Flag of Washington, D.C.
The flag of Washington, D. C. consists of three red stars above two red bars on a white background. It is an armorial banner based on the design of the coat of arms of George Washington, first used to identify the family in the 12th century, when one of George Washington's ancestors took possession of Washington Old Hall, County Durham, northeast England; as elements in heraldry, the stars are properly called mullets. For over a century, the District of Columbia was without an official flag and flew several unofficial banners—usually the flag of the D. C. National Guard. In 1938, Congress established a commission to choose an original flag design; the commission held a public competition, picked the submission of graphic designer Charles A. R. Dunn, who had first proposed his design in 1921. Dunn's design was adopted on October 15, 1938, using the following specification: The proportions of the design are prescribed in terms of the hoist, or vertical height, of the flag as follows: the upper white portion shall be 3⁄10 of the hoist.
The three five-pointed stars have a diameter of 2⁄10 of the hoist and are spaced equidistant in the fly, or horizontal, dimension of the flag. In 2002, the D. C. Council debated a proposal to change the flag in protest of the District's lack of voting rights in Congress; the new design would have added the letters "D. C." to the center star and the words "Taxation Without Representation" in white to the two red bars, a slogan in use on the District's license plates. The change would have been temporary and revoked once the city achieved equal representation or statehood, it passed the council on a 10–2 vote, but support for the proposal soon eroded, then-mayor Anthony A. Williams never signed the bill. In 2001, the flag placed eighth in design quality out of the 72 Canadian provincial, U. S. state, U. S. territory flags ranked. In a 2004 poll on the North American Vexillological Association website, Washington, D. C.'s flag was voted the best design among U. S. city flags, just out-polling the flag of Chicago.
Starting on June 1, 2017 the D. C. City Council began a new commemorative flag program, similar to the United States Flag program operated by the Congressional Keeper of the Stationery and requested through a constituent's U. S. Senator or U. S. Representative. In the case of the DC Flag interested parties can fill out an online form on the DC Council's website providing a credit card or by sending a letter with applicable check or money order to the Secretary of the City Council requesting a 3x5 or 4x6 District of Columbia flag, once the request is received a flag is taken and flown on one of several flagpoles at the John A. Wilson Building. After the flag has been flown it is taken and packaged and sent to the requester with an accompanying certificate that authenticates the flag was flown at the top of a flagpole at the Wilson Building. In its first three months the D. C. City Council reported that the program was a rousing success filling the council's coffers with additional income. Seal of the District of Columbia "Official Symbols of the District of Columbia".
Government of the District of Columbia. Archived from the original on February 5, 2006. Retrieved 2008-11-29. At Last! DC Finally Gets Its Own Flag
The Cathedral Church of Christ, Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham known as Durham Cathedral and home of the Shrine of St Cuthbert, is a cathedral in the city of Durham, United Kingdom. It is the seat of the Bishop of the fourth-ranked bishop in the Church of England hierarchy; the present cathedral was begun in 1093, replacing the Saxon'White Church', is regarded as one of the finest examples of Norman architecture in Europe. In 1986 the cathedral and Durham Castle were designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Durham Cathedral holds the relics of Saint Cuthbert, transported to Durham by Lindisfarne monks in the ninth century, the head of Saint Oswald of Northumbria, the remains of the Venerable Bede. In addition, its library contains one of the most complete sets of early printed books in England, the pre-Dissolution monastic accounts, three copies of the Magna Carta. From 1080 until 1836 the Bishop of Durham enjoyed the powers of an Earl palatine, being given military and civil as well as religious leadership in order to protect the Scottish Border.
The cathedral walls formed part of one of the residences of the Bishop of Durham. There are daily Church of England services at the cathedral, with the Durham Cathedral Choir singing daily except Mondays and when the choir is on holiday; the cathedral is a major tourist attraction within the region, attracting 755,000 visitors in 2015. The see of Durham takes its origins from the Diocese of Lindisfarne, founded by Saint Aidan at the behest of Oswald of Northumbria around 635; the see lasted until 664. The see was reinstated at Lindisfarne in 678 by the Archbishop of Canterbury. Among the many saints produced in the community at Lindisfarne Priory, Saint Cuthbert, Bishop of Lindisfarne from 685 until his death on Farne Island in 687, is central to the development of Durham Cathedral. After repeated Viking raids, the monks fled Lindisfarne in 875, carrying Saint Cuthbert's relics with them; the diocese of Lindisfarne remained itinerant until 882, when a community was reestablished in Chester-le-Street.
