The northern pike, known as a pike in Britain, most of Canada, most parts of the United States, is a species of carnivorous fish of the genus Esox. They are typical of fresh waters of the Northern Hemisphere. Pike can grow to a large size: the average length is about 40–55 cm, with maximum recorded lengths of up to 150 cm and published weights of 28.4 kg. The IGFA recognizes a 25 kg pike caught by Lothar Louis in Lake on Grefeern, Germany, on 16 October 1986, as the all-tackle world-record northern pike; the northern pike gets its common name from its resemblance to the pole-weapon known as the pike. Various other unofficial trivial names are common pike, great northern pike, Lakes pike, snot rocket, slough shark, slimer, slough snake, gator, jackfish, hammer handle, other such names as long head and pointy nose. Numerous other names can be found in Field Museum Zool. Leaflet Number 9, its earlier common name, the luci, is used in heraldry. Northern pike are most olive green, shading from yellow to white along the belly.
The flank is marked with a few to many dark spots on the fins. Sometimes, the fins are reddish. Younger pike have yellow stripes along a green body; the lower half of the gill cover lacks scales, it has large sensory pores on its head and on the underside of its lower jaw which are part of the lateral line system. Unlike the similar-looking and related muskellunge, the northern pike has light markings on a dark body background and fewer than six sensory pores on the underside of each side of the lower jaw. A hybrid between northern pike and muskellunge is known as a tiger muskellunge. In the hybrids, the males are invariably sterile, while females are fertile, may back-cross with the parent species. Another form of northern pike, the silver pike, is not a subspecies but rather a mutation that occurs in scattered populations. Silver pike, sometimes called silver muskellunge, lack the rows of spots and appear silver, white, or silvery-blue in color; when ill, silver pike have been known to display a somewhat purplish hue.
In Italy, the newly identified species Esox cisalpinus was long thought to be a color variation of the northern pike, but was in 2011 announced to be a species of its own. Northern pike in North America reach the size of their European counterparts, it was caught in Great Sacandaga Lake on 15 September 1940 by Peter Dubuc. Reports of far larger pike have been made, but these are either misidentifications of the pike's larger relative, the muskellunge, or have not been properly documented and belong in the realm of legend; as northern pike grow longer, they increase in weight, the relationship between length and weight is not linear. The relationship between total length and total weight for nearly all species of fish can be expressed by an equation of the form W = c L b. Invariably, b is close to 3.0 for all species, c is a constant that varies among species. For northern pike, b = 3.096 and c = 0.000180. The relationship described in this section suggests a 20-inch northern pike will weigh about 2 lb, while a 26-inch northern pike will weigh about 4 lb.
Pike are found in sluggish streams and shallow, weedy places in lakes and reservoirs, as well as in cold, rocky waters. They are typical ambush predators, they inhabit any water body that contains fish, but suitable places for spawning are essential. Because of their cannibalistic nature, young pike need places where they can take shelter between plants so they are not eaten. In both cases, rich submerged vegetation is needed. Pike are found in brackish water, except for the Baltic Sea area, here they can be found spending time both in the mouths of rivers and in the open brackish waters of the Baltic Sea, it is normal for pike to return to fresh water after a period in these brackish waters. They seem to prefer water with less turbidity, but, related to their dependence on the presence of vegetation and not to their being sight hunters; the northern pike is a aggressive species with regard to feeding. For example, when food sources are scarce, cannibalism develops, starting around five weeks in a small percentage of populations.
This cannibalism occurs. One can expect this because when food is scarce, Northern pike fight for survival, such as turning on smaller pike to feed. Pike tend to feed on smaller fish, such as the banded killifish. However, when pike exceed 700 mm long, they feed on larger fish; because of cannibalism when food is short, pike suffer a high young morta
Roman Britain was the area of the island of Great Britain, governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD. It comprised the whole of England and Wales and, for a short period, southern Scotland. Julius Caesar invaded Britain in 54 BC as part of his Gallic Wars. According to Caesar, the Britons had been overrun or culturally assimilated by other Celtic tribes during the British Iron Age and had been aiding Caesar's enemies, he received tribute, installed a friendly king over the Trinovantes, returned to Gaul. Planned invasions under Augustus were called off in 34, 27, 25 BC. In 40 AD, Caligula assembled 200,000 men at the Channel on the continent, only to have them gather seashells according to Suetonius as a symbolic gesture to proclaim Caligula's victory over the sea. Three years Claudius directed four legions to invade Britain and restore an exiled king over the Atrebates; the Romans defeated the Catuvellauni, organized their conquests as the Province of Britain. By the year 47, the Romans held the lands southeast of the Fosse Way.
