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Coatbridge is a town in North Lanarkshire, about 8.5 miles east of Glasgow city centre, set in the central Lowlands. The town, with neighbouring Airdrie, is part of the Greater Glasgow urban area. While the earliest known settlement of the area dates back to the Stone Age era, the founding of the town can be traced to the 12th century, when a Royal Charter was granted to the monks of Newbattle Abbey by King Malcolm IV. Coatbridge, along with its neighbour Airdrie, forms the area known as the Monklands. In the last years of the 18th century, the area developed from a loose collection of hamlets into the town of Coatbridge; the town's development and growth have been intimately connected with the technological advances of the Industrial Revolution, in particular with the hot blast process. Coatbridge was a major Scottish centre for iron works and coal mining during the 19th century and was described as'the industrial heartland of Scotland' and the'Iron Burgh'. Coatbridge had a notorious reputation for air pollution and the worst excesses of industry.

By the 1920s however, coal seams were exhausted and the iron industry in Coatbridge was in rapid decline. After the Great Depression the Gartsherrie ironwork was the last remaining iron works in the town. One publication has commented that in modern-day Coatbridge'coal and steel have all been consigned to the heritage scrap heap'. There are various explanations for the origin of the town's name; the place name Coatbridge first appears on a number of 19th century maps, although Roy's 1750 map notes'Cottbrig' as a hamlet in the Old Monkland area. Older Scots'Cot' and'brig'. One source states'Coatbridge' is either derived from the Middle English'cote', or from the Old Welsh'coed' meaning'wood'. An alternative explanation is that from around the 13th century the local area was owned by the Colt family, sometimes known as Coats, their estate generated place-names such as Coatbridge, Coatdyke and Coatbank. Drummond and Smith suggest the name derives from the granting of land to Ranulphus le Colt around the time of the 12th century.

However, Early Scots /ol/ had vocalized to /o̞u/ by the 16th century and subsequently diphthongised to /ʌu/ in Modern Scots, so that'Colt' would have become'Cowt' rather than'Coat'. Modern Scots'Cot' is realized /kot/. Settlement of the Coatbridge area dates back 3000 years to the Mesolithic Age. A circle of Bronze Age stone coffins was found on the Drumpellier estate in 1852. A number of other Bronze Age urns and relics have been found in Coatbridge. An Iron Age wood and thatch crannóg dwelling was sited in the Loch at the present day Drumpellier Country Park. Dependent upon the water level in the loch, the remains can still be seen today. Roman coins have been unearthed in Coatbridge, there are the remains of a Roman road on the fringes of the town near the M8 motorway. The'Monklands' area inherited its name after the area was granted to the Cistercian monks of Newbattle Abbey by King Malcolm IV in 1162. 1n 1323 the Monklands name appeared for the first time on Stewards' charter. The Monks mined coal and farmed the land until the time of the reformation when the land was taken from them and given to private landowners.

In 1641 the parish of Monklands was divided between Old Monkland. In 1745 Bonnie Prince Charlie's Jacobite army seized Coatbridge from government troops on their march to Edinburgh in an action described as the'Canter of Coatbridge'. Coatbridge was described in the 1799 Statistical Account as an'immense garden' with'extensive orchards','luxurious crops' where'rivers abound with salmon'; the Monkland Canal was constructed at the end of the 18th century to transport coal to Glasgow from the rich local deposits. The invention of the hot blast furnace process in 1828 meant that Coatbridge's ironstone deposits could be exploited to the maximum by the canal link and hot blast process; the new advances meant. Summerlee Iron Works was one of the first iron. By the mid 19th century there were numerous hot blast furnaces in operation in Coatbridge; the prosperous industry which had sprung up around the new iron industry required vast numbers of unskilled workers to mine ironstone and work in the blast furnace plants.

Coatbridge therefore became a popular destination for vast numbers of Irish arriving in Scotland. The iron bars and plates produced in Coatbridge iron works were the raw materials needed throughout the British Empire for railways, bridge building and shipbuilding. One example of uses Coatbridge' iron was put to included armour plating for British ships fighting in the Crimean War. Over the course of the following forty years the population of Coatbridge grew by 600%; the character of the Coatbridge area changed from a rural, Presbyterian landscape of small hamlets and farmhouses into a crowded, Irish Catholic industrial town. In 1840, Rev William Park wrote that: One contemporary observer at this time noted that Coatbridge is'not famous for its sylvan beauties of its charming scenery' and'offers the visitor no inducements to loiter long'. However,'a visit to the large Gartsherrie works is one of the sights of a lifetime'. Most of the town's population lived in tight rows of terraced houses built under the shadow of the iron works.