The see had its seat here until 995, when further incursions once again caused the monks to move with the relics. According to local legend, the monks followed two milk maids who were searching for a dun-coloured cow and were led into a peninsula formed by a loop in the River Wear. At this point Cuthbert's coffin became immovable; this trope of hagiography was offered for a sign. A more prosaic set of reasons for the selection of the peninsula is its defensible position, that a community established here would enjoy the protection of the Earl of Northumbria, as the bishop at this time, had strong family links with the earls; the street leading from The Bailey past the Cathedral's eastern towers up to Palace Green is named Dun Cow Lane due to the miniature cows that used to graze in the pastures nearby. A simple temporary structure was built from local timber to house the relics of Cuthbert; the shrine was transferred to a sturdier wooden, building known as the White Church. This church was itself replaced three years in 998 by a stone building known as the White Church, complete apart from its tower by 1018.
Durham soon became a site of pilgrimage, encouraged by the growing cult of Saint Cuthbert. King Canute was one early pilgrim, granting much land to the Durham community; the defendable position, flow of money from pilgrims and power embodied in the church at Durham ensured that a town formed around the cathedral, establishing the early core of the modern city. The present cathedral was designed and built under William of St. Carilef, appointed as the first prince-bishop by King William the Conqueror in 1080. Since that time, there have been major additions and reconstructions of some parts of the building, but the greater part of the structure remains true to the Norman design. Construction of the cathedral began in 1093 at the eastern end; the choir was completed by 1096 and work proceeded on the nave of which the walls were finished by 1128, the high vault complete by 1135. The chapter house demolished in the 18th century, was built between 1133 and 1140. William died in 1096 before the building's completion, passing responsibility to his successor, Ranulf Flambard, who built Framwellgate Bridge, the first crossing of the River Wear in the town.
Three bishops, William of St. Carilef, Ranulf Flambard and Hugh de Puiset, are all buried in the rebuilt chapter house. In the 1170s, de Puiset, after a false start at the eastern end where the subsidence and cracking prevented work from continuing, added the Galilee Chapel at the west end of the cathedral; the five-aisled building occupies the position of a porch, it functioned as a Lady chapel and the great west door was blocked during the Medieval period by an altar to the Virgin Mary. The door is now blocked by the tomb of the bishop Thomas Langley; the Galilee Chapel holds the remains of the Venerable Bede. The main entrance to the cathedral is on the northern side, facing towards the castle. In 1228 Richard le Poore came from Salisbury where a new cathedral was being built in the Gothic style. At this time, the eastern end of the cathedral was in urgent need of repair and the proposed eastern extension had failed. Le Poore employed the architect Richard Farnham to design an eastern terminal for the building in which many monks could say the Daily Office simultaneously.
The resulting building was the Chapel of the Nine Altars. The towers date from the early 13th century, but the central tower was damaged by lightning and replaced in two stages in the 15th century, the
The term stained glass can refer to coloured glass as a material or to works created from it. Throughout its thousand-year history, the term has been applied exclusively to the windows of churches and other significant religious buildings. Although traditionally made in flat panels and used as windows, the creations of modern stained glass artists include three-dimensional structures and sculpture. Modern vernacular usage has extended the term "stained glass" to include domestic lead light and objects d'art created from foil glasswork exemplified in the famous lamps of Louis Comfort Tiffany; as a material stained glass is glass, coloured by adding metallic salts during its manufacture. The coloured glass is crafted into stained glass windows in which small pieces of glass are arranged to form patterns or pictures, held together by strips of lead and supported by a rigid frame. Painted details and yellow stain are used to enhance the design; the term stained glass is applied to windows in which the colours have been painted onto the glass and fused to the glass in a kiln.
Stained glass, as an art and a craft, requires the artistic skill to conceive an appropriate and workable design, the engineering skills to assemble the piece. A window must fit snugly into the space for which it is made, must resist wind and rain, especially in the larger windows, must support its own weight. Many large windows have withstood the test of time and remained intact since the Late Middle Ages. In Western Europe they constitute the major form of pictorial art to have survived. In this context, the purpose of a stained glass window is not to allow those within a building to see the world outside or primarily to admit light but rather to control it. For this reason stained glass windows have been described as "illuminated wall decorations"; the design of a window may be figurative. Windows within a building may be thematic, for example: within a church – episodes from the life of Christ. Stained glass is still popular today, but referred to as art glass, it is prevalent in luxury homes, commercial buildings, places of worship.
