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Coca-Cola

Coca-Cola, or Coke, is a carbonated soft drink manufactured by The Coca-Cola Company. Marketed as a temperance drink and intended as a patent medicine, it was invented in the late 19th century by John Stith Pemberton and was bought out by businessman Asa Griggs Candler, whose marketing tactics led Coca-Cola to its dominance of the world soft-drink market throughout the 20th century; the drink's name refers to two of its original ingredients: coca leaves, kola nuts. The current formula of Coca-Cola remains a trade secret, although a variety of reported recipes and experimental recreations have been published; the Coca-Cola Company produces concentrate, sold to licensed Coca-Cola bottlers throughout the world. The bottlers, who hold exclusive territory contracts with the company, produce the finished product in cans and bottles from the concentrate, in combination with filtered water and sweeteners. A typical 12-US-fluid-ounce can contains 38 grams of sugar; the bottlers sell and merchandise Coca-Cola to retail stores and vending machines throughout the world.

The Coca-Cola Company sells concentrate for soda fountains of major restaurants and foodservice distributors. The Coca-Cola Company has on occasion introduced other cola drinks under the Coke name; the most common of these is Diet Coke, along with others including Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola, Diet Coke Caffeine-Free, Coca-Cola Zero Sugar, Coca-Cola Cherry, Coca-Cola Vanilla, special versions with lemon and coffee. Based on Interbrand's "best global brand" study of 2015, Coca-Cola was the world's third most valuable brand, after Apple and Google. In 2013, Coke products were sold in over 200 countries worldwide, with consumers drinking more than 1.8 billion company beverage servings each day. Coca-Cola ranked No. 87 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Confederate Colonel John Pemberton, wounded in the American Civil War and became addicted to morphine, began a quest to find a substitute for the problematic drug. In 1885 at Pemberton's Eagle Drug and Chemical House, a drugstore in Columbus, Georgia, he registered Pemberton's French Wine Coca nerve tonic.

Pemberton's tonic may have been inspired by the formidable success of Vin Mariani, a French-Corsican coca wine, but his recipe additionally included the African kola nut, the beverage's source of caffeine. It is worth noting that a Spanish drink called "Kola Coca" was presented at a contest in Philadelphia in 1885, a year before the official birth of Coca-Cola; the rights for this Spanish drink were bought by Coca-Cola in 1953. In 1886, when Atlanta and Fulton County passed prohibition legislation, Pemberton responded by developing Coca-Cola, a nonalcoholic version of Pemberton's French Wine Coca, it was marketed as "Coca-Cola: The temperance drink", which appealed to many people as the temperance movement enjoyed wide support during this time. The first sales were at Jacob's Pharmacy in Atlanta, Georgia, on May 8, 1886, where it sold for five cents a glass. Drugstore soda fountains were popular in the United States at the time due to the belief that carbonated water was good for the health, Pemberton's new drink was marketed and sold as a patent medicine, Pemberton claiming it a cure for many diseases, including morphine addiction, nerve disorders and impotence.

Pemberton ran the first advertisement for the beverage on May 29 of the same year in the Atlanta Journal. By 1888, three versions of Coca-Cola – sold by three separate businesses – were on the market. A co-partnership had been formed on January 14, 1888, between Pemberton and four Atlanta businessmen: J. C. Mayfield, A. O. Murphey, C. O. Mullahy, E. H. Bloodworth. Not codified by any signed document, a verbal statement given by Asa Candler years asserted under testimony that he had acquired a stake in Pemberton's company as early as 1887. John Pemberton declared that the name "Coca-Cola" belonged to his son, but the other two manufacturers could continue to use the formula. Charley Pemberton's record of control over the "Coca-Cola" name was the underlying factor that allowed for him to participate as a major shareholder in the March 1888 Coca-Cola Company incorporation filing made in his father's place. Charley's exclusive control over the "Coca-Cola" name became a continual thorn in Asa Candler's side.

Candler's oldest son, Charles Howard Candler, authored a book in 1950 published by Emory University. In this definitive biography about his father, Candler states: "... on April 14, 1888, the young druggist Asa Griggs Candler purchased a one-third interest in the formula of an completely unknown proprietary elixir known as Coca-Cola." The deal was between John Pemberton's son Charley and Walker, Candler & Co. – with John Pemberton acting as cosigner for his son. For $50 down and $500 in 30 days, Candler & Co. obtained all of the one-third interest in the Coca-Cola Company that Charley held, all while Charley still held on to the name. After the April 14 deal, on April 17, 1888, one-half of the Walker/Dozier interest shares were acquired by Candler for an additional $750. In 1892, Candler set out to incorporate a second company; when Candler had the earliest records of the "Coca-Cola Company" destroyed in 1910, the action was claimed to have been made during a move to new corporation offices around this time.