Control over Wales was delayed by reverses and the effects of Boudica's uprising, but the Romans expanded northward. The conquest of Britain continued under command of Gnaeus Julius Agricola, who expanded the Roman Empire as far as Caledonia. In the summer of 84, Agricola faced the armies of the Caledonians, led by Calgacus, at the Battle of Mons Graupius. Battle casualties were estimated by Tacitus to be around the 10,000's on the Caledonian side and about 360 on the Roman side; the bloodbath at Mons Graupius concluded the forty-year conquest of Britain, a period that saw between 100,000 and 250,000 Britons killed. In the context of pre-industrial warfare and of a total population of Britain of c.2 million, these are high figures. Under the 2nd-century emperors Hadrian and Antoninus Pius, two walls were built to defend the Roman province from the Caledonians, whose realms in the Scottish Highlands were never controlled. Around 197, the Severan Reforms divided Britain into two provinces: Britannia Superior and Britannia Inferior.
During the Diocletian Reforms, at the end of the 3rd century, Britannia was divided into four provinces under the direction of a vicarius, who administered the Diocese of the Britains. A fifth province, Valentia, is attested in the 4th century. For much of the period of the Roman occupation, Britannia was subject to barbarian invasions and came under the control of imperial usurpers and imperial pretenders; the final Roman withdrawal from Britain occurred around 410. Following the conquest of the Britons, a distinctive Romano-British culture emerged as the Romans introduced improved agriculture, urban planning, industrial production, architecture; the Roman goddess Britannia became the female personification of Britain. After the initial invasions, Roman historians only mention Britain in passing. Thus, most present knowledge derives from archaeological investigations and occasional epigraphic evidence lauding the Britannic achievements of an emperor. Roman citizens settled in Britain from many parts of the Empire.
Britain was known to the Classical world. The Greeks referred to the Cassiterides, or "tin islands", placed them near the west coast of Europe; the Carthaginian sailor Himilco is said to have visited the island in the 5th century BC and the Greek explorer Pytheas in the 4th. It was regarded with some writers refusing to believe it existed at all; the first direct Roman contact was when Julius Caesar undertook two expeditions in 55 and 54 BC, as part of his conquest of Gaul, believing the Britons were helping the Gallic resistance. The first expedition was more a reconnaissance than a full invasion and gained a foothold on the coast of Kent but was unable to advance further because of storm damage to the ships and a lack of cavalry. Despite the military failure it was a political success, with the Roman Senate declaring a 20-day public holiday in Rome to honour the unprecedented achievement of obtaining hostages from Britain and defeating Belgian tribes on returning to the continent; the second invasion involved a larger force and Caesar coerced or invited many of the native Celtic tribes to pay tribute and give hostages in return for peace.
A friendly local king, was installed, his rival, was brought to terms. Hostages were taken, but historians disagree over whether any tribute was paid after Caesar returned to Gaul. Caesar conquered no territory and left no troops behind but he established clients and brought Britain into Rome's sphere of influence. Augustus planned invasions in 34, 27 and 25 BC, but circumstances were never favourable, the relationship between Britain and Rome settled into one of diplomacy and trade. Strabo, writing late in Augustus's reign, claimed that taxes on trade brought in more annual revenue than any conquest could. Archaeology shows. Strabo mentions British kings who sent embassies to Augustus and Augustus's own Res Gestae refers to two British kings he received as refugees; when some of Tiberius's ships were carried to Britain in a storm during his campaigns in Germany in 16 AD, they came back with tales of monsters. Rome appears to have encouraged a balance of power in southern Britain, supporting two powerful kingdoms: the Catuvellauni, ruled by the descendants of Tasciovanus, the Atrebates, ruled by the descendants of Commius.
This policy was followed until 39 or 40
A nature reserve is a protected area of importance for flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research. Nature reserves may be designated by government institutions in some countries, or by private landowners, such as charities and research institutions, regardless of nationality. Nature reserves fall into different IUCN categories depending on the level of protection afforded by local laws, it is more protected than a nature park. Cultural practices that equate to the establishment and maintenance of reserved areas for animals date back to antiquity, with King Devanampiya Tissa of Anuradhapura establishing one of the world's earliest wildlife sanctuaries in the 3rd century BC. Early reservations had a religious underpinning, such as the'evil forest' areas of West Africa which were forbidden to humans, who were threatened with spiritual attack if they went there. Sacred areas taboo from human entry to fishing and hunting are known by many ancient cultures worldwide.