Artists and companies are contracted to create beautiful art glass ranging from domes, backsplashes, etc. During the late medieval period, glass factories were set up where there was a ready supply of silica, the essential material for glass manufacture. Silica requires a high temperature to melt, something not all glass factories were able to achieve; such materials as potash and lead can be added to lower the melting temperature. Other substances, such as lime, are added to rebuild the weakened network and make the glass more stable. Glass is coloured by adding metallic oxide powders or finely divided metals while it is in a molten state. Copper oxides produce green or bluish green, cobalt makes deep blue, gold produces wine red and violet glass. Much modern red glass is produced using copper, less expensive than gold and gives a brighter, more vermilion shade of red. Glass coloured while in the clay pot in the furnace is known as pot metal glass, as opposed to flashed glass. Using a blow-pipe, a "gather" of molten glass is taken from the pot heating in the furnace.
The gather is formed to a bubble of air blown into it. Using metal tools, molds of wood that have been soaking in water, gravity, the gather is manipulated to form a long, cylindrical shape; as it cools, it is reheated. During the process, the bottom of the cylinder is removed. Once brought to the desired size it is left to cool. One side of the cylinder is opened, it is put into another oven to heat and flatten it, placed in an annealer to cool at a controlled rate, making the material more stable. "Hand-blown" cylinder and crown glass were the types used in ancient stained-glass windows. Stained glass windows were in churches and chapels as well as many more well respected buildings; this hand-blown glass is created by blowing a bubble of air into a gather of molten glass and spinning it, either by hand or on a table that revolves like a potter's wheel. The centrifugal force causes the molten bubble to flatten, it can be cut into small sheets. Glass formed this way can be either coloured and used for stained-glass windows, or uncoloured as seen in small paned windows in 16th- and 17th-century houses.
Concentric, curving waves are characteristic of the process. The center of each piece of glass, known as the "bull's-eye", is subject to less acceleration during spinning, so it remains thicker than the rest of the sheet, it has the distinctive lump of glass left by the "pontil" rod, which holds the glass as it is spun out. This lumpy, refractive quality means the bulls-eyes are less transparent, but they have still been used for windows, both domestic and ecclesiastical. Crown glass is still made today, but not on a large scale. Rolled glass is produced by pouring molten glass onto a metal or graphite table and rolling it into a sheet using a large metal cylinder, similar to rolling out a pie crust; the rolling can be done by machine. Glass can be "double rolled", which means it is passed through two cylinders at once to yield glass of a specified thickness (typically about 1/8" or
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783. The American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies won independence from Great Britain, becoming the United States of America, they defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War in alliance with others. Members of American colonial society argued the position of "no taxation without representation", starting with the Stamp Act Congress in 1765, they rejected the authority of the British Parliament to tax them because they lacked members in that governing body. Protests escalated to the Boston Massacre in 1770 and the burning of the Gaspee in Rhode Island in 1772, followed by the Boston Tea Party in December 1773, during which Patriots destroyed a consignment of taxed tea; the British responded by closing Boston Harbor followed with a series of legislative acts which rescinded Massachusetts Bay Colony's rights of self-government and caused the other colonies to rally behind Massachusetts. In late 1774, the Patriots set up their own alternative government to better coordinate their resistance efforts against Great Britain.
Tensions erupted into battle between Patriot militia and British regulars when the king's army attempted to capture and destroy Colonial military supplies at Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775. The conflict developed into a global war, during which the Patriots fought the British and Loyalists in what became known as the American Revolutionary War; each of the thirteen colonies formed a Provincial Congress that assumed power from the old colonial governments and suppressed Loyalism, from there they built a Continental Army under the leadership of General George Washington. The Continental Congress determined King George's rule to be tyrannical and infringing the colonists' rights as Englishmen, they declared the colonies free and independent states on July 2, 1776; the Patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, they proclaimed that all men are created equal. The Continental Army forced the redcoats out of Boston in March 1776, but that summer the British captured and held New York City and its strategic harbor for the duration of the war.
