click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Coat of arms of Croatia

The coat of arms of the Republic of Croatia consists of one main shield and five smaller shields which form a crown over the main shield. The main coat of arms is a checkerboard that consists of 12 silver fields. It's informally known in Croatian as šahovnica; the five smaller shields represent five different historical regions within Croatia. The checkerboard coat of arms is first attested as an official symbol of the Kingdom of Croatia on an Innsbruck tower depicting the emblem of Maximilian I, Archduke of Austria in 1495, it appeared on a seal from the Cetingrad Charter that confirmed the 1527 election of Ferdinand I, Archduke of Austria as king of Croatia in Cetin. The origin of the design has been purported as being medieval. Historic tradition states it to be the arms of Stephen Držislav in the 10th century. A Split stone baptistry from the time of Peter Krešimir IV has engraved falcons that carry something that resembles a chequy on their wings, the bell tower of the medieval Church of St. Lucy, Jurandvor has a checkerboard pattern carved onto it.

The size of the checkerboard ranges from 3×3 to 8×8, but most 5×5, like in the current design. It was traditionally conjectured that the colours represented Red Croatia and White Croatia, but there is no historical evidence to support this. Towards the Late Middle Ages the distinction for the three crown lands was made; the šahovnica was used as the coat of arms of Croatia proper & together with the shields of Slavonia and Dalmatia was used to represent the whole of Croatia in Austria-Hungary. It was used as an unofficial coat of arms of the Kingdom of Croatia adopted in 1848 and as an official coat of arms of the post-1868 Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia; the two are the same except for the position of the šahovnica and Dalmatian coat of arms which are switched around & with different crowns used above the shield – the employing St Stephen's crown. By late 19th century šahovnica had come to be considered a recognized symbol for Croats and Croatia and in 1919, it was included in the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes to represent Croats.

When the Banovina of Croatia was formed, the šahovnica was retained as the official symbol. The Ustashe regime which had ruled Croatia during the World War II superimposed their ideological symbol, the letter "U" above or around the šahovnica as the official national symbol during their rule. After the Second World War, the new Socialist Republic of Croatia became a part of the federal Second Yugoslavia; the šahovnica was included in the new socialist coat of arms. It was designed in the socialist tradition, including symbols like wheat for peasants and an anvil for workers, as well as a rising sun to symbolize a new morning and a red star for communism. During the change to multiparty elections in Croatia, prior to the establishment of the current design, the šahovnica, shedding the communist symbols that were the hallmark of Croatia in the second Yugoslavia, reappeared as a stand-alone symbol as both the'upper left square red' and'upper left square white' variants; the choice of'upper left square red' or'upper left square white' was dictated by heraldic laws and aesthetic requirements.

The first-field-white variant was adopted by the Republic of Croatia and used in 1990. According to constitutional changes which came into effect on 26 June 1990 the red star in the flag of SR Croatia was to be replaced by the "historical Croatian coat of arms with 25 red and white fields", without specifying order of fields; the first-field-white variant was used at the official flag hoisting ceremony on 25 July and was occasionally used on par with the first-field-red variant until 21 December 1990 when the current coat of arms was adopted. On 21 December 1990, the post-socialist government of Croatia, passed a law prescribing the design created by the graphic designer Miroslav Šutej, under the aegis of a commission chaired by Nikša Stančić head of the Department of Croatian History at the Faculty of Philosophy, University of Zagreb; the new design added the five crowning shields. They are, from left to right: Some of the more traditional heraldic pundits have criticized the latest design for various design solutions, such as adding a crown to the coat, varying shades of blue in its fields, adding the red border around the coat.

The government has accepted their criticism insofar as not accepting further non-traditional designs for the county coats of arms, but the national symbol has remained intact. Unlike in many countries, Croatian design more uses symbolism from the coat of arms, rather than from the Croatian flag; this is due to the geometric design of the shield which makes it appropriate for use in many graphic contexts, because the Pan-Slavic colors are present in many European flags. Most coats of arms used in the crown on the modern-day coat of arms differ from accurate versions. Flag of Croatia Republic of Croatia – Ministry of Foreign Affairs & European Integration Croatian Government website – Flag, Coat-of-Arms and National Anthem Croatian Coat of Arms during centuries – Darko Zubrinic, 2005 Croatia – Coat of Arms – Zeljko Heimer 2000 Croatia – Proposals for New Flag in 1990 – Flags

In God We Trust: All Others Pay Cash

In God We Trust: All Others Pay Cash is a novel by American humorist Jean Shepherd first published in October 1966. A best-seller at the time of its publication, it is considered Shepherd's most important published work; the work inspired two films. Shepherd is the narrator in both films. Jean Shepherd was a well-known American humorist who performed on radio in the decades after World War II. Beginning in June 1964, he began adapting many of his radio stories for publication in Playboy magazine, he focused on those stories which depicted his childhood in the fictional town of Hohman, Indiana. According to Playboy founder Hugh Hefner, author Shel Silverstein had long encouraged Shepherd to write down his radio stories, but Shepherd was reluctant to do so because he was not a writer. Silverstein recorded Shepherd's stories on tape, transcribed them, together with Shepherd edited and developed them. Fellow WOR AM radio personality Barry Farber said Shepherd came to enjoy writing, as it allowed him to develop themes, Shepherd began to work on written stories by himself.