The world's first modern nature reserve was established in 1821 by the naturalist and explorer Charles Waterton around his estate in Walton Hall, West Yorkshire. He spent £9000 on the construction of a 3 mile long, 9 ft tall wall to enclose his park from poachers, he tried to encourage birdlife by hollowing out trunks for owls to nest in. He invented artificial nest boxes to house starlings and sand martins and unsuccessfully attempted to introduce little owls from Italy. Waterton allowed local people access to his reserve and was described by David Attenborough as “one of the first people anywhere to recognise not only that the natural world was of great importance but that it needed protection as humanity made more and more demands on it”. Drachenfels was protected as the first state-designated nature reserve in modern-day Germany; the first major nature reserve was Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, United States, followed by the Royal National Park near Sydney and the Barguzin Nature Reserve of Imperial Russia, the first of zapovedniks set up by a federal government for the scientific study of nature.
In Australia, a nature reserve is the title of a type of protected area used in the jurisdictions of the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales and Western Australia. The term “nature reserve” is defined in the relevant statutes used in those states and territories rather than by a single national statute; as of 2016, 1767 out of a total of 11044 protected areas listed within the Australian National Reserve System used the term “nature reserve" in their names. In Brazil, nature reserves are classified as ecological stations estações ecológicas) or biological reserves by the National System of Conservation Units, their main objectives are preserving fauna and flora and other natural attributes, excluding direct human interference. Visits are allowed only with permission, only for educational or scientific purposes. Changes to the ecosystems in both types of reserve are allowed to restore and preserve the natural balance, biological diversity and natural ecological processes. Ecological stations are allowed to change the environment within defined limits for the purpose of scientific research.
A wildlife reserve in Brazil is protected, hunting is not allowed, but products and by-products from research may be sold. There are 30 nature reserves in Egypt; those nature reserves were built according to the laws no. 102/1983 and 4/1994 for protection of the Egyptian nature reserve. Egypt announced a plan from to build 40 nature reserves from 1997 to 2017, to help protect the natural resources and the culture and history of those areas; the largest nature reserve in Egypt is Gebel Elba in the southeast, on the Red Sea coast. Denmark has three national parks and several nature reserves, some of them inside the national park areas; the largest single reserve is Hanstholm Nature Reserve, which covers 40 km2 and is part of Thy National Park. In Sweden, there are 29 national parks; the first of them was established in 1909. In fact, Sweden was the first European country. There are 4,000 nature reserves in Sweden, they comprise about 85% of the surface, protected by the Swedish Environmental Code. In Estonia, there are 5 national parks, more than 100 nature reserves, around 130 landscape protection areas.
The largest nature reserve in Estonia is Alam-Pedja Nature Reserve, which covers 342 km2. As of 2017, France counts 10 national parks, around 8 marine parks. In 1995 Germany had 5,314 nature reserves covering 6,845 km2, the largest total areas being in Bavaria with 1,416 km2 and Lower Saxony with 1,275 km2. In Hungary, there are 10 National Parks, more than 15 nature reserves and more than 250 protected areas. Hortobágy National Park is the largest continuous natural grassland in Europe and the oldest national park in Hungary, it is situated on the plain of the Alföld. It was established in 1972. There are alkaline grasslands interrupted by marshes, they have a sizable importance. One of the most spectacular sights of the park is the autumn mi
A pond barrow is a burial mound, circular in shape, well formed, with an embanked rim made of the earth taken from the depression made in the ground. In the barrow's centre there is a pit or shaft, sometimes containing a burial, sometimes of great depth; the barrows range from 5m to 30m in diameter. They are difficult to recognise, as time has rendered them less and less visible, it is agreed that the pond barrows were built during the middle of the second millennium BC in Wiltshire and Dorset. They were first defined by Sir Richard Colt Hoare in 1810 in a book regarding the ancient history of south Wiltshire, but they were first excavated by William Stukeley earlier; the term, was invented by Hoare, although "barrow" refers to a hill and so this is a misleading term. The fact that only small amounts of human remains are found in the barrows suggests that they may have been used as ceremonial focuses rather than graves, that mortuary rituals may have been carried out with them. Other possible uses include wells, for dancing in.