These homes were owned by their employers. Living conditions for most were appallin

P. K. Sen (surgeon)

Prafulla Kumar Sen MD was an Indian vascular and cardiothoracic surgeon. Sen led the first human heart transplant procedure in India in 1968 and became the fourth surgeon in the world to carry out this operation, it was the sixth attempt at this procedure in the world. He was active in establishing postgraduate programmes in surgical training and one of the early surgeons to perform aortic surgery in India in the 1950s. After being the first in India to perform a closed mitral valvotomy in 1952, within a year he repaired a coarctation of the aorta and by 1956 he had attempted the first direct vision closure of an atrial septal defect. In the 1950s he turned his attention from aortic surgery to open heart surgery following numerous experiments on dogs, he subsequently led teams that performed two heart transplants in Bombay in 1968. Both recipients died on the day of their operation. Sen was, in addition, a painter, his paintings were displayed once in the United States, twice in India. Prafulla Kumar Sen, popularly known as P. K. Sen, was born on 7 December 1915 in Calcutta, British India.

He had one sister and his father was a civil servant. He began his early education at a public school in Jamtada, before attending the Victoria College of Sciences, Nagpur. Subsequently, Sen gained admission to medicine at the G. S. Medical College, where he studied between 1933 and 1938, before passing his MBBS. In 1940, he achieved a distinction in his master of surgery degree at the University of Bombay. Sen's internships and surgical training were completed at King Edward VII Memorial Hospital, Bombay between 1938 and 1943, after which he returned to G. S. Medical College as assistant honorary surgeon, he received aid from the Indian Council for Medical Research. He was in dispute with the Bombay Municipal Corporation who were more concerned with providing for diseases of poverty and over population. However, he was ambitious, a "buccaneer" and had a wish to extend Indian medicine into the growing and exciting arena of open heart surgery, he was inspired by Charaka but paid tribute to Western medical pioneers including John Hunter and Alexis Carrel.

In 1949, following an application for a Rockefeller Foundation fellowship and the subsequent endorsement by Isidor Schwaner Ravdin, chair of surgery at the University of Pennsylvania at their request, Sen travelled to the University of Pennsylvania in the United States to work for six months with thoracic surgeon James Hardy. Their research on the "impact of surgery on adrenocortical activity" was presented at the American College of Surgeons in Boston in October 1950 and amidst the backdrop of racial unrest in the U. S. and an incident in which Sen was nearly barred from a hotel, at the American Physiological Society in Atlanta. Before returning to India in 1952, Sen visited surgical research centres all over the United States including Minneapolis, New York and Baltimore. In addition, he visited Sweden. Over the next fifteen years, he obtained another two travel fellowships to the U. S. with assistance from the Rockefeller foundation. In 1952, he was appointed to KEM Hospital as honorary surgeon, but soon left to take up the post of director professor of surgery at G.

S. Medical College, the post he held until his retirement in 1973, he worked in experimental and clinical research, but was active in establishing postgraduate qualifications in cardiothoracic surgery during a period in which he founded specialist departments at G. S. Medical college and the KEM Hospital, including gastrointestinal and hepatic surgery, sports medicine and oncology. In addition to North American networks, Rockefeller support and funding, the ICMR, Sen was influenced by Soviet surgeons Vladimir Demikhov. Along with other KEM Hospital cardiothoracic surgeons including M. D. Kelkar, G. B. Parulkar who established the technique of hypothermic circulatory arrest in resection of aortic aneurysm and T. P. Kulkarni who described tuberculous aortitis, Sen was one of the first to perform aortic surgery in the 1950s, laying the foundations at first for aortic surgery and than open heart surgery in India. In 1952, following the adaptation of American techniques and after 25 dog experiments, he performed the first intra-cardiac procedure in India by pushing his finger through a rheumatic mitral valve via a cut made in the right atrium of a beating heart.

In 1953, he repaired a coarctation of the aorta and by 1956 he had attempted the first direct vision closure of an atrial septal defect under hypothermia and inflow occlusion. Around the same time, he initiated other vascular repair procedures on the Aorta for the surgical treatment of Aortitis and Aortic aneurysms. By 1957, Sen had completed his second travel fellowship and tour of major North American and European cardiac centres. In addition, on his return to India, he hosted foreign delegates, one of whom was William Heneage Ogilvie, in early 1958, he was at first skeptical of heart-lung machines and concentrated chiefly on hypothermia in his transplant surgery, but by the early 1960s he had secured Rockefeller funding to train a group of Indian surgeons and scientists in surgery using heart-lung machines. In 1962 following the death of a child whilst repairing a ventricular septal defect with the assistance of a heart- lung machine, Sen made his third and final overseas Rockefeller tour which included Japan, much of the U.