The Royal Navy blockaded ports and captured other cities for brief periods, but they failed to defeat Washington's forces. The Patriots unsuccessfully attempted to invade Canada during the winter of 1775–76, but captured a British army at the Battle of Saratoga in October 1777. France now entered the war as an ally of the United States with a large army and navy that threatened Britain itself; the war turned to the American South where the British under the leadership of Charles Cornwallis captured an army at Charleston, South Carolina in early 1780 but failed to enlist enough volunteers from Loyalist civilians to take effective control of the territory. A combined American–French force captured a second British army at Yorktown in the fall of 1781 ending the war; the Treaty of Paris was signed September 3, 1783, formally ending the conflict and confirming the new nation's complete separation from the British Empire. The United States took possession of nearly all the territory east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes, with the British retaining control of Canada and Spain taking Florida.
Among the significant results of the revolution was the creation of the United States Constitution, establishing a strong federal national government that included an executive, a national judiciary, a bicameral Congress that represented states in the Senate and the population in the House of Representatives. The Revolution resulted in the migration of around 60,000 Loyalists to other British territories British North America; as early as 1651, the English government had sought to regulate trade in the American colonies. On October 9, the Navigation Acts were passed pursuant to a mercantilist policy intended to ensure that trade enriched only Great Britain, barring trade with foreign nations; some argue that the economic impact was minimal on the colonists, but the political friction which the acts triggered was more serious, as the merchants most directly affected were most politically active. King Philip's War ended in 1678, much of it was fought without significant assistance from England.
This contributed to the development of a unique identity from that of the British people. In the 1680s, King Charles II determined to bring the New England colonies under a more centralized administration in order to regulate trade more effectively, his efforts were fiercely opposed by the colonists, resulting in the abrogation of their colonial charter by the Crown. Charles' successor James II finalized these efforts in 1686, establishing the Dominion of New England. Dominion rule triggered bitter resentment throughout New England. New Englanders were encouraged, however, by a change of government in England that saw James II abdicate, a populist uprising overthrew Dominion rule on April 18, 1689. Colonial governments reasserted their control in the wake of the revolt, successive governments made no more attempts to restore the Dominion. Subsequent English governments continued in their efforts to tax certain goods, passing acts regulating the trade of wool and molasses; the Molasses Act of 1733 in particular was egregious to the colonists, as a significant part of colonial trade relied on the product.
The taxes damaged the N
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Lea is a village in Wiltshire, lying 1.5 miles east of Malmesbury. It is part of the civil parish of Lea and Cleverton which includes the village of Garsdon and the hamlet of Cleverton. Garsdon was a separate parish until 1934; the Charlton Stream forms the western boundary of the parish, joins the River Avon near Cowbridge in the southwest of the parish. The Woodbridge Brook flows east-west across the parish to join the Charlton Stream northwest of Lea village; the southern boundary of the parish follows the B4042 Swindon–Malmesbury road. An early resident of Lea, in 1340, was Ralph of Combe and his name survives in the name applied to the south west corner of the village of Lea, Combe Green, sometimes misspelt as Coombe Green. A school was built at Lea in 1873. Children of all ages attended until 1954; the population of the parish peaked at 494 at the 1871 census, declined to 337 in 1931 and increased as new housing was built all in Lea village. When Sidney Herbert was created Baron Herbert of Lea in 1861, his new title referred to this village.
The Domesday Book of 1068 recorded a settlement of 17 households at Gardone, land held by Malmesbury Abbey. The abbey retained the land until the Dissolution when it was granted to Richard Moody, whose descendants included Sir Henry Moody MP. In 1631, the manor was bought by a Registrar of Chancery. Garsdon church has a memorial; the manor passed by marriage to Sir Robert Shirley Earl Ferrers, in 1671. The Howards sold the farm in the 1930s; the manor house is from the 14th century, with additions in the 17th century and and is Grade II* listed. In the late 17th century the main Oxford-Bristol road ran east-west through Garsdon parish, following the ridge in the east of the parish; the boundary between Lea and Garsdon parishes followed the course of the Woodbridge Brook. Population of the parish peaked at 234 in 1831 and declined, reaching 119 in 1931. Garsdon was added to Lea parish in 1934. An early chapel at Lea had been annexed to Garsdon rectory by the mid 16th century. In the earlier 20th century and Lea and Cleverton were considered a united benefice.