Black-crowned night heron
The black-crowned night heron, or black-capped night heron shortened to just night heron in Eurasia, is a medium-sized heron found throughout a large part of the world, except in the coldest regions and Australasia. Adults are 64 cm long and weigh 800 g, they have a black crown and back with the remainder of the body white or grey, red eyes, short yellow legs. They white under parts. Two or three long white plumes, erected in greeting and courtship displays, extend from the back of the head; the sexes are similar in appearance although the males are larger. Black-crowned night herons do not fit the typical body form of the heron family, they are stocky with shorter bills and necks than their more familiar cousins, the egrets and "day" herons. Their resting posture is somewhat hunched but when hunting they extend their necks and look more like other wading birds. Immature birds have dull grey-brown plumage on their heads and backs, with numerous pale spots, their underparts streaked with brown. The young birds have orange eyes and duller yellowish-green legs.
They are noisy birds in their nesting colonies, with calls that are transcribed as quok or woc. The breeding habitat is salt-water wetlands throughout much of the world; the subspecies N. n. hoactli breeds in North and South America from Canada as far south as northern Argentina and Chile, N. n. obscurus in southernmost South America, N. n. falklandicus in the Falkland Islands, the nominate race N. n. nycticorax in Europe and Africa. Black-crowned night herons nest in colonies on platforms of sticks in a group of trees, or on the ground in protected locations such as islands or reedbeds. Three to eight eggs are laid; this heron is otherwise resident. The North American population winters in Mexico, the southern United States, Central America, the West Indies, the Old World birds winter in tropical Africa and southern Asia. A colony of the herons has summered at the National Zoo in Washington, D. C. for more than a century. There are two archaeological specimens of the black-crowned night heron in Great Britain.
The oldest is from the Roman London Wall and the more recent from the Royal Navy's late medieval victualling yards in Greenwich It appears in the London poulterers price lists as the Brewe, a bird, thought to have been the Whimbrel or Glossy Ibis, which has now been shown to refer to the black-crowned night heron, derived from the medieval French Bihoreau. Black-crowned night heron may have bred in the wider landscape of pre-modern Britain, they were imported for the table so the bone specimens themselves do not prove they were part of the British avifauna. In modern times the Black-crowned Night Heron is a vagrant and feral breeding colonies were established at Edinburgh Zoo from 1950 into the 21st Century and at Great Witchingham in Norfolk where there were 8 pairs in 2003 but breeding was not repeated in 2004 or 2005. A pair of adults were seen with two fledged juveniles in Somerset in 2017, the first proven breeding record of wild black-crowned night herons in Great Britain; these birds stand still at the water's edge and wait to ambush prey at night or early morning.
They eat small fish, frogs, aquatic insects, small mammals, small birds. They are among the seven heron species observed to engage in bait fishing. During the day they rest in bushes. N. n. hoactli is more gregarious outside the breeding season than the nominate race. A thorough study performed by J. Sitko and P. Heneberg in the Czech Republic in 1962–2013 suggested that the central European black-crowned night herons host 8 helminth species; the dominant species consisted of Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus, Contracaecum microcephalum and Opistorchis longissimus. The mean number of helminth species recorded per host individual reached 1.41. In Ukraine, other helminth species are found in black-crowned night herons too, namely Echinochasmus beleocephalus, Echinochasmus ruficapensis, Clinostomum complanatum and Posthodiplostomum cuticola. Nycticorax means "night raven" and derives from the Ancient Greek nuktos "night" and korax, "raven", it refers to the nocturnal feeding habits and croaking crow-like call of this species.
In the Falkland Islands, the bird is called "quark", an onomatopoeia similar to its name in many other languages, like "qua-bird" in English, "kwak" in Dutch and West Frisian, "kvakoš noční" in Czech, "квак" in Ukrainian, "кваква" in Russian, "vạc" in Vietnamese, "kowak-malam" in Indonesian, "waqwa" in Quechua. Black-crowned night heron on F. Gary. A Guide to the Birds of Costa Rica. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-9600-4. Hancock, James. Herons and Egrets of the World. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-322725-6. Sibley, David; the Sibley Guide to Birds. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-679-45122-8. Blasco-Zumeta, Javier. "Black-crowned night heron". Identification Atlas of Aragon's Birds. Black-crowned Night-Heron Species Account – Cornell Lab of Ornithology Black-crowned night-heron - Nycticorax nycticorax - USGS Patuxent Bird Identification InfoCenter Blackcrowned Night Heron - The Atlas of Southern African Birds Black-crowned
An abandoned village is a village that has, for some reason, been deserted. In many countries, throughout history, thousands of villages have been deserted for a variety of causes. Abandonment of villages is related to epidemic, war, climate change, environmental destruction, or deliberate clearances. Hundreds of villages in Nagorno-Karabakh were deserted following the Nagorno-Karabakh War. Between 1988 and 1993, 400,000 ethnic Azeris, Kurds fled the area and nearly 200 villages in Armenia itself populated by Azeris and Kurds were abandoned by 1991. Nearly 300,000 Armenians fled from Azerbaijan between 1988 and 1993, including 50 villages populated by Armenians in Northern Artsakh that were abandoned. Majority of the Armenian settlements and churches outside Armenia and the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic have been destroyed including those in Nakhichevan. In Australia, the government requires operators of mining towns to remove all traces of the town when it is abandoned; this has occurred in the case of Mary Kathleen and Shay Gap.