In God We Trust: All Others Pay Cash was the first book Shepherd wrote, contained his most popular radio stories. These stories were some of the earliest of Shepherd's work to appear in Playboy. Although they are described as nostalgic or memoirs, Shepherd rejected these descriptions, he argued instead. Shepherd claimed. Whether the stories are truth or fiction is not clear. Shepherd denied that he was remembering his childhood, asserted in interviews that his stories were fictional. Scholars Penelope Joan Fritzer and Bartholomew Bland agree that the stories are fictional. However, at least some elements of the novel draw on the real world. For example, the names of many of the characters in Shepherd's book can be found in Shepherd's high school yearbook, "Hohman" is the name of a major street in Hammond, Shepherd's younger brother was named Randy, Hammond has a Cleveland Street and a Warren G. Harding Elementary School; the truth may lie somewhere in between, as Mark Skertic for the Chicago Sun-Times put it: "Hohman doesn't exist, but the sights and events Mr. Shepherd described happening there grew out of his experiences growing up in and around real-life Hammond, Ind."

The title of the novel is a play on words the motto "In God We Trust", which became a common motto in the 19th century in the United States, was used on American coins after 1864. "In God we trust, all others pay cash" was a common phrase in America in the early decades of the 20th century. Shepherd denied that the work is a collection of short stories; as he said on his radio show shortly after the book was finished: I did something today that you don't do often in your life. I delivered to my publisher—I delivered to him the completed, done manuscript of a novel I have been working on for over three years, Skip. Handed it in, and you have no idea what a fantastic feeling that is! And I mean a novel. I mean a novel-novel! Shepherd's publisher, Doubleday promoted the book as a novel. Eugene Bermann, does not consider the work a novel as it does not have either an overriding theme or consistent characters. Michael Sragow, writing for Salon.com, called the book "memoirlike". Most of the stories in the novel are domestic in nature.

They do not, focus on the family. They are rather stories which focus on an "amusingly old-fashioned society". There are 31 chapters in the book; the stories in the book are told by the fictional character Ralph, who has returned to his home town of Hohman as an adult and remembers or relates these stories to his friend, who runs the bar in which Ralph spends the day. The longer stories are linked by one- or two-page chapters in which Ralph and Flick discuss their childhood or the present state of Hohman; these exchanges trigger Ralph's reminiscences. The 2010 Broadway Books reprint of the 2000 Doubleday paperback version of the book lists the following longer stories: "Duel in the Snow, or Red Ryder Nails the Cleveland Street Kid" "The Counterfeit Secret Circle Member Gets the Message, or The Asp Strikes Again" "The Endless Streetcar Ride Into the Night, the Tinfoil Noose" "Hairy Geertz and the Forty-Seven Crappies" "My Old Man and the Lascivious Special Award That Heralded the Birth of Pop Art" "The Magic Mountain" "Grover Dill and the Tasmanian Devil" "Ludlow Kissel and the Dago Bomb That Struck Back" "Uncle Ben and the Side-Splitting Knee-Slapper, or Some Words Are Loaded" "Old Man Pulaski and the Infamous Jawbreaker Blackmail Caper" "The Perfect Crime" "Wilbur Duckworth and His Magic Baton" "Miss Bryfogel and the Frightening Case of the Speckle-Throated Cuckold" "'Nevermore,' Quoth the Assessor,'Nevermore...'"

"Leopold Doppler and the Great Orpheum Gravy Boat Riot" Shepherd biographer Eugene Bergmann has called the novel Shepherd's most important work, anthology editor Gardner Dozois noted in 2002 that it is Shepherd's best known work. The novel was a New York Times best-seller in 1966. At the time of Shepherd's death in 1999, it had been through 10 printings. In God We Trust: All Others Pay Cash was the 142nd best-selling novel on Amazon.com the week after Shepherd died. Considering the hundreds of thousands of book titles Amazon.com offers for sale, the numbers were astonishing for a novel, 33 years old. Four of the short stories ("Duel in the Snow", "The Counterfeit Secret Circle Member Gets the Message", "My Old Man and the Lascivious Special Award That Her