Today the churches at Garsdon are part of the Woodbridge Group of six rural churches. The church of St Giles, has a 15th-century west tower. There was a church at Garsdon in 1265; the tower of All Saints' church is from the 16th centuries. Calvinistic Methodists built Zion chapel in Lea village c.1808, rebuilt in 1861. It was used by Congregationalists and Baptists, who continue to use it in 2018. Primitive Methodists built Jubilee Chapel at Garsdon Heath, northeast of Garsdon village, in 1860; the building remained in use until the late 20th century or early 21st, but by 2012 had become a private house. Primitive Methodists built a chapel at Cleverton in 1874, replacing an earlier chapel; the building was still in use in 2018. Lea & Garsdon CE Primary School serves Lea, Cleverton and Charlton; the village has a public house, the Rose and Crown, a village hall. Other facilities in the village include a tennis court, a table tennis table and a children's play area. Lea had a cricket team between 2002 and 2009: the "Lea Lackadasicals".
They played around ten friendly matches a year on a Sunday afternoon. Lea Village community website Lea & Garsdon CE Primary School Media related to Lea, Wiltshire at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Cleverton at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Garsdon at Wikimedia Commons
Martin Farquhar Tupper
Martin Farquhar Tupper was an English writer, poet, the author of Proverbial Philosophy. Martin Farquar was the eldest son of Dr. Martin Tupper, a medical man esteemed in his day who came from an old Guernsey family, by his wife Ellin Devis Marris, only child of Robert Marris, a landscape painter. Martin Tupper received his early education at Charterhouse. In due course he was transferred to Christ Church, where he took his degree of B. A. in 1832, of M. A. in 1835 and of DCL in 1847. At Christ Church, as a member of the Aristotle Class, he was a fellow student with many distinguished men, including the Marquess of Dalhousie, the Earl of Elgin, William Ewart Gladstone and Francis Hastings Doyle. Having taken his degree of M. A. Tupper became a student at Lincoln's Inn and was called to the Bar in the Michaelmas Term, 1835. However, he did not practice as a barrister. In the same year he married his first cousin once-removed Isabella Devis, daughter of Arthur William Devis, by whom he was to have four sons and four daughters.
About the same period Tupper's literary career commenced. He contributed to the periodicals of the day, but his first important essay in literature was a small volume entitled Sacra Poesis. Albury History Society lists publications, sound recordings including a biographical talk by Tupper's grandson and references to Tupper's life. In 1837 the first series of Proverbial Philosophy appeared, long series of didactic moralising composed in a lawyer's chambers in Old Square, Lincoln's Inn, during part of the previous year. Tupper had been encouraged to publish by Henry Stebbing. A typical example is: "Well-timed silence hath more eloquence than speech", his work met at first with moderate success in Britain, while in the United States it was a total failure. It picked up steam, however. Over the next thirty years, by 1867, it passed through forty large editions in Britain, while nearly a million copies were sold in the United States, his blank verse is prose cut up into suitable lengths. In 1839, Tupper published A Modern Pyramid to commemorate a Septuagint of Worthies, being sonnets and essays on seventy famous men and women.
In 1856, Paterfamilia's Diary of Everybody's Tour, The Rides and Reveries of Æsop Smith, Stephan Langton a biographical novel, which sought, with much graphic painting, to delineate England in the time of King John. He published Cithara, a collection of Lyrics. In 1886, he published My Life as an Author. In 1845 Tupper was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, he received the gold medal for literature from the King of Prussia. A genial, warm-hearted man, Tupper's humane instincts prompted him to espouse many reforming movements, he tried to encourage African literature and was a mechanical inventor in a small way. Critic Kwame Anthony Appiah, has used a quote from Martin Tupper's ballad "The Anglo-Saxon Race" 1850 as an example of the predominant understanding of "race" in the nineteenth century. Tupper's ballad appeared in the journal The Anglo-Saxon containing the lines: "Break forth and spread over every place/The world is a world for the Anglo Saxon race!" At the end of his life he vanished into obscurity, despite the words on his gravestone in Albury churchyard: "Although he is dead, he will speak."
Tupper was quoted with some prominence in the biographical movie, The Life of Charles Spurgeon In the scene, Spurgeon reads from Tupper's Proverbial Philosophy on marriage and passes the book to his future wife, to read the following quotation from the book: Seek a good wife of thy God, for she is the best gift of his providence. Thou knowest not his good-will:—be thy prayer submissive thereunto. If thou art to have a wife of thy youth, she is now living on the earth. Sir William Schwenk Gilbert alludes to Tupper in Bab Ballads. In the poem Ferdinando and Elvira, or, The Gentle Pieman, Gilbert describes how two lovers are trying to find out, putting mottos into "paper crackers". Gilbert builds up to the following lines coming up with a spoof of Tupper's own style from Proverbial Philosophy