production focuses on cattle, in sheep production in a decreasing proportion, covering 60,000 km²; the dairy industry in expansion, produces 250 thousand tons per year of dairy products. Of the national production of chickens and eggs, Entre Ríos contributes 37% of the first and 25% percent of the second. Another emerging production is honey and its derivatives for export. Manufacturing has a sizable presence in Entre Rios, making up another 15% of output, its industries are linked to agriculture, as in food and drinks industry and flour and rice mills. Other industries include timber-wood, chemical and machinery; as part of the Mesopotamic region, the land is completely flat, with hills some 100 meters in height. There are two main systems of low hills, called lomadas or cuchillas: the Cuchilla de Montiel and the Cuchilla Grande, which are separated by the Gualeguay River.
The name of the province means "between rivers". Entre Ríos is limited and traversed by many rivers and streams: the Paraná River and its delta to the west and south. Two national parks are located within the province: El Palmar National Park and Predelta National Park. There are hot springs in several locations along the basin of the Uruguay River, located in cities like Federación, Villa Elisa, Colón, etc; the province is divided into 2 climatic regions: The first one is a humid, temperate climate that covers most of the central and southern parts of the province. Mean temperatures range from 10 °C in winter to 26 °C in summer while the mean annual precipitation in this region is 1,000 millimetres; the second climatic region is a subtropical climate located in the northern parts of the pr
San Juan Province, Argentina
San Juan is a province of Argentina, located in the western part of the country. Neighbouring provinces are, moving clockwise from La Rioja, San Luis and Mendoza, it borders with Chile at the west. The province has an area of 89,651 km2, covering a mountainous region with scarce vegetation, fertile oases and turbulent rivers. Throughout the entire province there are an important number of paleontological sites. Similar to other regions in Argentina, agriculture is one of the most important economic activities, highlighting wine production and olive oil. Additionally, a variety of fruits and vegetables are produced in the fertile valleys irrigated by artificial channels in the western part, close to the Andes mountain range; this is the second province in volume of wine production at the national level and in South America, possesses outstanding varietal wines. It is an important center of mining and oil production. Before the arrival of Spanish conquistadores, different tribes like Huarpes, Capazanes and Yacampis influenced by the Inca empire, inhabited the area.
The city of San Juan de la Frontera was founded by Juan Jufré y Montesa in 1562 and relocated 2 kilometres south in 1593 due to the frequent flooding of the San Juan River. In 1776, San Juan was annexed to the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, becoming one of the cities of the Province of Cuyo. In the same year, the first recorded earthquake caused massive damage to the city; the father of Argentine independence, Gen. Jose de San Martin, was appointed Governor of the Province of Cuyo in 1814. From there, San Martin began his legendary crossing of the Andes, one of military history's great tactical decisions. San Juan a small town, was a great supporter of the expedition supplying gold and mules. In 1820, San Juan was granted autonomy from the Province of Cuyo, thereby becoming an autonomous province; the remainder of Cuyo region became Mendoza Province. Following an era of international isolation for Argentina, the advent of new, more liberal government in 1853 attracted a number of exiled intellectuals back into San Juan.
Among these, was a San Juan military officer and novelist named Domingo Sarmiento. Sarmiento was elected governor in 1862, pursuing sorely needed public investments and enacting Argentina's first law mandating compulsory education. Once elected President of Argentina in 1868, those policies became national law. In 1944 a moderate, yet destructive earthquake near the capital destroyed most of the city and killed 10,000 people. A fundraiser was organized to raise money for the victims of the quake where Colonel Juan Perón met his eventual wife and political companion Eva Duarte. A more powerful earthquake stuck the same city in 1977; the most noteworthy loss following this event was the destruction of the Cathedral of San Juan. A new, modernist house of worship was put up in its place and inaugurated in 1979. Among the most growing provinces in Argentina after 1945, the national government began the construction of the National University of San Juan, which opened its doors in 1973. Congress further responded to the needs of San Juan's growing agricultural sector by breaking ground in the mid'70s for the largest hydrostructural project in the province up to that point, the Ullum Dam and Reservoir.
Inaugurated in 1980, it has contributed to the province's production of irrigated desert crops, like olives, figs and, most wine grapes. In 2005, Barrick Gold Corporation, one of the world's largest gold-mining conglomerates, announced the purchase of large tracts in the San Juan Andes where a gold mine was started; these have, so far, been yielding over 11,000 ounces of gold yearly, though evidence suggests these activities may be having an adverse impact on San Juan's glaciers. In 2007, the same company installed the world's highest-situated wind turbine at the Veladero mine in San Juan Province at nearly 4,200m elevation; the province is part of the continental semi-desert Cuyo region. The arid plains start on the east, with a few low hills in the middle and swiftly turn into 6,000-meter-high mountain peaks towards the west. Both areas are subject to the dry hot Zonda. Most of the precipitations take place during the summer as electrical storms; the hot wind has modeled the clay-rich red soil into Pampa del Leoncito and Valle de la Luna 200-million-year-old geological formations.
The Jáchal and San Juan rivers, both part of Desaguadero River system, are the source of fertile valleys and centre of the province's economy. The San Juan River finishes on the southeast. San Juan concentrates most of its population in the oases or central valleys, Tulum Valley, Ullum and Jáchal, containing nearly 80% of this population; the remaining is located in the oasis located at the foot of the Andes in Calingasta. Another population concentration is in Fertile Valley. San Juan focuses its economy in agriculture, specially wine production. Additionally, preserved foods production is developed. Mining is a growing activity, with the extraction of various minerals financed by multinational companies. Tourism is a new and flourishing activity and it is becoming an important source of revenue for the province. San Juan's is a diversified, economy, its output was estimated in 2006 at US$3.613 billion, or US$5,827 per capita (a third less than the national averag