Amy Mullin

Amy S. Mullin is an American chemist and Professor at the University of Maryland, she is a Fellow of the American Physical Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Optical Society of America. Her research focuses on molecular dynamics. Amy S. Mullin has a B. A.in Chemistry from University of California, Santa Cruz and a Ph. D. in Physical Chemistry from the University of Colorado, Boulder. She was an AAUW American Postdoctoral Fellow at Columbia University, working with George W. Flynn. Mullin uses time-resolved laser spectroscopy to investigate how energy is used in chemical processes and molecular collisions; this includes: Transient spectroscopy of collisions, where molecules are excited to high energy states with pulsed lasers, studied with time-resolved high-resolution optical absorption in order to investigate the relationship between molecular structure and collision dynamics. Mullin developed a high power optical centrifuge to generate molecules in high rotational angular momentum states in order to investigate the chemistry and dynamics of rotationally activated molecules.

The optical centrifuge work is focused on studying "rotationally-induced dissociation and isomerization and the coupling of vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom in high energy states." Fellow of the Optical Society of America Creative Educator Award, College of Computer and Natural Science Fellow of the American Physical Society General Research Board Semester Award from the University of Maryland Elected Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science Camille Dreyfus Teacher Scholar Award American Young Leader of the American Swiss Foundation National Science Foundation CAREER Award Office of Naval Research Young Investigator Award Clare Boothe Luce Professorship American Association of University Women Postdoctoral Fellow Elected to Sigma Xi Amy Mullin publications indexed by Google Scholar

National Agricultural Statistics Service

The National Agricultural Statistics Service is the statistical branch of the U. S. Department of Agriculture and a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System. NASS has 12 regional offices throughout the United States and Puerto Rico and a headquarters unit in Washington, D. C.. NASS conducts hundreds of surveys and issues nearly 500 national reports each year on issues including agricultural production, economics and the environment. NASS conducts the United States Census of Agriculture every five years. During the Civil War, USDA collected and distributed crop and livestock statistics to help farmers assess the value of the goods they produced. At that time, commodity buyers had more current and detailed market information than did farmers, a circumstance that prevented farmers from getting a fair price for their goods. Producers in today's marketplace would be handicapped were it not for the information provided by NASS; the creation of USDA's Crop Reporting Board in 1905 was another landmark in the development of a nationwide statistical service for agriculture.

A USDA reorganization in 1961 led to the creation of the Statistical Reporting Service, known today as National Agricultural Statistics Service. The 1997 Appropriations Act shifted the responsibility of conducting the Census of Agriculture from U. S. Census Bureau to USDA. Since the census has been conducted every five years by NASS. Results from the 2012 Census of Agriculture were released on May 2, 2014; the primary sources of information for NASS reports are farmers, livestock feeders, slaughterhouse managers, grain elevator operators and other agribusinesses. NASS relies on these survey respondents to voluntarily supply data for most reports. NASS surveys are conducted in a variety of ways, including mail surveys, telephone interviews, online response, face-to-face interviews and field observations. Once the information is gathered and interpreted, NASS issues estimates and forecasts for crops and livestock and publishes reports on a variety of topics including production and supplies of food and fiber, prices paid and received by farmers, farm labor and wages, farm income and finances, agricultural chemical use.

NASS's field offices publish local data about many of the same topics. Producers, farm organizations, agribusinesses and government agencies all rely on the information produced by NASS. For instance: Statistical information on acreage, stocks and value is essential for the smooth operation of federal farm programs. Agricultural data are indispensable for planning and administering related federal and state programs in such areas as consumer protection and environmental quality, trade and recreation. NASS data helps to ensure an orderly flow of goods and services among agriculture's producing and marketing sectors. Reliable and detailed crop and livestock statistics help to maintain a stable economic climate and minimize the uncertainties and risks associated with the production and distribution of commodities. Farmers and ranchers rely on NASS reports in making various production and marketing decisions, such as how much grain to plant, how much livestock to raise and when to buy or sell agricultural commodities.

NASS estimates and forecasts are used by the transportation sector and storage companies and other lending institutions, commodity traders and food processors. The businesses that provide farmers with seeds, equipment and other goods and services use the data when planning their marketing strategies. Analysts transform the statistics into projections of coming trends, interpretations of the trends’ economic implications and evaluations of alternative courses of action for producers and policymakers. Crop reports relating to acreage and production. Agricultural Resource Management Survey United States Census of Agriculture World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates NASS Web site 7 U. S. C. § 2204g NASS in the Federal Register USDA Web site Census of Agriculture

Schleswig-Holstein Police

Schleswig-Holstein Police is a state law-enforcement agency in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. They cover up to the border with Denmark; the force was the subject of an episode of ITV documentary Police Camera Action!, made in October 1998. The state police office is organised into nine police directorates: The Police Directorate Kiel, responsible for Kiel and the district of Plön. Subordinated are a district police inspection in Kiel and a Kriminalpolizeistelle in Kiel with a Kriminalpolizeiausstelle in Plön; the Police Directorate responsible for Lübeck and the district Ostholstein. Organised into a district criminal inspection and criminal police in Lübeck and Eutin and three criminal police outposts in Bad Schwartau, Oldenburg/H. and Neustadt/H.. The Police Directorate Itzehoe, responsible for Kreis Steinburg and Kreis Dithmarschen. Organised into a district criminal inspection in Itzehoe and two criminal police stations in Itzehoe and Heide as well as Kriminalpolizeiausstelle in Brunsbüttel.