S. and the United Kingdom. He concluded in Moscow with a visit to Demikhov, who had achieved fame with his dog heart and head transplants; this came at a time when the Indian government was "actively cultivating ties to the Soviet Union

Financial Coalition Against Child Pornography

The Financial Coalition Against Child Pornography is a coalition of credit card issuers and Internet services companies that seeks to eliminate commercial child pornography by taking action on the payment systems that are used to fund these illegal operations. In 2006, the International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children, the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children, a number of banks, credit card companies, electronic and third party payment networks created the Financial Coalition Against Child Pornography; the Financial Coalition consists of 34 banks, payment companies, internet services companies. Senator Richard C. Shelby, Chairman of the U. S. Senate Banking and Urban Affairs Committee, was the catalyst in bringing these industry leaders together to address the problem. Members of the Coalition include America Online, American Express Company,, Bank of America, Capital One, Citigroup, Discover Financial Services LLC, First Data Corporation, First National Bank of Omaha, Google, HSBC - NA, JP Morgan Chase, MasterCard, North American Bancard, Nova Information Systems, PayPal, First PREMIER Bank/PREMIER Bankcard, Standard Chartered Bank, Washington Mutual, Wells Fargo, Yahoo!

Inc. This U. S.-based effort expanded regionally with the creation of the Asia Pacific Financial Coalition in August 2009. The Coalition's initial objective was to make people and companies aware of the issue of online child sexual abuse, how its sale and distribution was being conducted across payment and technology platforms. In 2013, the Asia Pacific FCACP/ICMEC published "Confronting New Challenges in the Fight Against Child Pornography: Best Practices to Help File Hosting and File Sharing Companies Fight the Distribution of Child Sexual Exploitation Content." U. S. Senator Richard Shelby press release: Shelby Leads Fight Against Child Pornography. March 15, 2006 USA Today, Updated 5/26/2006 1:22 AM ET: Financial firms attack child porn The Christian Science Monitor. From the March 16, 2006 edition. "A siege on the child-porn market. Titans of finance join forces to try to thwart online trafficking in illicit images." By Ron Scherer, staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor BBC News, Thursday, 16 March 2006, 12:22 GMT: "Net and finance firms are joining up to stamp out commercial child pornography" InformationWeek, Mar 17, 2006 01:17 PM "As Child Porn Industry Grows, Coalition Launches Counterattack" By J. Nicholas Hoover, InformationWeek NACHA JOINS THE FINANCIAL COALITION AGAINST CHILD PORNOGRAPHY January 16, 2007 ASACP Participates in Financial Coalition Against Child Pornography November 20, 2007 Preventing and Detecting Child Pornography Best Practices from the Financial Coalition Against Child Pornography August 24, 2007

Transportation in Williamsburg, Virginia

The city of Williamsburg, Virginia has a full range of transport facilities. Williamsburg is served by the Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport, by two larger but more distant airports; the city is linked to several State highways. A transport hub - the Williamsburg Transportation Center - serves rail passengers. Motor traffic is restricted in the historic area, the city as a whole is more "walkable" than the US norm. Cycling routes are being provided. Williamsburg is served by the Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport, in nearby Newport News 20 miles distant; the Norfolk International Airport and Richmond International Airport, each located about 55 miles away via Interstate highways, are larger and offer more flights. Williamsburg is equidistant from these two airports. However, due to traffic concerns in crossing the harbor of Hampton Roads at the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel, the Richmond airport is a shorter driving time away; the Williamsburg Jamestown Airport is a small general aviation airport located 3 miles southwest of Williamsburg, that provides services for personal and charter aircraft, as well as related services Williamsburg is located adjacent to Interstate 64 and U.

S. Route 60, which connect the city with Richmond to the Norfolk to the southeast. State Route 199 named the Humelsine Parkway, surrounds the city in a semicircle. State Route 5 links the city with the James River Plantations along the north shore of the James River, Interstate 295 and Richmond. State Route 31 links the city to the toll-free Jamestown Ferry; the Colonial Parkway provides a bucolic low-speed link between the points of the Historic Triangle which in addition to Colonial Williamsburg, includes Jamestown and Yorktown. It passes under the colonial-era "Restored Area" in a tunnel. With the exception of buses, commercial vehicles are not allowed on the Parkway. More comprehensively than many other U. S. destinations, Williamsburg offers good public transport alternatives for visitors and citizens, both getting there, moving around locally. The area has both a central intermodal transportation center and an extensive public transit bus system prepared to serve local users and visitors.