Some towns have been moved when dams are built. Villages have been abandoned as a result of the Cyprus dispute; some of these are reported to be landmined. There are hundreds of abandoned villages, known as Wüstungen, in Germany. Geographer Kurt Scharlau categorized the different types in the 1930s, making distinctions between temporary and permanent Wüstung, settlements used for different purposes, the extent of abandonment, his scheme has been expanded, has been criticized for not taking into account expansion and regression. A distinction is made between Flurwüstungen and Ortswüstungen by archaeologists; the most drastic period of abandonment in modern times was during the 14th and 15th centuries – before 1350, there were about 170,000 settlements in Germany, this had been reduced by nearly 40,000 by 1450. As in Britain, the Black Death played a large role in this, as did the growth of large villages and towns, the Little Ice Age, the introduction of crop rotation, war. In times, the German Empire created a number of training grounds for the military that were abandoned.
Many villages in remote parts of the New Territories, Hong Kong in valleys or on islands, have been abandoned due to inaccessibility. Residents go to live in urban areas with better job opportunities; some villages have been moved to new sites to make way for new town development. See walled villages of Hong Kong and list of villages in Hong Kong. Hundreds of villages were abandoned during the Ottoman wars in the Kingdom of Hungary in the 16–17th century. Many of them were never repopulated and left few visible traces. Real ghost towns are rare in present-day Hungary, except the abandoned villages of Derenk and Nagygéc. Due to the decrease of rural population beginning in the 1980s dozens of villages are now threatened with abandonment; the first village declared as "died out" was Gyűrűfű in the end of the 1970s but it was repopulated as an eco-village. Sometimes depopulated villages were saved as small rural resorts like Kán, Tornakápolna, Gorica and Révfalu. About ten million people one-third of the population of the affected area, are estimated to have died in the Bengal famine of 1770.
Regions where the famine occurred included the modern Indian states of Bihar and West Bengal, but the famine extended into Odisha and Jharkhand as well as modern Bangladesh. Among the worst affected areas were Birbhum and Murshidabad in Bengal, Tirhut and Bettiah in Bihar. A partial shortfall in crops, considered normal, occurred in 1768 and was followed in late 1769 by more severe conditions. By September 1769 there was a severe drought, alarming reports were coming in of rural distress; these were, ignored by company officers. By early 1770 there was starvation, by mid-1770 deaths from starvation were occurring on a large scale. There were reports of the living feeding on the bodies of the dead in the middle of that year. Smallpox and other diseases further took their toll of the population. In 1770 good rainfall resulted in a good harvest and the famine abated. However, other shortfalls occurred in the following years; as a result of the famine, large areas were depopulated and returned to jungle for decades to come as the survivors migrated en masse in a search for food.
Many cultivated lands were abandoned – much of Birbhum, for instance, returned to jungle and was impassable for decades afterwards. From 1772 on, bands of bandits and thugs became an established feature of Bengal, were only brought under control by punitive actions in the 1780s. Several villages in Ireland have been abandoned during the Middle Ages or later: Oliver Goldsmith's poem "The Deserted Village" being a famous commentary on rural depopulation. Notable deserted villages include: Cannakill, County Offaly Clonmines, County Wexford Kilcornan, County Galway Port, County Donegal Rindoon, County Roscommon Scattery Island, County Clare Slievemore, Achill Island, County Mayo Tonaroasty, County GalwaySmaller rural settlements, known as clachans, were abandoned in large numbers during the Irish Potato Famine; as a consequence of the 1948 Palestinian exodus during the 1948 Palestine war, around 720,000 Palestinian Arabs were displaced, leaving around 400 Palestinian Arab towns and villages depopulated in what became Israel.
In addition, several Jewish communities in what became Israel, the West Bank and Gaza Strip were depopulated. In August 2005, Israel evacuated