The Police Directorate Flensburg responsible for Flensburg and the district of Schleswig-Flensburg and the entire area of North Frisia. Organised into a district criminal inspection in Flensburg and a subordinate criminal police station in Schleswig. A Kriminalpolizeistelle Husum with Kriminalpolizeiausstellen in Niebüll and Westerland/Sylt. F.. The Police Directorate Bad Segeberg, responsible for Kreis Segeberg and Kreis Pinneberg. Organised into two criminal police stations in Bad Segeberg and Pinneberg with each Kriminalpolizeiaustellen in Norderstedt and Elmshorn; the Police Directorate Ratzeburg, responsible for Kreis Lauenburg and Kreis Stormarn. Organised into two criminal police stations in Ratzeburg and Bad Oldesloe with respective Kriminalpolizeiaustellen in Geesthacht and Ahrensburg and Reinbek; the Police Directorate Neumünster, responsible for the city of Neumünster and the district Rendsburg-Eckernförde. Organised into two criminal police stations in Neumünster and Rendsburg with Kriminalpolizeiausstelle in Eckernförde.

The police department for training and for the riot police persists after § 5 POG with seat in Eutin as lower Land authority. The task of this police department is the education and training of the employees of the state police; the riot police support the authorities and police departments when it is necessary to perform their duties. For this purpose, there is the organizational structure of the specialist management; the specialist inspection training with three training areas, the department of general education and the professional ethics group,The specialist inspection training with six subject areas, The riot police, according to the Administrative Agreement between the Federal Republic of Germany and the Land of Schleswig-Holstein, comprises a leadership group, three Einsatzhundschaften, a technical task force and a unit for securing and arresting evidence. If required, it supports the individual police service with it

Aeroflot Flight 3630

Aeroflot Flight 3630 was a scheduled passenger flight operated by Aeroflot from Mineralnye Vody Airport to Vilnius Airport with a stop over at Rostov-on-Don Airport. On 2 September 1970, the Tu-124 operating this flight crashed after a loss of control at cruise altitude, 42 minutes after take off from Rostov-on-Don Airport. All 32 passengers and five crew members were killed; the Air Accident Investigation Commission was unable to discover the root cause of the accident. After a brief stopover, Flight 3630 departed Rostov-on-Don Airport at 14:55 Moscow time and at 15:14 reported passing over Donetsk at 8,400 meters. A short time air traffic control requested a rapid climb to 9,000 meters to avoid traffic and at 15:16 the flight reported reaching 9,000 meters. At 15:31 the crew contacted ATC announcing in a calm tone their ground speed was 852 km/hr and that they expected to pass over Kremenchug at 15:41. At 15:37 controllers received a short message from flight 3630 consisting of "Forty Five - Zero - Twelve" with the word twelve spoken with a frantic inflection.

This was the last contact with the flight. The aircraft entered a steep pitch down as it rolled left, striking the ground at a 70 degree angle at 950km/hr. Construction of the Tu-124 involved, serial number 1350402 04-02, was completed at production factory 135 in Kharkiv, Ukraine, on 30 September 1961 and it was transferred to the civil air fleet. At the time of the accident, the aircraft had sustained a total of 7,504 flight hours and 6,996 cycles; the aircraft created a deep cone-shaped crater at impact. The flight data recorder was damaged beyond recovery of any data but the Air Accident Investigation Commission were able to determine that the engines were set to idle power, the flaps and landing gear were all in the retracted position and that rudder trim was full right with the left aileron trim full up. Weather along the flight route ruled out as a possible cause. Investigators looked into the possibility that the aircraft collided in flight with an unmanned military vehicle or a weather balloon but no evidence surfaced.

The commission found no evidence of an in structural break up. The right engine and other sections of the aircraft displayed damage due to fire and investigators considered that a fire in flight may have caused the accident. An examination of the victims found no smoke had been inhaled and further analysis of the crash site determined all fire damage occurred during the post crash fire so this possibility was ruled out; the investigators were able to conclude that full deflection of the rudder and left aileron trim would have significant effects on control of the aircraft at cruising speed but the chain of events leading to the accident was never determined. Aeroflot accidents and incidents Aeroflot accidents and incidents in the 1970s