The centrally-located Williamsburg Transportation Center is located near the Historic Area, the College of William and Mary, the downtown area. Nearly all intercity and local rail and bus services use this Center, it is located in a restored building, a Chesapeake and Ohio Railway station, affords easy access to the Colonial Williamsburg Visitor's Center. The city is served by several Amtrak trains a day, with direct service to Newport News, along the Virginia Peninsula to Richmond, points along the Northeast Corridor from Washington DC through New York City to Boston. A high-speed rail connection at Richmond to both the Northeast Corridor and the Southeast High Speed Rail Corridor are under study. Intercity bus service is provided by Hampton Roads Transit; the Transportation Center offers several modes of local transportation. Taxicabs and rental cars are based there; the community's public bus system, Williamsburg Area Transit Authority, has its central hub at the transportation center. A network of accessible transit bus routes serve the city, James City County, most portions of York County adjacent to the Williamsburg area, with hourly service seven days a week, half-hourly service on weekdays during peak travel hours.

The routes operated by WATA include a loop around the College of William and Mary campus while classes are in session. The system provides paratransit services and operates replica trolley buses at the Yorktown Riverfront attraction. WATA connects with the much larger Hampton Roads Transit bus system at Lee Hall in northwestern Newport News and at the Williamsburg Transportation Center. HRT routes connect to many other cities to the east in Hampton Roads and Greyhound Lines bus routes serve a nationwide network. A local bus company, Oleta Coach Lines, Inc. operates a weekly public bus route from the Williamsburg Transportation Center to several large shopping malls in the Hampton Roads area. The bus route runs from Williamsburg to Hampton, to Newport News back to Williamsburg; this has been certified as a Public Necessity bus route. Walking is a major mode of transportation in Williamsburg, with about a fifth of people walking to work between 2006 and 2010. Walk Score, a website which algorithmically determines how friendly communities are to walkers, describes the city as "very walkable".

With few exceptions, motorized traffic is not allowed on Duke of Gloucester Street, which passes through Colonial Williamsburg and the shopping district of Merchant's Square. There are some parking areas located conveniently nearby, however; the city is increasingly bicycle-friendly, having built 48 miles of bicycle facilities in the area since 1992. Upon completion, the Virginia Capital Trail will provide a paved off-road path to Richmond for cyclists and pedestrians via the Colonial Parkway. Williamsburg Area Transit Authority Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport

Indian states and union territories ranked by prevalence of open defecation

This is a list of Indian states and territories ranked by their households with open defecation free in both urban and rural areas. Figures are from ministry of drinking sanitation. Below table shows households with Toilets as percentage of total population. More Indians living in villages owned a latrine in 2018 than four years ago, yet 44% of them still defecate in the open, according to a survey covering Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, released on January 4, 2019; these four states together contain two-fifths of India's rural population and reported high open defecation rates, over 68% in 2016. As of February, 2018, 11 states/UTs namely Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Gujarat, Chandigarh and Diu, Arunachal Pradesh and Meghalaya had been declared ODF. Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh, two states that had declared themselves open defecation-free, are yet to achieve that goal. In Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh 53% and 25% were estimated to be defecating in the open. There has been 34-percentage-point increase in latrine ownership in north India from 37% in 2014 to 71% in 2018.

The highest difference was reported in Madhya Rajasthan -- 47 percentage points. ODF

Jens Christian Spidberg

Jens Christian Spidberg was a Norwegian theologian and priest. He served as a Bishop of the Diocese of Christianssand from 1759 until 1762, he was a noted cartographer and student of the natural sciences. He wrote a dissertation that tried to reconcile the natural sciences, he spent time studying the northern lights and volcanoes. Jens Christian Spidberg was born on 8 December 1684 in Skiptvet, Norway to the parish priest Anders Lauritsen Spidberg and his wife Susanne Olufsdatter, he was married in 1728 in Christianssand to Birgitte Topdal. He was educated at home and he took his theology exam in 1708 while studying in Copenhagen. After graduation, he spent some time studying abroad at the University of Kiel and the University of Groningen, he earned his Master's degree in 1722. He received his doctorate from the University of Copenhagen in 1760. In 1710, Spidberg was hired as the chaplain in his father's parish in Spydeberg; the following year, he got a job as a military chaplain in Bohuslän during the Great Northern War.

He was stationed in Tanum. After some time, he became the ship's priest on the flagship of the navy of Denmark-Norway, Elephanten; this put him in contact with many high ranking government officials. In 1721, he was named the Dean of the Kristiansand Mandal prosti. In 1759, he was appointed to be the Bishop of the Diocese of Christianssand