After Candler had gained a better foothold on Coca-Cola in April 1888, he was forced to sell the beverage he produced with the recipe he had under the names "Yum Yum" and "Koke". This was while Charley Pemberton was selling the elixir, although a crud

Yonne (river)

The Yonne is a river in France, a left-bank tributary of the Seine. It is 292 kilometres long; the river gives its name to the Yonne département. It rises in the Morvan hills near Château-Chinon, it flows into the river Seine at Montereau-Fault-Yonne. The Yonne flows through the following départements and towns: Nièvre: Château-Chinon, Clamecy Yonne: Auxerre, Joigny, Villeneuve-sur-Yonne, Sens Seine-et-Marne: Montereau-Fault-YonneThe main tributaries of the Yonne are the Vanne, the Armançon, the Serein and the Cure; the river was used for flottage, or the floating of rafts of timber from the Morvan forest to serve the needs of the capital, Paris. It was bypassed as a rafting waterway by the Canal du Nivernais in 1841, from near its source at Corbigny down to Auxerre. In 1834 the engineer Charles Poirée had tested his design for a needle weir, this construction technique was adopted on the river Yonne; the first lock was built in the 1840s, the others from 1861. The locks were enlarged to Freycinet standards in the late 19th century again to their current dimensions after World War II.

The navigable river Yonne extends from Auxerre to the confluence with the Seine. At Laroche-Migennes, the Yonne connects with the Canal de Bourgogne. There are 9 locks on the river on the first section to Laroche-Migennes, the remaining 17 on the more gently-sloping lower course of the river. Rivers of France List of canals in France http://www.geoportail.fr The Yonne in the Sandre database for hydrological and catchment area data River Yonne maps and information on places and moorings on the river, by the author of Inland Waterways of France, 8th ed. 2010, Imray Navigation details for 80 French rivers and canals

Albert Roux

Albert Henri Roux is a French restaurateur and chef working in Britain. He and his brother Michel operated Le Gavroche, the first restaurant in the UK to gain three Michelin stars, he helped train a series of chefs that went on to win Michelin stars, his son, Michel Roux, Jr. continues to run Le Gavroche. Roux, the son of a charcutier, was born at Semur-en-Brionnais, Saône-et-Loire. Upon leaving school, he intended to train as a priest at the age of 14. However, he decided that the role was not suited for him, sought other employment, instead trained as a chef, his godfather worked as a chef for Wallis, Duchess of Windsor, arranged for Roux, at the age of 18, to be employed working for Nancy Astor, Viscountess Astor. In one notable incident whilst employed by the Viscountess, Roux managed to jam oeufs en cocotte in a dumbwaiter which were due to go to Harold Macmillan Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Otherwise, his apprenticeship at Cliveden went without problems, he became a private chef for Sir Charles Clore.

He was called up by the French Armed Forces to serve his military service in Algeria, where he cooked on occasion for the officer's mess. Once he left the military, he worked as a sous chef at the British Embassy in Paris, before returning to the UK to become private chef to Major Peter Cazalet where he worked for eight years. In 1967 he and his younger brother Michel opened Le Gavroche, on Lower Sloane Street in London, it became the first restaurant in Britain to win a Michelin star, the first to win two, and, in 1982, the first to win three. The restaurant became a favourite of the Queen Mother. In 1984, he and Michel set up the Roux Scholarship to enable up and coming chefs to get a start in the industry. During his time in the kitchen, he trained several chefs who went on to gain Michelin stars of their own, including Gordon Ramsay, Marco Pierre White, Pierre Koffmann and Marcus Wareing. Of all his protégées, Roux no longer gets on with White, said in an interview in 2010, "We don't talk.

No, he is a talented man – and a man who used to call me his godfather – but he has got a chip on his shoulder". White mentions the rift in his autobiography, but explains, "Albert employing me was without doubt one of the defining moments of my life. I won't hear a word said against."Roux speaks of Gordon Ramsay: "I recognised straight away that Gordon would go a long way."Roux had a guest appearance on the BBC television series Chef! on 25 February 1993, playing himself. The plot involved Roux having lunch at Gareth's Le Chateau Anglais, including a remarkable salmon mousse, several wheels of unpasteurised Stilton. Roux continues to run a series of restaurants around the world, through his company Chez Roux Limited, including one at the Greywalls Hotel in Muirfield and Roux at the Landau, situated in the Langham Hotel, as well as Roux at Parliament Square, his Scottish establishments include Chez Roux at Greywalls, Chez Roux at Rocpool Reserve Hotel, Chez Roux at Inver Lodge Hotel, Chez Roux at the Roxburgh Hotel and Golf Course, Chez Roux at The Atholl in Edinburgh and Chez Roux at Alladale Wilderness Reserve.

He no longer chases Michelin stars for his restaurants, but instead seeks to "...recreate the kind of restaurant I remember from my home town, offering good and honest country cooking. The kind of place you can go to eat without ringing the bank for permission." In a poll of UK chefs carried out by Caterer and Hotelkeeper magazine in 2003, Albert and Michel Roux were voted the most influential chefs in the country. In 2006, they were jointly given the Lifetime Achievement Award by S. Pellegrino World's 50 Best Restaurants. Roux has a love of fishing, has travelled around the world to pursue his hobby, but is fond of Scotland, saying, "For me, the Highlands and islands of Scotland are paradise. I can have whole days where I catch nothing. I am a lover of nature and fishing allows me access to some of the most beautiful and secluded spots in the world."In 2014 Roux divorced his second wife Cheryl Smith born in 1962. He married his third wife, three years after meeting her. Maria is a director in a professional services firm.

His son Michel Roux, Jr. now has two Michelin stars of his own, is running Le Gavroche. Official website of Albert Roux Official website of the Roux Scholarship